Rules to play hang gliding

Hang glider sailcloth
1. There are basically two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails Woven Polyester Fabrics, and Composite Laminated Fabrics made of some combination of polyester film and polyester fibers.Woven polyester sailcloth is a very tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers that has been stabilized by the hot press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to distortion and stretch. This resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of light weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities.

Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a lower stretch material that is better at maintaining sail shape but is still relatively light in weight. The disadvantages of polyester film fabrics is that the reduced elasticity under load generally results in stiffer and less responsive handling, and polyester laminated fabrics are generally not as durable or long lasting as the woven fabrics. .....

Triangle control frame
2. In most hang gliders, the control is and has been achieved using a horizontal bar held by the pilot, also known as triangle control frame (TCF), control bar or base bar. This bar is usually pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider. This creates the shape of a triangle or A Frame. In many of these configurations additional wheels or other equipment can be suspended from the bottom bar or rod ends.

Images showing a triangle control frame on Otto Lilienthals 1892 hang glider prove that the technology of such frames has existed since the early design of gliders, but he did not mention it in his patents. A TCF shows also in Octave Chanutes designs. It was a major part of the now common design of hang gliders by George A. Spratt from 1929.The most simple A frame that is cable stayed was demonstrated in a Breslau gliding club hang gliding meet in a battened wing hang glider in the year 1908; hang glider historian Stephan Nitsch has collected instances also of the U control frame used in the first decade of the 1900s; the U is variant of the A frame. .....

Training and safety
3. Due to the poor safety record of early hang gliding pioneers, the sport has traditionally been considered unsafe. Advances in pilot training and glider construction have led to a much improved safety record. Modern hang gliders are very sturdy when constructed to HGMA[expand acronym], BHPA, DHV[expand acronym], or other certified standards using modern materials. Although lightweight they can be easily damaged, either through misuse or by continued operation in unsafe wind and weather conditions. All modern gliders have built in dive recovery mechanisms such as luff lines in kingposted gliders, or sprogs in topless gliders.

Pilots fly in a harness which supports their body. Several different types of harnesses exist. Pod harnesses are put on like a jacket and the leg portion is behind the pilot during launch. Once in the air the feet are tucked into the bottom of the harness. They are zipped up in the air with a rope and unzipped before landing with a separate rope. A cocoon harness is slipped over the head and lies in front of the legs during launch. After getting into the air the feet are tucked into it and the back is left open. A knee hanger harness is also slipped over the head but the knee part is wrapped around the knees before launch and just pick up the pilots leg automatically after launch. A supine or suprone harness is a seated harness. The shoulder straps are put on before launch and after take off the pilot slides back into the seat and flies in a seated position.

Pilots carry a parachute enclosed in the harness. In case of serious problems the parachute is manually deployed and carries both pilot and glider down to earth. Pilots also wear helmets and generally carry other safety items such as knives (for cutting their parachute bridle after impact or cutting their harness lines and straps in case of a tree or water landing), light ropes (for lowering from trees to haul up tools or climbing ropes), radios (for communication with other pilots or ground crew), and first aid equipment.

The accident rate from hang glider flying has been dramatically decreased by pilot training. Early hang glider pilots learned their sport through trial and error and gliders were sometimes home built. Training programs have been developed for todays pilot with emphasis on flight within safe limits, as well as the discipline to cease flying when weather conditions are unfavorable, for example excess wind or risk cloud suck.In the UK there is one death per 116,000 flights, a risk comparable to running a marathon or playing football for a year. .....

