Shah jahan

Biography
1. Born On: January 5, 1592
Died On: January 22, 1666
Achievements: Founder of the magnificent monument Taj Mahal, Also associated with the Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid of Delhi, Section of Agra Fort, the Wazir Khan Mosque and the Moti Masjid in Lahore, PakistanShah Jahan, his name along with the name of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, being synonymous with the existence and ever growing popularity of Taj Mahal, was a Mughal Emperor of the Southern Asia who reigned from 1627 to 1658. Born as Prince Shihab ud din Muhammad Khurram in the Lahore, Pakistan of 1592, Shah Jahan was the son of Emperor Jahangir. His name Khurram, which means joyful in Persian, was given to him by his grandfather Akbar the Great. Displaying great military skills at an early age against numerous enemies including Mewar, the Lodi in the Deccan, and Kangra, impressed his father so much that Shah Jahan received the title Shah Jahan Bahadur from him. He wasnt just a sharp military leader, but also had an exceptional talent for building and proved it by re designing buildings within the Agra fort. Among many titles he had earned, The Builder of the Marvels was one that was about to be proved the most deserving in the time to come.
The most significant part of Shah Jahans life history began in 1607 when he was 15 and was betrothed to Arjumand Banu Begum, the granddaughter of a Persian noble and was just 14 at that time. After they got married in 1612, Arjumand became the unquestioned love of his life. Khurram, upon finding her appearance and character elect among all the women of the time, bestowed her with the title of Mumtaz Mahal, meaning Jewel of the Palace. Although Mumtaz was one among the few wives Shah Jahan had had, according to the official court chronicler Qazwini, the relationship with his other wives had nothing more than the status of marriage. The intimacy, deep affection, attention and favor which His Majesty had for the Cradle of Excellence (Mumtaz) exceeded by a thousand times what he felt for any other. She was his inseparable companion, accompanying him even on military ventures, a trusted confidante and their relationship was intense.
After she died in 1631 while giving birth to their 14th child, Shah Jahan undertook the work of constructing worlds most beautiful monument in her memory. This monument, which entombs Mumtaz Mahal as well as Shah Jahan, came to be known as Taj Mahal, the building of which took 22 years and 22000 laborers. It was in 1657 that Shah Jahan fell ill, and Dara, Mumtaz Mahals eldest son assumed responsibility of his fathers throne. His other son, Aurangzeb, accompanied by his younger brothers Shuja and Murad marched upon Agra to in order to claim their share. They defeated Daras armies and declared their father Shah Jahan incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort. After Shah Jahan died in 1666 in captivity, his body was taken quietly by two men and was laid beside Mumtaz. Apart from the Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid of Delhi, Section of Agra Fort, the Wazir Khan Mosque and the Moti Masjid in Lahore, Pakistan, are some of the noble structures associated with the name of Shah Jahan, meaning King of the World in Persian. .....
Patron of the Arts
2. Shah Jahan had three wives. His second wife, Mumtaz Mahal, whom he had married in 1612, died in 1631. She had been the mother of 14 of his 16 children. It was to her memory that the Taj Mahal was built. In this most beautiful of the worlds tombs, the minutest detail has been carefully thought out and executed with tireless precision. In inscribing texts from the Koran round the tall doorways, the artists have shown themselves such masters of perspective that the letters 30 feet or more above the line of the eye appear to be exactly of the same size as those a foot above the floor level. Onyx, jasper, cornelian, carbuncle, malachite, lapis lazuli, and other precious stones are studded in the mosaic. It has been described as A Dream in Marble.

The Jama Mosque of Delhi and the Pearl Mosque of Agra are two other masterpieces. Near the city of Old Delhi, Shah Jahan built a new capital, Shahjahanabad, with its magnificent Red Fort. Within the fort is the Hall of Public Audience, and here Shah Jahan sat on the Peacock Throne, which consisted entirely of jewels and precious metals and stones. Four legs of gold supported the seat, 12 pillars of emeralds held up the emerald canopy, each pillar bore two peacocks encrusted with gems, and between each pair of peacocks rose a tree covered with diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and pearls.Under Shah Jahans patronage jewelry reached a high degree of perfection, and jewelers from both Asia and Europe visited the Mogul court to sell their craft and gems. Yet in spite of all these lavish expenditures, the imperial treasury was never in debt, in fact, Shah Jahan ended his reign with more money in the treasury than he had at the beginning of his reign. .....

