Rules to play rowing

Rowing
1. Rowing often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times. It is based on propelling a boat racing shell on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational focusing on learning the technique of rowing, or competitive where athletes race against each other in boats.There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell called a single scull to an eight person shell with coxswain called a coxed eight. .....
Basic information
2. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward towards the bow. This may be done on a canal, river, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance.

Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, and the sidebyside format used in the Olympic games. The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions. .....

sweep
3. In sweep or sweepoar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands. This is generally done in pairs, fours, and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rowers oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is rowing on bow side and or the bow oarsman on stroke side. .....
sculling
4. In sculling each rower has two oars or sculls, one in each hand. Sculling is usually done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles. The oar in the scullers right hand extends to port stroke side, and the oar in the left hand extends to starboard bow side. .....
Anatomy of a stroke
5. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points. The catch, which is placement of the oar blade in the water, and the extraction, also known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water. The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke that propels the boat.At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water. The point of placement of the blade in the water is a relatively fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rowers legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and then finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest. The hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm.

At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop slightly to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface splashing. The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move the oar back to the catch position. In extraction, the rower pushes down on the oar handle to quickly lift the blade from the water and rapidly rotates the oar so that the blade is parallel to the water. This process is sometimes referred to as feathering the blade. Simultaneously, the rower pushes the oar handle away from the chest. The blade emerges from the water square and feathers immediately once clear of the water. After feathering and extending the arms, the rower pivots the body forward. Once the hands are past the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern of the boat. The leg compression occurs relatively slowly compared to the rest of the stroke, which affords the rower a moment to recover, and allows the boat to glide through the water. The gliding of the boat through the water during recovery is often called run. .....

Breathing during a rowing stroke
6. There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at the catch.With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the lungs by the time the catch is reached.

In the emptylung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch. Because the knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air. Full lungs at the release also can help the rower to maintain a straighter back, a style encouraged by many coaches.A scientific study of the benefits of entrained breathing technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did not show any physiological or psychological benefit to either technique. .....

Rowing propulsion
7. Rowing is a cyclic or intermittent form of propulsion such that in the quasisteady state the motion of the system the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat, is repeated regularly. In order to maintain the steadystate propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero. Thus, the average drag retarding force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consist of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system components of the boat situated above the waterline, as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Note also that the oar can be used to provide a drag force a force acting against the forward motion when the system is brought to rest.Although the oar can be conveniently thought of as a lever with a fixed pivot point in the water, the blade moves sideways and sternwards through the water, so that the magnitude of the propulsion force developed is the result of a complex interaction between unsteady fluid mechanics the water flow around the blade and solid mechanics and dynamics the handle force applied to the oar, the oars inertia and bending characteristic, the acceleration of the boat and so on. .....
Distinction from other watercraft
8. The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point is the load point for the oar to act as a second class lever the blade fixed in the water is the fulcrum. In flatwater rowing, the boat also called a shell or fine boat is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat. Racing boats also have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to apply power to the oar. Racing shells are inherently unstable, much like racing kayaks or canoes. The rowing boats require oars on either side to prevent them from rolling over. .....
Fitness and health
9. Rowing is one of the few nonweight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes and abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. Highperformance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athletes increased power tends to be more significant. The increased power is achieved through increased length of leverage on the oar through longer limbs of the athlete. In multiperson boats 2,4,or 8, the lightest person typically rows in the bow seat at the front of the boat.

Rowing is a low impact activity with movement only in defined ranges, so twist and sprain injuries are rare. However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries. If one rows with poor technique, especially rowing with a curved rather than straight back, other injuries may surface, including back pains. Blisters occur for almost all beginner rowers as every stroke puts pressure on the hands, though rowing frequently tends to harden hands and generate protective calluses. Holding the oars too tightly or making adjustments to technique may cause recurring or new blisters. .....