Launch
4. Launch techniques include foot launching from a hill, tow launching from a ground based tow system, aerotowing (behind a powered aircraft), powered harnesses, and being towed up by a boat. Modern winch tows typically utilize hydraulic systems designed to regulate line tension, this reduces scenarios for lock out as strong winds result in additional length of rope spooling out rather than direct tension on the tow line. Other more exotic launch techniques have also been used successfully, such as hot air balloon drops from very high altitude. When weather conditions are unsuitable to sustain a soaring flight, results in a top to bottom fight and referred to as sled runs. .....
Soaring flight and cross
5. A glider in flight is continuously descending. To achieve an extended flight, the pilot must seek air currents rising faster than the sink rate of the glider. Selecting the sources of rising air currents is the skill that has to be mastered if the pilot wants to achieve flying long distances, known as cross country (XC). Rising air masses derive from the following sources. .....
Thermals
6. The most commonly used source of lift is created by the suns energy heating the ground which in turn heats the air above it. This warm air rises in columns known as thermals. Soaring pilots quickly become aware of land features which can generate thermals and their trigger points downwind, because thermals have a surface tension with the ground and roll until hitting a trigger point. When the thermal lifts, the first indicator are the swooping birds feeding on the insects being carried aloft, or dust devils or a change in wind direction as the air is pulled in below the thermal. As the thermal climbs, bigger soaring birds indicate the thermal. The thermal rises until it either forms into a cumulus cloud or hits an inversion layer, which is where the surrounding air is becoming warmer with height, and stops the thermal developing into a cloud. Also, nearly every glider contains an instrument known as a variometer (a very sensitive vertical speed indicator) which shows visually (and often audibly) the presence of lift and sink. Having located a thermal, a glider pilot will circle within the area of rising air to gain height. In the case of a cloud street, thermals can line up with the wind, creating rows of thermals and sinking air. A pilot can use a cloud street to fly long straight line distances by remaining in the row of rising air. .....
Ridge lift
7. Ridge lift occurs when the wind encounters a mountain, cliff or hill. The air is pushed up the windward face of the mountain, creating lift. The area of lift extending from the ridge is called the lift band. Providing the air is rising faster than the gliders sink rate, gliders can soar and climb in the rising air by flying within the lift band and at right angle to the ridge. Ridge soaring is also known as slope soaring. .....
Mountain waves
8. The third main type of lift used by glider pilots is the lee waves that occur near mountains. The obstruction to the airflow can generate standing waves with alternating areas of lift and sink. The top of each wave peak is often marked by lenticular cloud formations. .....
Convergence
9. Another form of lift results from the convergence of air masses, as with a sea breeze front. More exotic forms of lift are the polar vortices which the Perlan Project hopes to use to soar to great altitudes. A rare phenomenon known as Morning Glory has also been used by glider pilots in Australia. .....
Performance
10. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of hang gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. For example, a ratio of 121 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 12 metres while only losing 1 metre of altitude.Some performance figures as of 2006 Topless gliders (no kingpost) glide ratio ~171, speed range ~30 to >145 km h, best glide at 45 to 60 km h Rigid wings glide ratio ~201, speed range ~ 35 to > 130 km h, best glide at ~50 to 60 km h. .....
Ballast
11. The extra weight provided by ballast is advantageous if the lift is likely to be strong. Although heavier gliders have a slight disadvantage when climbing in rising air, they achieve a higher speed at any given glide angle. This is an advantage in strong conditions when the gliders spend only little time climbing in thermals. .....
Roll
12. Most flexible wings are set up with near neutral roll due to sideslip (anhedral effect). In the roll axis, the pilot shifts his body mass using the wing control bar, applying a rolling moment directly to the wing. The flexible wing is built to flex differentially across the span in response to the pilot applied roll moment. For example, if the pilot shifts his weight to the right, the right wing trailing edge flexes up more than the left, allowing the right wing to drop and slow down. .....
Yaw
13. The yaw axis is stabilized through the sweep back of the wings. The swept planform, when yawed out of the relative wind, creates more lift on the advancing wing and also more drag, stabilizing the wing in yaw. If one wing advances ahead of the other, it presents more area to the wind and causes more drag on that side. This causes the advancing wing to go slower and to fall back. The wing is at equilibrium when the aircraft is traveling straight and both wings present the same amount of area to the wind. .....
Pitch
14. The pitch control response is direct and very efficient. It is partially stabilized by the sweep of the wings. The wing centre of gravity is close to the hang point and, at the trim speed, the wing will fly hands off and return to trim after being disturbed. The weight shift control system only works when the wing is positively loaded (right side up). Positive pitching devices such as reflex lines or washout rods are employed to maintain a minimum safe amount of washout when the wing is unloaded or even negatively loaded (upside down). Flying faster than trim speed is accomplished by moving the pilots weight forward in the control frame; flying slower by shifting the pilots weight aft (pushing out). Furthermore, the fact that the wing is designed to bend and flex, provides favourable dynamics analogous to a spring suspension. This provides a gentler flying experience than a similarly sized rigid winged hang glider. .....
Variometer
15. Gliding pilots are able to sense the acceleration forces when they first hit a thermal, but have difficulty gauging constant motion. Thus it is difficult to detect the difference between constantly rising air and constantly sinking air. A variometer is a very sensitive vertical speed indicator. The variometer indicates climb rate or sink rate with audio signals (beeps) and or a visual display. These units are generally electronic, vary in sophistication, and often include an altimeter and an airspeed indicator. More advanced units often incorporate a barograph for recording flight data and or a built in GPS. The main purpose of a variometer is in helping a pilot find and stay in the core of a thermal to maximize height gain, and conversely indicating when he or she is in sinking air and needs to find rising air. Variometers are sometimes capable of electronic calculations to indicate the optimal speed to fly for given conditions. The MacCready theory answers the question on how fast a pilot should cruise between thermals, given the average lift the pilot expects in the next thermal climb and the amount of lift or sink he encounters in cruise mode.Some electronic variometers make the calculations automatically, allowing for factors such as the gliders theoretical performance (glide ratio), altitude, hook in weight, and wind direction. .....
Radio
16. Pilots use 2 way radio for training purposes, for communicating with other pilots in the air, and with their ground crew when traveling on cross country flights.One type of radios used are PTT (push to talk) handheld transceivers, operating in VHF FM. Usually a microphone is incorporated in the helmet, and the PTT switch is either fixed to the outside of the helmet, or strapped to a finger. Operating a VHF band radio without an appropriate license is illegal in most countries that have regulated airwaves (including United States, Canada, Brazil, etc.), so additional informations must be obtained with the national or local Hang Gliding association.