Patron of Letters
3. Hindi language was coming into vogue, and Shah Jahan himself spoke Hindi and patronized Hindi poets like Sundar Das and Chintamani and Hindi musicians like Jagan Nath, Sukh Sen, and Lal Khan. His reign also saw the rendering into Persian of several Sanskrit classics, some of these translations were patronized by his son Dara Shikoh.Shah Jahan had begun his reign by killing his brothers and all male members of their families. His sons likewise recognized no kinship in their pursuit of kingship. In 1657, when the Emperors health appeared to be failing, his four sons, Dara Shikoh, Shuja, Murad Baksh, and Aurangzeb, began to take steps to secure the succession. Eventually the contest resolved itself between Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb, and the latter proved successful. On June 8, 1658, Aurangzeb entered Agra, made a captive of his father, and assumed the throne. For 8 years Shah Jahan remained a prisoner in the Agra Fort, attended by his faithful daughter Jahanara and gazing, it is reported, most of the time upon the Taj Mahal, where he was to be laid to rest beside his favorite consort.

In some respects Shah Jahan is a paradox. He employed many non Moslems at his court but nevertheless showed considerable intolerance to Hinduism and Christianity. His son Aurangzeb continued this illiberal policy to its worst extent. Shah Jahans court was enormously rich, and he spent a vast sum on splendid buildings. His was an age of luxury. Yet he did nothing to arrest the decline in Mogul economy. The policy of reducing the Deccan and conquering the northwest, also continued by his successor, proved disastrous and shook public confidence in the Mogul imperium. Though he was a just man, he was also at times quite vengeful, and he set into motion wars of succession from which the Mogul polity never recovered. But as the builder of the Taj Mahal, he ensured himself a place in world history. .....

Columbia Encyclopedia
4. Shah Jahan or Shah Jehan , 1592 1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628 58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab ud din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628. In the course of his long reign he conquered most of the Deccan and temporarily (1638 49) recovered Kandahar from the Persians. Shah Jahans reign is considered the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. Among the buildings he erected were the unsurpassed Taj Mahal and the Pearl Mosque, both at Agra, and the new city at Delhi, which he made his capital. Literature also flourished at his magnificent court. Shah Jahan fell seriously ill in 1657, and this led to a war of succession among his sons. In 1658 he was deposed and imprisoned for the rest of his life by his son Aurangzeb. .....
Early life
5. Born on 5 January 1592, Shah ab ud din Muhammad Khurram, which was Shah Jehans birth name, was the third son born to Emperor Jehangir, his mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Manmati her official name in Mughal chronicles being Bilquis Makani. The name Khurram was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship. When Khurram was only six days old, Akbar handed him over to his first wife and chief consort, Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, who was childless.Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurrams upbringing and he grew up under her care.Her step son, Jahangir, noted that Ruqaiya loved Khurram a thousand times more than if he had been her own son.As a child, Prince Khurram received a broad education befitting his status as a Mughal prince, which include martial training and exposure to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and music, most of which was, according to court chroniclers, under the watchful gaze of his grandfather. In 1605, as the Emperor Akbar lay on his deathbed, Prince Khurram, who at this point was 13,remained by his bedside and refused to move even after his mother tried to retrieve him. Given the politically uncertain times immediately preceding Akbars death, Prince Khurram was in a fair amount of physical danger of harm by political opponents of his father and can be understood to be a precursor of the bravery that he would later be known for.

In 1605, his father acceded to the throne after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khausrau Prince Khurram remained distant from the court politics and intrigues in that events immediate aftermath, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangirs part. As the third son, Prince Khurram did not challenge the two major power blocs of the time, his father and his step brother, thus he enjoyed the benefits of Imperial protection and luxury, while being allowed to continue with his education and training.[5] This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Prince Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step brother, Prince Khurram began to drift closer to his father and over time started to be considered the de facto heir apparent by court chroniclers, this status was given official sanction when Jahangir granted the jagir of Hissar Feroza, which had traditionally been the fief of the heir apparent, to Prince Khurram in 1607. .....

