. Pool, also more formally known as pocket billiards (mostly in North America) or pool billiards(mostly in Europe and Australia), is the family of cue sports and games played on a pool table having six receptacles called pockets along the rails, into which balls are deposited as the main goal of play. Popular versions include eight ball and nine ball. An obsolete term for pool is six pocket.
Pool Game types
. There are hundreds of pool games. Some of the more well known include eight ball, nine ball, ten ball, straight pool, one pocket and bank pool.
There are also hybrid games combining aspects of both pool and carom billiards, such as American four ball billiards, cowboy pool and bottle pool.
1 Eight ball
2 Nine ball
3 Three ball
4 One pocket
5 Bank pool
. The following General Rules apply to all the games covered by these rules except when contradicted by specific game rules. In addition, the Regulations of Pool Billiards cover aspects of the game not directly related to the game rules, such as equipment specifications and organization of events.
The games of Pool Billiards are played on a flat table covered with cloth and bounded by rubber cushions. The player uses a stick (pool cue) to strike a cue ball which in turn strikes object balls. The goal is to drive object balls into six pockets located at the cushion boundary. The games vary according to which balls are legal targets and the requirements to win a match.
. It is the players responsibility to be aware of all rules, regulations and schedules applying to competition. While tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to have such information readily available to all players as appropriate, the ultimate responsibility rests with the player.
Lagging to Determine Order of Play
. The lag is the first shot of the match and determines order of play. The player who wins the lag chooses who will shoot first.
The referee will place a ball on each side of the table behind the head string and near the head string. The players will shoot at about the same time to make each ball contact the foot cushion with the goal of returning the ball closer to the head cushion than the opponent.
A lag shot is bad and cannot win if the shooter?s ball:
(a) crosses the long string;
(b) contacts the foot cushion other than once;
(c) is pocketed or driven off the table;
(d) touches the side cushion; or
(e) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion.
In addition, a lag will be bad if any non object ball foul occurs other than 6.9 Balls Still Moving.
The players will lag again if:
(a) a player?s ball is struck after the other ball has touched the foot cushion;
(b) the referee cannot determine which ball has stopped closer to the head cushion; or
(c) both lags are bad.
Players Use of Equipment
. The equipment must meet existing WPA equipment specifications. In general, players are not permitted to introduce novel equipment into the game. The following uses, among others, are considered normal. If the player is uncertain about a particular use of equipment, he should discuss it with the tournament management prior to the start of play. The equipment must be used only for the purpose or in the manner that the equipment was intended.
(a) Cue Stick ? The player is permitted to switch between cue sticks during the match, such as break, jump and normal cues. He may use either a built in extender or an add on extender to increase the length of the stick.
(b) Chalk ? The player may apply chalk to his tip to prevent miscues, and may use his own chalk, provided its color is compatible with the cloth.
(c) Mechanical Bridges ? The player may use up to two mechanical bridges to support the cue stick during the shot. The configuration of the bridges is up to the player. He may use his own bridge if it is similar to standard bridges.
(d) Gloves ? The player may use gloves to improve the grip and/or bridge hand function.
(e) Powder ? A player is allowed to use powder in a reasonable amount as determined by the referee.
. Balls are spotted by placing them on the long string as close as possible to the foot spot and between the foot spot and the foot rail, without moving any interfering ball. If the spotted ball cannot be placed on the foot spot, it should be placed in contact (if possible) with the corresponding interfering ball. However, when the cue ball is next to the spotted ball, the spotted ball should not be placed in contact with the cue ball; a small separation must be maintained. If all of the long string below the foot spot is blocked by other balls, the ball is spotted above the foot spot, and as close as possible to the foot spot.
Cue Ball in Hand
. When the cue ball is in hand, the shooter may place the cue ball anywhere on the playing surface and may continue to move the cue ball until he executes a shot. Players may use any part of the cue stick to move the cue ball, including the tip, but not with a forward stroke motion. In some games and for most break shots, placement of the cue ball may be restricted to the area behind the head string depending on the rules of the game, and then 6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement and 6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String may apply.
When the shooter has the cue ball in hand behind the head string and all the legal object balls are behind the head string, he may request the legal object ball nearest the head string to be spotted. If two or more balls are equal distance from the head string, the shooter may designate which of the equidistant balls is to be spotted. An object ball that rests exactly on the head string is playable.
Standard Call Shot
. In games in which the shooter is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant. Only one ball may be called on each shot.
For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be played, he may ask for a call.