As aircraft operating in airspace occupied by other aircraft, hang glider pilots also use the appropriate type of radio (i.e. the aircraft transceiver into Aero Mobile Service VHF band). It can, of course, be fitted with a PTT switch to a finger and speakers inside the helmet. The use of aircraft transceivers is subject to regulations specific to the use in the air such as frequencies restrictions, but has several advantages over FM (i.e. frequency modulated) radios used in other services. First is the great range it has (without repeaters) because of its amplitude modulation (i.e. AM). Second is the ability to contact, inform and be informed directly by other aircraft pilots of their intentions thereby improving collision avoidance and increasing safety. Third is to allow greater liberty regarding distance flights in regulated airspaces, in which the aircraft radio is normally a legal requirement. Fourth is the universal emergency frequency monitored by all other users and satellites and used in case of emergency or impending emergency. .....

GPS
17. GPS (global positioning system) can be interesting to view a GPS track of a flight when back on the ground, to analyze flying technique, and to assist flight performance in competitions and cross country flying, where restricted Airspace needs to be considered. .....
Official maneuvers
18. A figure with a bank angle of more than 90 .....
Classes
19. For competitive purposes, there are three classes of hang glider.
Class 1 The flexible wing hang glider, having flight controlled by a wing whose shape changes by virtue of the shifted weight of the pilot. This is not a paraglider.
Class 5 The rigid wing hang glider, having flight controlled by spoilers, typically on top of the wing.In both flexible and rigid wings the pilot hangs below the wing without any additional fairing.
Class 2 (designated by the FAI as Sub Class O 2) where the pilot is integrated into the wing by means of a fairing. These offer the best performance and are the most expensive. In addition to typical launch configurations, a hang glider may be so constructed for alternative launching modes other than being foot launched; one practical avenue for this is for people who physically cannot foot launch. .....
Pre lodgement service
20. If you are planning a gliding activity on a QPWS managed area contact the local QPWS office to discuss your proposal. .....
Permits and approvals
21. The granting of leases, occupational permits or other authorities for development of sites for hang gliding paragliding will be assessed on a case by case basis but, as a general principle, will be discouraged. .....
Forms and fees
22. A person or organisations wishing to conduct hang gliding or paragliding activities on QPWS managed areas should provide full details of the proposed activities to the relevant QPWS district manager.No fees apply to the issue of permits and other authorities applying to the use of aircraft and recreational craft in QPWS managed areas. However, fees or in kind contributions may be negotiated as part of a deed of agreement. .....
Pilot Qualifications
23. Entry to the XC League is open to all flying members of the BHPA who have a Pilot or higher rating. The Pilot exam demonstrates the knowledge and skills necessary for XC planning, in particular for avoiding restricted airspace.If you are a Club Pilot and interested in XC flying, you can enter your flights provided you are flying within the coaching environment of your club. The following conditions must be met
You must have a full understanding of the airspace you will be flying in and must have been briefed beforehand by a qualified pilot.You must pass your Pilot exam as soon as possible, if not in the current season then before the start of the next. Not doing so may result in your flights being removed. It is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that their BHPA membership is current and any flights made when not a member will be removed. Non UK residents entering flights into the International League must have either full BHPA membership or a UK FAI card. .....
Glider Class and Launch
24. The XC League is open to all classes of paragliders (and hang gliders, where applicable). It is the responsibility of the pilot to meet any BHPA requirements in terms of ratings and registration appropriate to the glider they are flying. Tandem gliders are allowed but only the pilot in command scores. Launches can be from a hill or winch. .....
Entry Fee