Marriage
6. In 1607, Prince Khurram was engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum when they were 15 and 14 years old, respectively. The young girl belonged to an illustrious Persian noble family which had been serving Mughal Emperors since the reign of Akbar, the familys patriarch was Itimad ud Daulah, who had been Emperor Jahangirs finance minister and his son, Asaf Khan Arjumand Banus father played an important role in the Mughal court, eventually going serving as Chief Minister. Her aunt was the Empress Nur Jehan and is thought to have played the matchmaker in arranging the marriage.But for some reason, the Prince was not married to Arjumand Banu Begum for five years, which was an unusually long engagement for the time. However, Shah Jahan married a Hindu princess during this time, whose name has not been recorded by contemporary chroniclers, with whom he had his first child a daughter who died in infancy.Politically speaking, the betrothal allowed Prince Khurram to be considered officially as having entered manhood and was granted several jagirs, including Hissar Feroze and was ennobled to a military rank of 8,000, allowing him to take on official functions of state, an important step in establishing his own claim to the throne.In 1612, aged 20, Prince Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum on an auspicious date chosen by court astrologers. The marriage was a happy one and Prince Khurram, while married to her, remained devoted to her and she bore all his children, fourteen in all out of whom seven survived into adulthood.

Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband, she even is said to have implored Prince Khurram not to have children with his other wives, a call he listened.[9] Later on, as Empress, Mumtaz Mahal (Persian: the chosen one of the Palace) wielded immense power, such as being consulted by her husband in state matters and being responsible for the imperial seal, which allowed her to review official documents in their final draft.

Mumtaz Mahal died, aged 40, while giving birth to Gauhara Begum in Burhanpur, the cause of death being post partum haemorrhaging, which caused considerable blood loss and after a painful labour of thirty hours. Contemporary historians note that Princess Jahanara, aged 17, was so distressed by her mothers pain that she started distributing gems to the poor, hoping for divine intervention and Shah Jahan, himself, was noted as being paralysed by grief and weeping fits.Her body was temporarily buried in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad, originally constructed by Shah Jahans uncle Prince Daniyal along the Tapti River. Her death had a profound impact on Shah Jahans personality and inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she was later reburied.The intervening years had seen Khurrum take two other wives known as Akbarabadi Mahal (d.1677), and Kandahari Mahal (b. c1594), (m.1609). But according to court chroniclers, his relationship with his other wives was more out of political consideration and they enjoyed only the status of being royal wives. .....

Military commander
7. The first occasion for Prince Khurram to test out his military prowess was during the Mughal campaign against the Rajput state of Mewar, which had been a hostile force to the Mughals since Akbars reign. In 1614, commanding an army numbering around 200,000, Prince Khurram began the offensive against the Rajput kingdom. After a year of the harsh war of attrition, Maharana Amar Singh II surrendered to the Mughal forces and became a vassal state of the Mughal Empire.

In 1617, Prince Khurram was directed to deal with the Lodi in the Deccan, to secure the Empires southern borders and to restore imperial control over the region. His successes in these conflicts led to Jahangir granting him the title of Shah Jahan (Persian: Glory of the World) and raised his military rank and allowed him a special throne in his Durbar, an unprecedented honour for a prince, thus further solidifying his status as crown prince. .....

Rebel prince
8. Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. As a result, a complex political climate surrounded the Mughal court in Prince Khurrams formative years. In 1611 his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of an Afghan Noble. She rapidly became an important member of Emperor Jahangirs court and, together with her brother Asaf Khan, wielded considerable influence. Arjumand was Asaf Khans daughter and her marriage to Prince Khurram consolidated Nur Jahan and Asaf Khans positions at court.Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahans decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Shah Jahans youngest brother Shahzada Shahryar and her support for his claim to the throne led Khurram, supported by Mahabat Khan, into open revolt against his father in 1622.The rebellion was quelled by Jahangirs forces in 1626 and Khurram was forced to submit unconditionally. Upon the death of Jahangir in 1627, Prince Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Shah Jahan, King of the World, the latter title alluding to his pride in his Timurid roots and his ambitious the history. Shahanshah Shah Jahans first act as ruler was to execute his chief rivals and imprison his step mother Nur Jahan. This allowed Shan Jahan to rule without contention. .....
Administration of the Mughal Empire
9. Although his fathers rule was generally peaceful, the empire was experiencing challenges by the end of his reign. In 1628, immediately after becoming Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahans forces were ambushed by Sikh rebels, the Emperor organized an assault, which caused almost all the Sikhs, including Guru Hargobind and his mercenaries to flee. Shah Jahan repulsed the Portuguese in Bengal, capturing the Rajput kingdoms of Baglana, Mewar and Bundelkhand to the west and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. He then chose his 16 year old son Aurangzeb to serve in his place and subdue the rebellion by the Bundela Rajputs led by the renegade Jhujhar Singh. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan then chose his son Aurangzeb to become the Subedar of Deccan and ordered the annexation of Ahmednagar and the overthrow of the Nizam Shahi dynasty.Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their powerful ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649, the Mughal armies were unable to recapture it despite repeated sieges during the MughalSafavid War.

Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan in the year 1648 states that the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles and were maintained out of the revenues of the Mughal Empire which amounted to 120,071,876,840 dams. During his reign the Marwari horse was introduced becoming Shah Jahans favorite and various Mughal Cannons were mass produced in the Jaigarh Fort. Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. But due to his measures in the financial and commercial fields, it was a period of general stabilitythe administration was centralised and court affairs systematized. .....

Patronage of the arts
10. Shah Jahans reign saw some of Indias most well known architectural and artistic accomplishments. The land revenue of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan was higher than that of any other Mughal ruler. The magnificence of Shah Jahan .....
Later life
11. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1658, Dara Shikoh (Mumtaz Mahals eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his fathers stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. Upon learning of his assumption of the regency, his younger brothers, Shuja, Viceroy of Bengal, and Murad Baksh, Viceroy of Gujarat, declared their independence, and marched upon Agra in order to claim their riches. Aurangzeb, the third son, and ablest and most virile of the brothers, gathered a well trained army and became its in chief commander, he faced his elder brother and heir apparent Daras army close to Agra and completely defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort.

Jahanara Begum Sahib, Jahans first daughter, voluntarily shared his 8 year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell ill with strangury and dysentery. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on 22 January, he commended the ladies of the imperial court, particularly his consort of later years Akbarabadi Mahal, to the care of Jahanara. After reciting the Islamic declaration of faith (Laa ilaaha illa l laah) and verses from the Quran, one of the greatest of the Mughal Emperors died, aged 74.Princess Jahanara planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahans body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy. Aurangzeb refused to accommodate such ostentation and the body was washed in accordance with Islamic rites, taken by river in a sandalwood coffin to the Taj Mahal and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. .....

Contributions to architecture
12. Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. He was one of the greatest patrons of Islamic architecture. His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, now a wonder of the world, which he built out of love for his wife the empress Mumtaz Mahal.Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble underlaid with brick. Upon his death, his son Aurangazeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other constructions are the Red Fort also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, the Jahangir mausoleumhis fathers tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque. He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule. Shah Jahan also placed profound verses of the Quran on his masterpieces of architecture.A famous seamless celestial globe was produced in 16591660, by the Sindhi astronomer Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta with Arabic and Persian inscriptions. .....
Contribution to the arts
13. All the inscriptions on the Taj Mahal tombs of Shah Jahan and his wife are in Persian Calligraphy on the tombs and on the Agra Fort quranic Calligraphy and Persian poem in Nasta?l?qinscription. Shah Jahans cenotaph is bigger than that of his wife, but reflects the same elements: a larger casket on a slightly taller base, again decorated with astonishing precision with lapidary and calligraphy that identifies him. .....
Construction of Taj Mahal
14. One of the most significant incidents in the life of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan was the construction of Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. His wife Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to their fourteenth child. Shah Jahan decided to build worlds most beautiful monument in the memory of his beloved wife. The monument, which is known as the Taj Mahal, contains the tombs of both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. Taj Mahal, also known as the Epitome of Love, is exceptionally beautiful and has become one of the most visited tourist destinations of India. People from different parts of the world come to India to see this amazing edifice in white. .....
The Master Builder
15. While his grandfather Akbar is best known for developing the Mughal empire, it is Shah Jehan who is remembered as the sultan who spent his time literally building it. Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts, and a lover of all things big: big mosques, big forts, big gemstones. He commissioned hundreds of paintings and engravings for his palaces, many of which survive to this day.The most enduring of Shah Jehans creations were his massive construction projects. Employing a mix of Persian palatial sophistication and local Hindu engineering know how, Shah Jehan defined the architectural style recognized the world over as Mughal. The Red Fort and the Jama Masjid, both in Delhi, stand out as towering achievements of both civil engineering and art. Yet above all else, we remember Shah Jehan today for the Taj Mahal, the massive white marble mausoleum constructed for his wife Mumtaz Mahal along the bank of the Jamuna River in Agra.Mumtaz Mahal died during childbirth soon after Shah Jehan ascended to the throne. Grief stricken, Shah Jehan decided to built the Taj Mahal as a tribute and final resting place for her. It took over a decade to build and it nearly bankrupted the empire, but Shah Jehan had his monument for the ages. He continued to spend lavishly, beginning new construction projects and revamping old ones (including the Agra Fort, first built by Akbar two generations earlier). He even commissioned the creation of a brilliant gold throne encased in hundreds of precious gems the Peacock Throne, a symbol of Mughal royalty until it was stolen and co opted by the Persians a century later.

