Rules to play luge

Bridge
1. The part of a sled that connects the two runners and from which the aerodynamic racing shell is suspended. Made of steel, there are two bridges on each sled one in front and one in back. .....
Gloves
2. Luge gloves are spiked at the fingertips to assist with the start and paddling motion as the sliders accelerate onto the track. .....
Grip
3. Each hand holds a handle on the side of the sled. .....
Helmet
4. Sliders wear helmets that have a clear or tinted visor which extends under the chin to reduce resistance. .....
Kufen
5. The German word for runner, usually made of fibreglass or wood. The slider steers by applying pressure with his her foot onto the runners. .....
Pod
6. The aerodynamic shell which serves as the seat for the athlete. .....
Racing suit
7. Sliders wear specially designed race suits to reduce wind resistance. .....
Shoes
8. Sliders must wear special shoes with zipperss, so that the foot straightens out when the zipper is closed. There are also regulations for the insole and heel of the shoe. .....
Steel runner or steels
9. The sled rides along the track on two steel runners called steels. They are the only part of the sled that touches the ices surface and are attached to the kufens. .....
Swiss origins
10. Luge is the French word for sledge and, like bobsleigh, it was developed as a sport in Switzerland. Its roots go back to the 16th century, but it was not until 300 years later that the first luge tracks were built by Swiss hotel owners to cater for thrill seeking tourists. .....
Davos
11. The first international race course was held in Davos in 1883, with competitors racing along an icy 4km road between Davos and the village of Klosters. .....
No brakes
12. Luge is one of the oldest winter sports. It involves competitors lying on their backs on a tiny sled with their feet stretched out in front of them, and racing down an icy track at speeds in the range of 140 km h, without brakes. As well as the singles, there is a pairs event, with the larger of the two team members lying on top for better aerodynamics. .....
Olympic history
13. It was not until 1955 that the first World Championship was organised, i.e. 41 years after the first European Championships. Nine years later, in 1964, luge made its Olympic debut, at the Innsbruck Games, with a mixed event, a mens event and a womens event. The programme has not changed since then. Since 1976, this sport has taken place on the same track as bobsleigh.

The discipline was dominated by the East Germans, who won 15 of the 21 gold medals available between 1964 and 1988. One of the undisputed masters of luge is a German Georg Hackl, who won gold three times consecutively, in 1994 in Lillehammer, 1998 in Nagano and 2002 in Salt Lake City. .....

Artificial tracks
14. Artificial luge tracks have specially designed and constructed banked curves plus walled in straights. Most tracks are artificially refrigerated, but artificial tracks without artificial cooling also exist for example, in St. Moritz. Tracks tend to be very smooth.

The athletes ride in a flat, aerodynamic position on the sled, keeping their heads low to minimize air resistance. They steer the sled mainly with their calves by applying pressure on the runnersright calf to turn left, left calf to turn right. It takes a precise mix of shifting body weight, applying pressure with calves and rolling the shoulders. There are also handles for minor adjustments. A successful luger maintains complete concentration and relaxation on the sled while traveling at high speeds. Most lugers visualize the course in their minds before sliding.citation needed Fastest times result from following the perfect line down the track. Any slight error, such as a brush of the wall, costs time. Track conditions are also important. Softer ice tends to slow speeds, while harder ice tends to lead to faster times. Lugers race at speeds averaging 120 145 km h 75 90 mph around high banked curves while experiencing a centripetal acceleration of up to 5g. Mens Singles have their start locations near where the bobsled and skeleton competitors start at most tracks, while both the Doubles and Womens Singles competition have their starthouse located further down the track. Artificial track luge is the fastest and most agile sledding sport. .....

Natural track luge
15. Natural tracks are adapted from existing mountain roads and paths. Artificially banked curves are not permitted. The tracks surface must be horizontal. They are naturally iced. The use of artificial refrigeration is forbidden. Tracks can get rough from the braking and steering action. Athletes use a steering rein and drag their hands and use their legs in order to drive around the tight flat corners. Braking is often required in front of curves and is accomplished by the use of spikes built on the bottom of the shoes.

Most of the tracks are situated in Austria and Italy, with others in Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Canada, and the United States. The Upper Peninsula Luge Club8 in Negaunee, Michigan, is home to one of only five lighted natural track luge runs in the world, and the only natural track in the United States. The half mile 0.8 km track features 29 curves along its 88 meter 289 ft vertical drop. The hill hosts international luge events and offers luge instruction to the public during the winter months. World championships have been held since 1979 while European championships have been held since 1970. .....