25. An single entry fee is required for the main National and International leagues. If your club league is listed, you can enter flights into this without having to pay and if your flight qualifies for the main leagues you can opt to enter these as well. .....
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Strategically Order Your Photos. When tasked with writing a literal essay, you organize your points in strategic order. You put the strongest points at either the beginning or the end of the essay and the leave the weaker points in the middle. By placing the strongest points at the .....
Benefits of Grapefruits
Pregnant woman. The bioflavonoids and vitamin C help to reduce water retention and swelling of the legs during pregnancy. health benefits of grapefruits, its no wonder that grapefruits are so popular. Last thing which you need to remember while incorporating grapefr .....
Cartoon Characters
Ace and Gary. In 1954, Fredric Wertham published Seduction of the Innocent, a crusade against the evils of comic books. One of his claims was of a special relationship between Batman and Robin (though Batman wouldnt be the last cartoon character whose sexuality wa .....
Fashion Trends That Didnt Survive the 90s
Discman Headphones. Although we ve since graduated to bigger and better headphones (think Beats), all the cool 90s kids wore these around their necks when they weren t listening to their favorite jams. .....
Benefits of Mangoes
Wonderful addition to salads. Mangos are a wonderful addition to salads, along with other fruits such as mandarin oranges, grapes, apples, and pineapples. Impressive amounts of vitamin C, vitamin A, and flavonoids like betacarotene, alphacarotene and betaandcryptoxanthin in mango .....
Ways To Live Differently
Get out of your comfort zone. Do something every day that scares you. Better yet, put yourself in the position where you have no choice but to be scared. The higher your tolerance for fear and uncertainty, the more likely you are to be remarkable. .....
Benefits of Turnips
Human use. Pliny the Elder considered the turnip one of the most important vegetables of his day, rating it directly after cereals or at all events after the bean, since its utility surpasses that of any other plant. Pliny praised it as a source of fodder for f .....
Never seen Water Like This
Caribbean wave. Shot somewhere in the Caribbean, this is one of Chris Burkards 10 waves youll never find. .....
Superheroes That Actually Exist
Terrifica. Terrifica is a retired American superheroine who patrolled New York City for some time before we lost track of her. She s best remembered for her awesome red suit and blond hair. .....
Celebrities Pulling Weird Faces
Miley Cyrus. Confused with what your award is for, Miley? Its MTVs award for video of the year 2014, you won it for your video Wrecking Ball. The controversial video had many people pulling a face just like this. .....
Adventure Activities
Flying like a Superhero Zip line activity. Those who may be in a fix of whether or not to attempt bungee jump or dare to do giant swing, may try zip line activities. In some of these, you sit on a harness or sky walk, while in others like flying fox in Rishikesh, you are strapped up in a flyi .....
Benefits of Plum
Beneficial for the body. Plums are full of antioxidants which are full beneficial for the body. Beta carotenes are also available in plums. These compounds are the substances that protect you from different types of cancers like lung and oral cavity cancers etc. .....
Benefits of Black berries
BrainBoosting Benefits. eating blackberries is a smart move. A 2012 review published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry looked at data from human, animal, and cell culture studies and found that berries, including blackberries, benefit the brain in a few diff .....
Worlds Deadliest Martial Arts
Kalari Payat. Indigenous to the southern Indian state of Kerala, Kalari Payat is commonly recognized as the oldest fighting system in existence and predecessor to some of the most popular martial arts in the world. Oral tradition claims that it was created by an i .....
Healthy Breakfast
Watermelon. As its name suggests watermelon is an excellent way to hydrate in the morning. Whats less well known is this juicy fruit is among the best sources of lycopenea nutrient found in red fruits and vegetables thats .....
Precautions while using Washing Machine
The drain pump filter. The drain filter collects threads and small objects left in the laundry.Check regularly that the filter is clean to ensure smooth running of your machine. .....
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