But despite his successes as a patron of art and architecture, Shah Jehan was unable to gauge the discontent among his own court. A power struggle among his sons ensued, and eventually, the ruthless prince Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan in a coup detat in 1658. Shah Jehan was imprisoned in the Octagonal Tower of the Agra Fort (a beautiful addition to the fort that he himself had constructed) and would remain there until his death, eight years later, in 1666. He was then buried next to his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, in the Taj Mahal, two kilometers down river from the fort. .....

Mughal Empire
16. Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan in the year 1648, states that the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles and were maintained out of the revenues of the Mughal Empire which amounted to 120,071,876,840 dams.During his reign the Marwari horse was introduced becoming Shah Jahans favorite and various Mughal Cannons were mass produced in the Jaigarh Fort. Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. But due to his measures in the financial and commercial fields, it was a period of general stabilitythe administration was centralized and court affairs systematized.

The Mughal Empire continued to expand moderately during his reign as his sons commanded large armies on different fronts. Above all it is obligatory to mention here that India became the richest center of the arts, crafts and architecture and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in his empire, it is believed that the Mughal Empire had the highest gross domestic produce in the world. .....

Sikh rebels
17. In 1634, Shah Jahans Mughal Army attacked the Sikhs led by Guru Hargobind and ordered the destruction of the Sikh temple in Lahore. Skirmishes were fought at Amritsar, Kartarpur and elsewhere. .....
Relations with the Safavid dynasty
18. Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their powerful ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649, the Mughal armies were unable to recapture it despite repeated sieges during the MughalSafavid War. Shah Jahan also expanded the Mughal Empire to the west beyond the Khyber Pass to Ghazna and Kandahar. .....
Relations with the Ottoman Empire
19. While he was encamped in Baghdad, Sultan Murad IV is known to have met the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahans ambassadors: Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armor. Murad IV presented them with the finest weapons, saddles and Kaftans and ordered his forces to accompany the Mughals to the port of Basra, where they set sail to Thatta and finally Surat.The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan had exchanged ambassadors and documents with the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, it was through these exchanges led by the Mughal ambassador Sayyid Muhiuddin and his counterpart the Ottoman ambassador Arsalan Agha, that Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan received Mimar Yusuf, Isa Muhammad Effendi and Ismail Effendi, two Turkish architects and students of the famous Koca Mimar Sinan Agha. Both of them later comprised among the Mughal team that would design and build the Taj Mahal. .....
Maritime trade
20. Mir Jumla II, who in the 1640s had his own ships and organized merchant fleets that sailed throughout: Surat, Thatta, Arakan, Ayuthya, Balasore, Aceh, Melaka, Johore, Bantam, Makassar, Ceylon, Bandar Abbas, Mecca, Jeddah, Basra, Aden, Masqat, Mocha and the Maldives. His merchant fleet could only be rivaled by Abdul Goffur of Surat although other nobles such as Asaf Khan and Safi Khan owned seaborne vessels. .....
Death of a Great Emperor
21. Shah Jahan fell seriously ill in September 1657. Seeking this as an opportunity, one of his sons, Aurangzeb, took over the throne and imprisoned him in the citadel of Agra. Shah Jahan left this world, in confinement, in the year 1666. .....
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Siva S Banda. Siva Subrahmanyam Banda (born 1951) is an IndianAmerican aerospace engineer He is Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and senior scientist for Control Theory for the Air Vehicles Directorate at the United States Air Force Research La .....
Benefits of Watermelons
Cancer. As an excellent source of the strong antioxidant vitamin C as well as other antioxidants, watermelon can help combat the formation of free radicals known to causeandcancer. Lycopene intake has been linked with a decreased risk ofandprostate cancerand .....
Famous Logos That Have A Hidden Message
Sun Microsystems. Usually boring tech companies stick with boring, meaningless logos, but not Sun Microsystems. Take a closer look at that diamond and you ll see it actually says Sun in every direction. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Emergency Eye Action Banish crow’s feet. Place the tips of your ring fingers between your eyebrows. Circle down the nose and out over the cheekbones. Sweep up to the temples and to the center of the forehead. Repeat, circling for 30 seconds. Take the eyebrows between thumbs and index finger .....