In call shot games, the shooter may choose to call ?safety? instead of a ball and pocket, and then play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot. Whether balls are being spotted after safeties depends on the rules of the particular game.
. A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections in the ball or the table. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal hazard of play, and the ball will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as the result of such settling, it is restored as closely as possible to its original position. If a settling ball falls into a pocket during or just prior to a shot, and this has an effect on the shot, the referee will restore the position and the shot will be replayed. The shooter is not penalized for shooting while a ball is settling.
Restoring a Position
. When necessary for balls to be restored or cleaned, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of his ability. The players must accept the referee?s judgment as to placement.
. When outside interference occurs during a shot that has an effect on the outcome of that shot, the referee will restore the balls to the positions they had before the shot, and the shot will be replayed. If the interference had no effect on the shot, the referee will restore the disturbed balls and play will continue. If the balls cannot be restored to their original positions, the situation is handled like a stalemate.
Prompting Calls and Protesting Rulings
. If a player feels that the referee has made an error in judgment, he may ask the referee to reconsider his call or lack of call, but the referee?s decision on judgment calls is final. However, if the player feels that the referee is not applying the rules correctly, he may ask for ruling by the designated appeals authority. The referee will suspend play while this appeal is in process. Fouls must be called promptly.
. If a player concedes, he loses the match. For example, if a player unscrews his jointed playing cue stick while the opponent is at the table and during the opponent?s decisive rack of a match, it will be considered a concession of the match.
. If the referee observes that no progress is being made towards a conclusion, he will announce his decision, and each player will have three more turns at the table. Then, if the referee determines that there is still no progress, he will declare a stalemate. If both players agree, they may accept the stalemate without taking their three additional turns. The procedure for a stalemate is specified under the rules for each game.
. Eight ball is a pool game popular in much of the world, and the subject of international professional and amateur competition. Played on a pool table with six pockets, the game is so universally known in some countries that beginners are often unaware of other pool games and believe the word pool itself refers to eight ball. The game has numerous variations, including Alabama eight ball, crazy eight, last pocket, misery, Missouri, 1 and 15 in the sides, rotation eight ball, soft eight, and others. Standard eight ball is the second most competitive professional pool game, after nine ball and for the last several decades ahead of straight pool.
Eight ball is played with 16 balls: a cue ball, and 15 object balls consisting of seven striped balls, seven solid colored balls and the black 8 ball. After the balls are scattered with a break shot, the players are assigned either the group of solid balls or the stripes once a ball from a particular group is legally pocketed. The ultimate object of the game is to legally pocket the eight ball in a called pocket, which can only be done after all of the balls from a players assigned group have been cleared from the table.
. The tables playing surface is approximately 9 by 4.5 feet (2.7 by 1.4 m) (regulation size), though some leagues and tournaments using the World Standardized Rules may allow smaller sizes, down to 7 by 3.5 feet (2.1 by 1.1 m), and early 20th century 10 by 5 feet (3.0 by 1.5 m) models are sometimes also used.
There are seven solid colored balls numbered 1 through 7, seven striped balls numbered 9 through 15, an 8 ball, and a cue ball. The balls are usually colored as follows:
1 and 9: yellow
2 and 10: blue
3 and 11: red
4 and 12: purple (TV: pink)1
5 and 13: orange
6 and 14: green
7 and 15: brown (TV: tan)1
1 Special sets designed to be more easily discernible on television substitute a rather light tan shade for the normally darker brown of the 7 and 15 balls, and pink for the dark purple of the 4 and 12; these alternative color sets are now also available to consumers.
. To start the game, the object balls are placed in a triangular rack. The base of the rack is parallel to the end rail and positioned so the apex ball of the rack is located on the foot spot.
The balls in the rack are ideally placed so that they are all in contact with one another; this is accomplished by pressing the balls together from the back of the rack toward the apex ball.
The order of the balls should be random, with the exceptions of the 8 ball, which must be placed in the center of the rack , and the two back corner balls one of which must be a stripe and the other a solid. The cue ball is placed anywhere the breaker desires inside the kitchen.
. One person is chosen (by a predetermined method, e.g., coin flip, win or loss of previous game, or lag) to shoot first and break the object ball rack apart. If the shooter who breaks fails to make a legal break , then the opponent can call for a re rack and become the breaker, or elect to play from the current position of the balls.