Risks
16. As with many extreme sports, luging has risks. Though most injuries involve bumps, bruises, broken bones and concussions, fatalities do occasionally occur. Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili suffered a fatal crash during his final practice run for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.9 Hours later, the International Luge Federation concluded that the accident was caused by a steering error and not a track error; nevertheless, changes to the track were made before the re opening.10 Kumaritashvili was the fourth athlete to die while in preparation for a Winter Olympics competition, following speed skier Nicolas Bochatay, 27, who died while preparing for the Albertville 1992 games, British luger Kazimierz Kay Skrzypeski and skier Ross Milne, 19, who both died in the run up to the Innsbruck 1964 games. .....
Training
17. The sport of luge requires an athlete to balance mental and physical fitness. To become an elite luger, a competitor must begin training at an early age and spend decades honing their skills. Physically, a luger must have strong neck, upper body, abdominal, and thigh muscles. Strength training is essential to withstand the extreme G forces of tight turns at high speeds. Since lugers have very little protection other than a visor and helmet, they must be able to endure the physical pounding administered by the track when mistakes are made. Mentally a luger must maintain total focus as they steer their sled through more than a kilometer of curves and straights at high speed. Dozens of subtle movements and weight shifts are required to find the perfect line down the track. Consistency is essential for success. Sled maintenance is also an important element for success. Serious lugers spend hours meticulously sanding their steels, and making other important adjustments and repairs to their sleds. No luger can possibly achieve elite status without working closely with an experienced coaching staff, implementing suggestions and fine tuning technique. Other lugers will often give tips that can improve a sliders ability to find the sweet spot on the track. Though luge is a winter sport, it requires daily, year round training. .....
Singles
18. In mens and womens singles, athletes take four runs down the track. The four times are added, and the fastest total time determines the winner. The competition takes two days to complete two runs per day. The four run format is unique to the Olympic Winter Games and is designed to reward consistency, endurance, and ability to withstand pressure particularly on the second day. Men and women compete on the same track, though the women start from a position further down the course. At the Whistler Sliding Centre, the mens course is approximately .85 miles; the womens and doubles course is .74 miles. At the start of all four runs, each sled is weighed, each athlete is weighed, and temperatures of sled runners are compared to an official control runner. In singles, the sled cannot weigh more than 50.6 lbs.There is no maximum weight for athletes, but men who weigh less than 198 lbs and women who weigh less than 165 lbs are allowed to add extra weight as ballast.

The mens and womens singles fields are divided into four starting groups, based on results from the last three World Cup races prior to the Games, with a maximum of three athletes per country. Bib numbers and starting positions are randomly drawn from within each starting group. For the second run, each group reverses its starting order. The third proceeds with the fastest athlete from the first two runs and ends with the slowest. For the final run, the fastest team based on the first three runs combined competes last. After the final run, the three medalists face sled control in which the whole vehicle is taken apart and officials examine measurements and check suspension systems to ensure that no illegal methods or materials are present. .....

Doubles
19. Doubles luge is a one day competition in which pairs of athletes take two runs down the course. The fastest total time determines the winner. There is no rule that says a doubles team must comprise members of the same sex, but traditionally, men have slid together, with the larger man positioned on top for a more aerodynamic fit. The doubles course is .74 miles. At the start of both doubles runs, each sled is weighed, each athlete is weighed, and temperatures of sled runners are compared to an official control runner. The sled in doubles cannot be more than 59.4 lbs, and there is no maximum weight for the pair.

The doubles field is divided into four starting groups based on results from the last three World Cup races prior to the Games, with a maximum of two doubles teams per country. Bib numbers and starting positions are randomly drawn from within each starting group for the first run. In the second run, the teams start in reverse rank order the fastest team goes last based on results from the first run. After the second final run, sled checks are performed on the sleds of the three teams that won medals. A failure to meet the standards results in disqualification. .....

Preliminary luge rules
20. Know that each luge sled must include two runners, two blades, a seat and two bridges. The runners hold the blades in place, and the bridges link the runners together underneath the seat of the luge. Only the blades touch the ice.Understand that the blades are adjustable, and that their positioning determines the direction that the sled will take.Know that there are restrictions to the length of the sled, based on the length of its rider. The sled cannot project below the riders knees or above the riders shoulders.
Be aware that there are maximum weights for the riders of each sled. The restrictions vary depending upon the racers age and gender. If riders weigh less than the maximum, the rules allow them to add more weight to their sleds.
Know that there is a weight limit to the amount of gear each sled rider can wear. This gear usually includes a one piece stretch suit and a helmet with a face mask.
Understand that the length of a regulation luge track varies between 1000 and 1500 meters. .....
Rules of Competition
21. Know that the winner of a luge competition is determined through a number of qualifying heats. Only one sled will come down the track at any time. The competitors with the shortest time in the qualifying heat compete in the final round.

Notice that a competitors qualifying time will only count if that competitor finishes the course and is still making bodily contact with the sled.

Be aware that there are four runs in the qualifying heats of Olympic singles and doubles luge and only two qualifying runs for the same competitions in World Cup and world championship competitions. The qualifying heats of Olympic luge take place over two days.

Notice that there is a pre determined starting order based on the seedings from previous competitions. You do not need to understand seeding or the reasoning behind this starting order. Just know that it exists.