Tips to succeed in Work
Arriving on time. Most employers are prepared to be flexible and each environment has its own rules on timekeeping. Find out what they are and stick to them! You want to send the message that youre dependable and willing to go the extra mile to meet company goals. .....
Precautions while using CNG
Emergency Shut Down Procedure. To shut down a CNG storage system 1. Turn the ignition switch to OFF and set the parking brake. 2. Turn off the battery disconnect switch. 3. Shut off fuel at 1 4 turn valve on the FMM. 4. Inform emergency personnel. .....
Tips to success in Driving Test
Set Yourself up for Success. This really means incorporating all of the above ideas, and then some. Commit to studying and practice driving on a daily basis so that you are confident you can do it in addition to being able to do it. Prepare yourself to relieve yourself of anxiet .....
Awesome Literary T Shirts
Kurt Vonnegut No 5. Designed by NovelT, from a popular Literary Numbers series.Artwork featured on front left chest is the officially licensed Kurt Vonnegut asteriskdrawing. Other designsin the series: Douglas Adams No. 42, Jane Austen No. 21, Walt Whitman No. 11. .....
Essential Photography Tips
Understand your lens true dimensions. Unless you ve paid for a high end dSLR, or a professional camera such as the Leica M9 , your pocket snapper s sensor will almost certainly be smaller than a frame of 35mm film, the standard point of reference against which all focal lengths are measu .....
Reasons You Should Brush Your Teeth
Heart Attack. If your gums are bleeding and your mouth is overflowing with plaque and bacteria, it will eventually make its way into your bloodstream. Unfortunately this means that it will inevitably pass through your heart, and plague in your heart is never a goo .....
Gym guide Ideas
Doing cardio before your lifting session. Cardio is crucial to any mans workout plan, but it can be detrimental when done at the wrong time. Completing a 30 minute jog before a set of heavy squats may increase your heart rate and act as a warm up, but by the time you get under the bar youll .....
Benefits of Cardamom
Cardiovascular Health. Black cardamoms also influences the cardiac health to a great extent. Controlling cardiac rhythm is one of its most important benefits, which eventually keeps your blood pressure under check. Your heart remains healthy with regular intake of black ca .....
Ways To Live Differently
Learn different things. When I started experimenting with ingredients at home and started making my own recipes, I became more conscious about what I was using for my skin. I find working with oils and ingredients in my kitchen to be therapeutic. .....
Prevent Dengue
Avoid breeding grounds. Mosquitoes are more likely to be found in areas where they can breed, such as stagnant pools. Make sure there are no unnecessary collections of water in your home (e.g in paddling pools, old tyres, pot plant dishes, etc.) .....
Weird World Record
Dr Mark Temperato. The largest drum set is comprised of 340 pieces, is owned by Dr Mark Temperato (USA) and was counted in Lakeville, New York, USA. Dr Mark Temperato is a member of the band called Jesus the Soul Solution. He transports the drum set in a custom-built t .....
What to Eat in Sikkim
Saelroti. Widely prepared during Nepali festivals, Saelroti is normally eaten with potato curry or non-vegetarian dish. Normally not available in restaurants but Saelroti is prepared from well-mixed fermented rice batter which is deep fried, ring-shaped, spong .....
Rules to play High Jump
Jumping. high Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1 2 times a week. Approaches, or run throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6 8 times per session. Short approach jumps are common for jumpers to do, as it allows for them to work on specific technical aspects of .....
Most Extreme Places to Visit
MOST DANGEROUS EL CAMINITO DEL REY SPAIN. Named as the worlds most dangerous walkway the threekmlong and 3.2feetwide footbridge is pinned along the steep walls of the Gorge of the Gaitanes in Malaga. At 328 feet (100 meters) above the river below at some points one must make do with handrail .....
Benefits of Papayas
Nutritional Profile. Papaya is an excellent source of vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids) and vitamin C. It is a very good source of folate. In addition, it is a good source of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, copper, and vitamin K. .....
Rules to play Kickball
Team will kick first. The other team will have to take the field, choosing positions like in baseball. One person must be the pitcher. .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Community spirit Volunteer today. Giving up precious time to do something kind or helpful to others advances longevity, studies reveal. .....