Steering
10. Single and double sculls are usually steered by the scullers pulling harder on one side or the other. In other boats, there is a rudder, controlled by the coxswain, if present, or by one of the crew. In the latter case, the rudder cable is attached to the toe of one of his shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The bowman may steer since he has the best vision when looking over his shoulder. On straighter courses, the strokesman may steer, since he can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course. On international courses, landmarks for the steersmen, consisting of two aligned poles, are provided. .....
Oars
11. Oars are used to propel the boat. They are long sculling: 250300 cm; rowing 340360 cm poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. Classic oars were made out of wood, but modern oars are made from more expensive and durable synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber.An oar is often referred to as a blade in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a scull in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweepoared. He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient due to the symmetry.The spoon of oars is normally painted with the colours of the club to which they belong. This greatly simplifies identification of boats at a distance. .....
Indoor rowing
12. Indoor rowing on ergometer, or tank is a way to train technique and strength by going through the same motions as rowing, with resistance. Indoor rowing is helpful when the lake is frozen, or there are no lakes near by. .....
Rowing tank
13. A rowing tank is an indoor facility which attempts to mimic the conditions rowers face on open water. Rowing tanks are primarily used for offseason rowing, muscle specific conditioning and technique training, or simply when bad weather doesnt allow for open water training. .....
Ergometer
14. Ergometer rowing machines colloquially ergs or ergo simulate the rowing action and provide a means of training on land when waterborne training is restricted, and of measuring rowing fitness. Ergometers do not simulate the lateral balance challenges, the exact resistance of water, or the exact motions of true rowing including the sweep of the oar handles. For that reason ergometer scores are generally not used as the sole selection criterion for crews, and technique training is limited to the basic body position and movements. However, this action can still allow a comparable workout to those experienced on the water.Indoor rowing has become popular as a sport in its own right with numerous indoor competitions and the annual World Championship CRASHB Sprints in Boston during the winter offseason. .....
Transportation
15. Boats are conveyed to competitions on special trailers accommodating up to 20 boats. .....
Boat storage
16. Racing boats are stored in boat houses. These are specially designed storage areas which usually consist of a long twostory building with a large door at one end which leads out to a pontoon or slipway on the river or lakeside. The boats are stored on racks horizontal bars, usually metal on the ground floor. Oars, riggers, and other equipment is stored around the boats. Boat houses are typically associated with rowing clubs and include some social facilities on the upper floor: a cafe, bar, or gym. Boat centers are commonly built along river banks in major U.S. cities. The Thompson Boat Center TBC, managed by the U.S. National Park Service, is used as a home base for high school and adult teams in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Regattas are frequently held at TBC through the spring, summer, and fall. .....
Side by side
17. Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race typically varies between two which is sometimes referred to as a dual race to six, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough. .....
Head races
18. Head races are time trial processional races that take place from autumn fall to early spring depending on local conditions. Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10 20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head courses usually vary in length from 2,000 metres 1.24 mi to 12,000 metres 7.46 mi, though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon and shorter such as Pairs Head. The oldest, and arguably most famous, head race is the Head of the River Race, founded by Steve Fairbairn in 1926 which takes place each March on the river Thames in London, United Kingdom. Head racing was exported to the United States in the 1950s, and the Head of the Charles Regatta held each October on the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, USA is now the largest rowing event in the world.

These processional races are known as Head Races, because, as with bumps racing, the fastest crew is awarded the title Head of the River as in head of the class. It was not deemed feasible to run bumps racing on the Tideway, so a timed format was adopted and soon caught on. Time trials are sometimes used to determine who competes in an event where there is a limited number of entries, for example the qualifying races for Henley Royal Regatta, and rowing on and getting on for the Oxford and Cambridge Bumps races respectively. .....

Bumps races
19. A bumps race is a multiday race beginning with crews lined up along the river at set intervals. They start simultaneously and all pursue the boat ahead while avoiding being bumped by a boat from behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result, damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped. The positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to nonuniversity crews. Oxfords races are organised by City of Oxford Rowing Club and Cambridges are organised by the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association. .....
Stake races
20. The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180 .....
Rules of racing
21. There are many differing sets of rules governing racing, and these are generally defined by the governing body of the sport in a particular country .....
Boat positions
22. In all boats, with the exception of single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order, low numbers at the bow, up to the highest at the stern. The person seated on the first seat is called the bowman, or just bow, whilst the rower closest to the stern is called the strokeman or just stroke. There are some exceptions to this some UK coastal rowers, and in France, Spain, and Italy rowers number from stern to bow.

In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles. In an 8+ the stern pair are responsible for setting the stroke rate and rhythm for the rest of the boat to follow. The middle four sometimes called the engine room or power house are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat. They also have most influence on the line the boat steers. .....

Coxswain
23. The coxswain or simply the cox is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.It is an advantage for the coxswain to be light, as this requires less effort for the crew to propel the boat. In many competitive competitions there is a minimum weight set for the coxswain to prevent unfair advantage. .....
Weight classes
24. In most levels of rowing there are different weight classes typically open or referred to as heavyweight and lightweight. Competitive rowing favours tall, muscular athletes due to the additional leverage height provides in pulling the oar through the water as well as the explosive power needed to propel the boat at high speed. .....
Heavyweight
25. Heavyweight rowers of both sexes tend to be very tall, broadshouldered, have long arms and legs as well as tremendous cardiovascular capacity and very low body fat ratios. Olympic or International level heavyweight male oarsmen are typically anywhere between 190 cm and 206 cm 63 to 69 tall with most being around 198 cm 66 and weighing approximately 102 kg 225 lb with about 6 to 7% body fat.Heavyweight women are slightly shorter at around 186 cm 61 and lighter than their male counterparts.

Some rowing enthusiasts claim that the disproportionate number of tall rowers is simply due to the unfair advantage that tall rowers have on the ergometer. This is due to the ergometers inability to properly simulate the larger rowers drag on a boat due to weight. Since the ergometer is used to assess potential rowers, results on the ergometer machine play a large role in a rowers career success. However, since crew selection has favored tall rowers long before the advent of the ergometer,and bigger, taller crews are almost universally faster than smaller, shorter crews on the water, being tall is a definite advantage ultimately having little to do with the ergometer. .....