Long exposure photograph of a break in eight ball
According to World Standardized Rules, if the 8 ball is pocketed on the break without fouling, the breaker may ask for a re rack and break again, or have the 8 ball spotted and continue shooting with the balls as they like. If the breaker scratches while pocketing the 8 ball on the break, the incoming player may call for a re rack and break, or have the 8 ball spotted and begin shooting with ball in hand behind the head string, with the balls as they lie.
. A player (or team) will continue to shoot until committing a foul, or failing to legally pocket an object ball on a non foul shot (whether intentionally or not). Thereupon it is the turn of the opposing player(s). Play alternates in this manner for the remainder of the game. Following a foul, the incoming player has ball in hand anywhere on the table, unless the foul occurred on the break shot, as noted previously.
Pocketing the 8 ball
. Once all of a players or teams group of object balls are pocketed, they may attempt to sink the 8 ball. To win, the player must first designate which pocket they plan to sink the 8 ball into and then successfully pot the 8 ball in that called pocket. If the 8 ball falls into any pocket other than the one designated or is knocked off the table, or a foul occurs and the 8 ball is pocketed, this results in loss of game. Otherwise, the shooters turn is simply over, including when a foul such as a scratch occurs on an unsuccessful attempt to pocket the 8 ball. In short, a World Standardized Rules game of eight ball, like a game of nine ball, is not over until the money ball is no longer on the table. This rule is unusual to some bar and league players, because in American, Canadian and many other varieties of bar pool, and in some leagues, such as APA, such a foul is a loss of game.
. Any of the following results in a game win:
A player legally pockets the 8 ball into a designated pocket, after all of that players object balls have been pocketed
The opposing player illegally pockets the 8 ball (e.g. before clearing all of that players object balls, does so on the same shot as the last such object ball, or the 8 falls into a pocket other than the one that was designated)
The opposing player knocks the 8 ball off the table.
The opposing player commits any foul, including scratching the cue ball into a pocket, or knocking it off the table, in the course of a shot that pockets the 8 ball. (As noted above, a scratch or other foul while shooting for the 8 ball is not a loss of the game if the 8 is not pocketed or jumped from the table.)
Fouls of Pool
The shooter fails to strike one of his own object balls (or the 8 ball, if all of said object balls are already pocketed) with the cue ball, before other balls (if any) are contacted by the cue ball. This excludes split shots, where the cue ball strikes one of the shooters and one of the opponents object ball simultaneously.
No ball comes into contact with a cushion or is pocketed, after legal cue ball contact with the (first) object ball (or 8 ball, if shooting for the 8).
If an attempt is made at a pot in pool, the ball hits the pocket, bounces out and lands on the ground, the ball is placed in the pocket and the game continues.
The shooter does not have at least one foot on the floor (this requirement may be waived if the shooter is disabled in a relevant way, or the venue has not provided a mechanical bridge)
The cue ball is shot before all balls have come to a complete stop from the previous shot
The cue ball is struck more than once during a shot
The cue ball is jumped entirely or partially over an obstructing ball with an illegal jump shot that scoops under the cue ball
The cue ball is clearly pushed (shoved slowly, rather than struck), with the cue tip remaining in contact with it more than momentarily
The shooter touches the cue ball with something other than the tip of the cue
The shooter touches any ball (with body, clothing or equipment), other than as necessary to move the cue ball when the player has ball in hand
The shooter knocks a ball off the table
The shooter has shot out of turn
On the break shot, no balls are pocketed and fewer than four balls reach the cushions (in which case the incoming player can demand a re rack and take the break or force the original breaker to re break, or may take ball in hand behind the head string and shoot the balls as they lie)
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P T Usha
P T Ushas Character horoscope
. P. T. Usha is a sensitive and emotional person. The hard knocks of this world have more effects on P. T. Usha than they have on most other people, and P. T. Usha lose some of the enjoyment of life in consequence. What other people say and think of P.
Myth about Adoption
You can t adopt unless you re rich and have a big house
. If you can support the child with food, water, a bed, a roof, a healthy environment, safety, and an education, then you can adopt There are adoption requirements that you have to meet in order to raise a child, but boatloads of money is not one of t
Rules to play Triathlon
Knowledge of Course
. The sole responsibility of knowing and following the prescribed cycling course rests with each participant. No adjustments in times or results shall be made for participants who fail to follow the proper course for any reason whatsoever.
Forever Young Naturally Exercise
Active in the Office After work release
. Lie on your back, legs hip-width apart, knees bent, feet flat on the floor, arms by your side. Lift your toes, splay, then replace. Inhaling, imagine breathing into the back of your pelvis. Feel everything soften. Exhale and relax your pelvis toward