Smartphone Photography Tips and Tricks
The rule of thirds. This is one of the simplest, easiest rules to remember about photography, and yet its invaluable to making your photo compositions look great. The idea is that our eyes are naturally attracted to images that are divided into thirds, and the subject o .....
Famous Nurses Who Made History
Sarah Emma Edmonds. The male nurse (1841 to 1898) Being male was not a dream for Sarah Emma Edmondson, but a life she had to live since childhood to escape mistreatment from her father and to be able to serve her adopted country, the United States of America. Emma lef .....
Most Influential People in the World
Hillary Clinton Secretary of State. Playing a critical role on the international relations scene, Hillary has managed to strengthen American alliances in Asia and Europe while simultaneously engaging emerging powers like Brazil, India, and China. Moreover, she has helped direct an admi .....
Great ways to eat Corn
Charred Corn and Avocado Salad with Lime Chili and Tomato. This simple and delicious summertime salad is made with broiled avocado corn poblano and red onion. .....
Crazy Facts
Wonder Pup. Crazy Animals A pup, named ?Xiao Sa? ('Little Sa') covered 1,138 miles and climbed 10 mountains higher than 13,000 feet on paw alongside a cycling crew. A student, Mr Heng, in Wuhan, Hubei province, had decided to cycle to Llasa, Tibet from Kangding .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Breadcrumbs. Breadcrumbs are important for your website usability. The website should have a clear navigation path to make it easier for customers to find your pages. If the visitor finds it difficult to navigate your site they will leave your site. .....
Benefits of Sapodilla fruits
Vitamins such as A and C. A good amount of antioxidant vitamins such as A and C, sapodilla can be consumed on a daily basis. Vitamin A is essential for vision, helps in maintaining a healthy mucus membrane and prevents lung and oral cavity cancers. Vitamin C, on the other han .....
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns 38. This one is quite unique in respect to the design weusuallysee. The Om design in thecentermakes it applicable for all kinds of religious celebrations. There are very minute details which also make this a very beautiful Rangoli design. .....
Benefits of Almonds
Deciduous Tree. The almond is a?deciduous?tree, growing 4?10?m (13?33?ft) in height, with a trunk of up to 30?cm (12?in) in diameter. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Antiaging Skin Basics Hydrate from within. Dry skin makes wrinkles more obvious. The only natural relief from dry skin is ample hydration. Drink 4 pints (2 liters) of water daily to plump up skin, give hair gloss, flush out toxins, and help relieve headaches that can lead to frown lines. .....
Dams in India
Kodasalli Dam. Kodasalli Dam is built across the Kali River (Kalinadi) in Yellapura taluk of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state, India. This dam was built by Karnataka Power Corporation Limited. This electric power generating station is classified as hydroe .....
IBPS Exams
Subjects for Exam. General Awareness Questions are asked from geography, history, science, economics, sports, constitution, politics, history, banking, culture etc. Give due Consideration to Current Affairs especially the happenings in Banking arenaEnglish Language .....
Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks of India
Jim Corbett National Park. Located in the Nainital District of Uttrakhand, Jim Corbett National Park was established in 1936. The national park is located amidst a mixed terrain of deciduous forests and mountainous pine forests. As a result Jim Corbett National park is one of .....
Fashion Trends That Didnt Survive the 90s
Pagers on Pants. Unless you re in the medical profession, you d better leave your pager at home these days if you don t want to commit a fashion faux pas That is, if you even own a pager. .....
Fish Aquarium
Black Phantom Tetra. The Black Phantom Tetra grows to 2 inches. It is a hardy species that does well in both small and large groups. Their flat oval body is silvery gray with a distinctive splash of black edged in white just behind the gills. The fins of the male are edg .....
Benefits of Black raisins
Raisins health benefits for Eyesight. Various research conducted on raisins have noted that raisins may save you from going blind in old age. The powerful anti oxidants found in raisins may help prevent macular degeneration in old age. The macular is gradually worn out throughout life by .....
Reality TV Shows That Are Far From Reality
The Amazing Race. The Amazing Race is another reality television game show that captures the attention of viewers all over the world. The show includes teams of two people who have a relationship with one another, competing with other teams around the world. Challenge .....