Lightweight
26. Unlike most other noncombat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight Lwt for short. According to FISA, this weight category was introduced to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people. The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996. .....
Adaptive athletes
27. Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are 5 boat classes for adaptive rowers; mixed 2 men and 2 women plus cox LTA Legs, Trunk, Arms, mixed intellectual disability 2 men and 2 women plus cox LTA Legs, Trunk, Arms, mixed 1 man and 1 woman TA Trunk and Arms, and mens and womens AS Arms and Shoulders. Events are held at the World Rowing Championships and were also held at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. .....
Blade
28. The flattened, or spoonshaped, part of an oar that touches the water during rowing. .....
Boot
29. A device that holds the bow of a boat before a race, then drops below the water on the starting signal. .....
Bowball
30. A rubber ball attached to the bow tip of a shell to protect against damage and injury in case of a collision. .....
Button
31. A collar around the shaft of the oar that keeps the oar from slipping through the oarlock and can be adjusted up and down the oar to increase or decrease leverage. .....
Cox Box
32. An electronic device used by the coxswain to amplify his or her voice and broadcast it through speakers located throughout the shell. .....
Oarlock
33. A Ushaped device on a boats gunwale where the oar rests and swings; also called a rowlock. .....
Outrigger
34. A framework attached to the shell and used to support the oarlock; also called a rigger. .....
Sleeve
35. The plastic jacket on the shaft of the oar upon which is mounted a button, used to secure the blade to the oarlock. .....
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Niger. three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the .....
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How To Play 6 Ball Billiards. This page contains references to some material that is copyrighted by the Billiard Congress of America. Any modification or sale of such information herein is strictly prohibited by the laws governing that copyright. Please direct questions regarding .....
Tips For Men To Look Younger
Make Time to Play. Remember as a kid all the group sports you played? Little league, the soccer team, football? Men are conditioned to focus on themselves, their family and their careers what about that little kid who loved those team activities? Get your buddies toget .....
Tips to succeed in Study
Ask questions. If you are not sure about something, ASK! Dont be shy about asking. The Dutch are usually very willing to help, but they expect that if you want help, you will ask. .....
Most Dangerous Animal in the World
Water Monitor. Water monitors can swim, sprint, and climb. Theyre one of the largest lizards in the world and have infecting saliva and a killer bite. .....
Xmas Celebration
Etymology. Christmas is a compound word originating in the term Christ Mass.It is derived from the Middle English Cristemasse, which is from Old English, a phrase first recorded in 1038 followed by the word Cristes messe in 1131.Crist (genitive Cristes) is from .....
Tips to Improve Your Life
Reduce Gamer Clutter. If you are a gamer, these are a number of suggestions to help you keep your entertainment system under control and the gaming clutter to a minimum. .....
Top Most Powerful Armies In The World
France. Some people may be spending more and more in their attempts to make themselves the most powerful army in the world, but that is certainly not what France is doing. If anything, they are doing quite the opposite . . . although funnily enough, with the .....
Globe Dial
Slovenia. Exit Country Code + 386 + Area Code + The Number The Slovenia country code is 386. The nationality of Slovenia is Slovenians.The capital of Slovenia is LjubljanaLargest Cities in Slovenia by population: Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje, Kranj, Velenje, Kop .....
Wedding
Honeymoon packing. When packing for your honeymoon think of few clothes but plenty of accessories that way you can pack light but still transform your look to fit whatever happens! .....
Benefits of Radish
Cardiovascular Conditions. Radishes are a great source of anthocyanins, which are a type of flavonoids, which not only give color to radishes, but also provide numerous health benefits. Anthocyanins have been the subject of numerous medical studies, and have been positively li .....
Amazing Science Images You Must See
Cloud Dance. A graceful three layered cloud structure develops over the Indian Ocean in this award winning photo snapped in 2011. As part of a projected called DYNAMO,researchers are studying the dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation, a travelling atmospheric .....
Weird Place Names
Fucking. Welcome to Intercourses more brazen sister city, 20mi north of Salzburg. Travelers tip: The village folk (population: 104) got sick and tired of English speaking tourists stealing their Fucking signage. So in 2004, after a vote to change the name of .....
Parachute Activity
Parachute Fun. Have students evenly spaced around edge of chute. They roll the edge 2 3 rolls to make a handle and hold chute with knuckles up, palms down grip. Establish how players will take turns by color of stripe or mark at their place. Review signals. Ready P .....
Benefits of Mint Leaf
Consider the following. The more we process foods, the more nutrients we take out and then need to replace by vitamin and mineral (and herbal!) supplements. Many refining processes send toxins in the air all around us that assault our immune system. Synthetics, likewise, ca .....
Chourishi Systems