Pay attention to the start of each competitors qualifying run. Each racer sits on his sled on the starting ramp and pulls two fixed start handles to set his sled in motion.

Note that the instant the sled is in motion, the competitor lies prone on her sled.

Watch for slight changes in the riders body position as he slightly shifts his weight in order to adjust the positioning of his blades against the ice.

Pay attention to the names of the competitors and to their relative times as the qualifying heats progress. Be aware that the competitor with the fastest final time will win the competition. .....

Racing booties
22. The zippers on luge booties draw the sliders feet into a straight position as opposed to flexed. This position minimizes frontal drag see The Physics section.During a race, something like a snag in a racing bootie can affect the sliders aerodynamics enough to mean the difference between a win and a loss. Sliders typically race in brand new gear to reduce the chance of an unnoticed imperfection.In the next section, well put this all together and see what happens during a luge run. .....
The race
23. The Olympic luge competition has three divisions Mens singles, womens singles and gender neutral doubles. Since a higher weight is advantageous in luge see the next section, doubles teams are typically all male. Most international races besides the Olympics have single sliders doing two runs each. Both times are added, and the winner has the lowest combined time. In the Olympics, singles luge competition consists of four runs instead of two doubles still perform only two runs, all of which count toward the final time. In this way, the Olympics tries to weight consistency as a major factor in a win.

Since every luge track is different from every other luge track, there are no blanket World or Olympic records in luge. There are only track records. Italian slider Armin Zoggeler holds the World track record for the 2006 Torino Games course 144.586 for two runs, or an average time of 52.293 seconds per run.

At the start of the luge course, there are two handles, one on each side of the track. The slider grabs these handles and rocks back and forth to build momentum for the start. To begin the race, the slider propels himself onto the course and immediately uses his hands in the spiked gloves to paddle through the first 10 feet or so of the track. This helps him gain some speed before lying down on the sled. .....

Timing
24. Olympic luge is timed to the thousandth of a second for comparison, the blink of an eye takes 12 thousandths of a second.Luge is timed using photoelectric sensors at the start and finish. The setup has a light transmitter receiver pair at each end of the run. The transmitter is on one side of the track, and the receiver is on the other. At the start, the slider triggers the timer when he crosses the line because he blocks the light beam. At the finish line, he stops the timer the same way. .....
Wind tunnels
25. Luge training also involves sessions in wind tunnels, during which athletes figure out the form that achieves minimum aerodynamic drag. Monitors above the sliders head and at his feet display a number that represents the amount of drag hes experiencing. During the session, with wind blowing over and against him at 90 mph, the athlete makes minute adjustments to his position to lower the drag number. Training for luge is about strength and precision, but a slider has to have a certain temperament, too. In a CBC interview, Chris Moffat of the Canadian Luge Team explains, The fastest people are the people that are out of control. Its the fact that youre not always in control thats nice. In luge, adrenaline junkies win. .....
Supplemental weights
26. Additional weights may be carried in singles and doubles competitions in general class and in junior and Youth A class.
Thereby a bigger equal opportunity between low weight and high weight athletes should be achieved The additional weight may not exceed Women, Junior Women, Youth A Men 10 kg
Men, Junior Men 1 13 kg
Youth A Women 8 kg
Doubles Gen. class juniors youth A 10 kg .....
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1991 GMC Syclone. This little pickup truck was the fastest accelerating vehicle you could buy in 1991, Jay Leno says, while discussing his GMC Syclone. Just 2,998 of them were made, and all (with the exception of three) were built in one year. More impressively, th .....
New Year Celebration Ideas
Bubble Wrap Stomp. Ring in the new year with this idea from Family Fun. Buy bubble wrap (the large bubbles work best) and spread out on a hard floor just before midnight. At the end of the countdown, stomp. It sounds like firecrackers and is a fun way to start the year .....
Rules to play Kickball
The playing field. The field shall be established on any safe terrain suitable for play in accordance with the following provisions which equal the dimensions of a softball field see Diagram 2: a. the kickball diamond is a square with equal sides of 60 feet or about 20 .....
Most Expensive Bikes in The World
Harley Davidson. This actor has developed a name for himself which is independent of his famous father Pankaj Kapoor. With hits such as Kaminey and Haider under his belt, the man has surely proved his acting prowess over the years. Among bikes, Shahid owns the Harley .....
Worlds Biggest Islands
Hispaniola Dominican Republic Haiti. Hispaniola is the 22ndlargest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, and the tenth most populous island in the world.Two sovereign nations share t .....
Benefits of Basil
Anti aging properties. Basil has properties that can help prevent the harmful effects of aging. Holy basil extract was effective at killing off harmful molecules and preventing damage caused by some free radicals in the liver, brain and heart. .....
Candle Sticks
Breakaway bullish. Definition This four candlestick pattern starts with a strong white candlestick. The next three days after the upside gap set consecutively higher prices. However the last day completely erases the limited price gains of up days and closes inside the .....
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