Benefits of Bitter Gourd
Bitter gourd. Bitter gourd is bitter on the taste buds and hence, is excluded from most meals. But this does not deprive it of certain health benefits. Known for its acquired taste, bitter gourd is also referred to as a balsam pear or bitter melon. Similar to a cu .....
Benefits of Apples
Protect against Parkinsons. Research has shown that people who eat fruits and other highfibre foods gain a certain amount of protection against Parkinsons, a disease characterized by a breakdown of the brains dopamineproducing nerve cells. Scientists have linked this to the fre .....
Billiards Pool Game for Beginners
Straight Shots. Set up a straight shot that you know you can make.For example, you might be confident making a shot with the target ball one foot from the pocket and the cue ball another foot from the target ball. Practice that shot until you can pocket it consisten .....
American Cities Where You Dont Need A Car
Denver Colorado. Although its not the first city that comes to mind when considering car-free living Denver has a relatively well developed public transit system. You can even get into the nearby Rocky Mountains via train. .....
Most Expensive Motorcycles
1955 NSU Sportmax. $116,634 (sold for GBP .....
Simple Science
The Air as Man's Servant. Pumps and their Value to Man: Long before man harnessed water for turbines, or steam for engines, he made the air serve his purpose, and by means of it raised water from hidden underground depths to the surface of the earth; likewise, by means of it, .....
Rules to play Surfing
Fun. Surfing is all about having fun; keep it in mind when you are out in the waves. .....
Weird Ghost Stories
Male Medusa Caught in Coils. Hes an anomaly belonging to a forgotten world. A myth. Cast out and bound in enchantments by his own kind, he lingers adrift and forgotten in a hidden cavern, wiling away the eons. Meeting humans over the years, he is both feared and desired, his bit .....
Cool Gifts College Students
CALM DOWN organic bodywash. You re about to graduate. Don t have an anxiety attack! The essential oils of ginger and lavender will help calm and clear your mind so you re ready to walk across that stage and into the rest of your LIFE, if you will. Find it here for $20. .....
Tips to get ready for Long Drive
Have fun and enjoy the ride. If the family starts fighting, play the quiet game, it will relax everyone. Another thing you could do is eat, people stop fighting when its time to eat. .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Twitter Bio. Make sure to add your website link to your Twitter Bio. This will help drive additional traffic to your website. .....
Home Remedies
Nose blockage due to cold and phlegm. 1. Make into a very fine powder equal quantities of the following: cardamom (chhoti illaichi) seeds, cinnamon (dalchini), black pepper (kali mirch) and cumin (jeera). Sniff this powder frequently to induce sneezing. .....
Bodyweight Exercises
Segmental Rotation. Target those obliques. Lying on your back with your knees bent and core tight, let the knees fall gradually to the left (feeling a good stretch). Hold for five seconds, return to center, and repeat on the right side. .....
Most Amazing Streets in the World
Road To Giza Egypt. The Road to Giza is the worlds oldest known paved road. The road is over 4600 years old and is six and a half feet wide. It covered a distance of seven and a half miles connecting the quarries to the Southwest of Cairo to the quay on Lake Moeris whi .....
Amazing Animals
Worlds Cutest Baby Wild Animals. Giant panda Tai Shan is a celebrity in his own right. When he was born at the Smithsonian s National Zoo in Washington, D.C., in July 2005he prompted a 50 percent increase in zoo attendance and a rash of fan Web sites. He earned the nickname Butterst .....
Valentines Day Ideas for Couples
A special delivery. With a number of online gift services, you can send your sweetheart anything you want. Be it cards, flowers, clothes, accessories or any other object your partner desires, fulfill his her wish and buy it online and deliver it on his her address. Some .....
Popular Men Deodorant Brands
Naturally Fresh Deodorant Crystal Spray Mist. Naturally Fresh Deodorant Crystal Spray Mist by Naturally Deodorant Crystal.Hypoallergenic,Fragrance Free,No Aluminum Chlorohydrate. .....
What to Eat in Uttar Pradesh
Roti. Roti is generally an Indian bread, made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is also consumed in parts of South Africa, the southe .....
Healthy Leg
Attention Action. By making these efforts a regular practice you will help your leg veins However, if you are experiencing leg pain, leg swelling, numbness, tingling, cramping, or see skin discoloration, ulceration or varicose veins, we encourage you to take the time .....
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