Rules to play equestrianism

A Polo Game
1. The object of the game is to move the polo ball down field, hitting the ball through the goal posts for a score. Polo teams then change direction after each goal in order to compensate for field and wind conditions. A team is made up of four polo players. A polo match is usually played outdoors. A polo field is 300 yards long and 160 yards wide, the largest field in organized sport. A polo match lasts about one and one half hours and is divided into timed periods called chukkers. Each chukker is seven minutes long.

Play begins with a throw in of the ball by the umpire at the opening of each chukker and after each goal. Players must change horses after each chukker due to the extreme demands placed on the polo pony. During half time, spectators go onto the field to participate in a tradition called divot stomping to help replace the divots created by the horses hooves. Polo players are ranked yearly by their peers and the USPA on a scale of 2 to 10 goals. Team play is handicapped on the basis of ability. Most of the rules of polo are for the safety of the polo players and their ponies. The basic concept is the line of the ball, a right of way established by the path of a traveling ball. Two mounted Umpires do most of the officiating, with a Referee at midfield having the final say in any dispute between the umpires. .....

Hooks
2. A player may hook or block another players mallet with his mallet, but no deliberate contact between players is allowed. A player may not purposely touch another player, his tack or pony with his mallet. .....
Safety
3. The mallet may only be held in the right hand. Left handed players are often thought to hit with less accuracy, but guide their ponies better than their right handed peers.Ponies play for a maximum of two chukkers per match. .....
Polo ponies
4. The mounts used are called polo ponies, although the term pony is purely traditional and the mount is actually a full sized horse. They range from 14.2 to 16 hands 58 to 64 inches, 147 to 163 cm high at the withers, and weigh 9001,100 pounds 410500 kg. The polo pony is selected carefully for quick bursts of speed, stamina, agility and manoeuvrability. Temperament is critical; the horse must remain responsive under pressure and not become excited or difficult to control. Many are Thoroughbreds or Thoroughbred crosses. They are trained to be handled with one hand on the reins, and to respond to the riders leg and weight cues for moving forward, turning and stopping. A well trained horse will carry its rider smoothly and swiftly to the ball and can account for 60 to 75 percent of the players skill and net worth to his team.

Polo pony training generally begins at age three and lasts from about six months to two years. Most horses reach full physical maturity at about age five, and ponies are at their peak of athleticism and training at around age 6 or 7. However, without any accidents, polo ponies may have the ability to play until they are 18 to 20 years of age.Each player must have more than one pony, so tired mounts can be exchanged for fresh mounts between or even during chukkas. A players string of polo ponies may number 2 or 3 in Low Goal matches with ponies being rested for at least a chukka before reuse, 4 or more for Medium Goal matches at least one per chukka, and even more for the highest levels of competition. .....

Players
5. Each team consists of four mounted players, which can be mixed teams of both men and women.Each position assigned to a player has certain responsibilities
Number One is the most offence oriented position on the field. The Number One position generally covers the opposing teams Number Four.
Number Two has an important role in offence, either running through and scoring themselves, or passing to the Number One and getting in behind them. Defensively, they will cover the opposing teams Number Three, generally the other teams best player. Given the difficulty of this position, it is not uncommon for the best player on the team to play Number Two so long as another strong player is available to play Three.
Number Three is the tactical leader and must be a long powerful hitter to feed balls to Number Two and Number One as well as maintaining a solid defence. The best player on the team is usually the Number Three player, usually wielding the highest handicap.
Number Four is the primary defence player. They can move anywhere on the field, but they usually try to prevent scoring. The emphasis on defence by the Number Four allows the Number Three to attempt more offensive plays, since they know that they will be covered if they lose the ball. Polo must be played right handed. .....
The field
6. The playing field is 300 yards 274 metres long by 160 yards 146 metres wide, the approximate area of nine American football fields. The playing field is carefully maintained with closely mowed turf providing a safe, fast playing surface. Goals are posts which are set eight yards apart, centred at each end of the field. The surface of a polo field requires careful and constant grounds maintenance to keep the surface in good playing condition. During half time of a match, spectators are invited to go onto the field to participate in a polo tradition called divot stamping, which has developed to not only help replace the mounds of earth divots that are torn up by the horses hooves, but to afford spectators the opportunity to walk about and socialise. .....
Outdoor polo
7. The game consists of four to eight 7 minute chukkas, between or during which players change mounts. At the end of each 7 minute chukka, play continues for an additional 30 seconds or until a stoppage in play, whichever comes first. There is a four minute interval between chukkas and a ten minute halftime. Play is continuous and is only stopped for penalties, broken tack equipment or injury to horse or player. The object is to score goals by hitting the ball between the goal posts, no matter how high in the air. If the ball goes wide of the goal, the defending team is allowed a free knock in from the place where the ball crossed the goal line, thus getting the ball back into play. .....
County polo
8. With most clubs in the UK, players need to become members, and invest in at least two ponies to be able to play standard club chukkas. It is usual to play four back to back chukkas using each pony for two chukkas alternately, so that they each play, then rest and then play again. For many people, this requires a very large financial investment, which can be too costly for some. County Polo creates more affordable parameters for newcomers to the sport. Players are only required to use one pony, which may be hired, or owned. This form of polo is usually played with three players per side as opposed to the standard four player polo and therefore allows each player to get more involved and develop. The County Polo chukkas are usually overseen by a qualified mounted Hurlingham Polo Association HPA instructor / umpire, who will coach and explain throughout the chukka. With this format, including shorter chukkas, with breaks in between, the ponies are not getting over tired, so there is no need for such a large string. Players may well continue to play polo at this level for many years, or players with more ambition could benefit from the tuition if they move onto more competitive polo. County Polo is best complemented with regular stick and ball sessions, and regular wooden horse practice. County Polo has had a resurgence in recent years[citation needed], although the original County Polo Association was formed in 1898* to look after the interests of the country clubs and to run the County Cup Tournaments, the three London polo clubs Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton and from all associations within the Empire where polo was being played. .....
Coaches and trainers
9. The competitors themselves play a highly critical role in promoting and safeguarding fair play in their sport. For whatever the responsibilities or actions of others, in the end it is the competitors who can most directly influence whether or not the play is fair by understanding all the rules that govern their discipline, and by faithfully observing them even when nobody is watching.

High profile competitors must recognise how influential their example can be for others, and accept their responsibilities as role models. This applies to their actions both on and off the horse, and in the warm up area as well as the competitive arena. Coaches and trainers can also help to promote fair play by setting a good example and by discouraging disrespect for the rules or acts of discourtesy by competitors under their supervision. Older advisers clearly exert as important an influence by their example as by their instruction. .....

Responsibilities of governing bodies
10. The governing bodies of equestrian sport not only formulate the rules, but also qualify and license the officials, approve the dates and programs of the major competitions, and often act as the final level of judicial authority. They must make every effort to ensure that their rules are fair, based firmly on reality and applied accurately and consistently by officials of demonstrated competence and impartiality. They must also do everything they can to enhance and promote the quality of the disciplines and their attractiveness for spectators and competitors alike through a proactive use of their executive powers. Finally, they must recognise that neglect or disregard of the ideals of fair play reflects both on the sport and on the organisations responsible for its conduct. .....
Responsibilities of judges
11. Officials exercise exceptional authority, which in turn requires them to assume exceptional responsibilities. Their overall effectiveness, no matter what their particular duties, depends not only on their technical competence and intimate knowledge of the rules, but also on their maturity of judgement, self control, flexibility and basic fairness and integrity. Beyond this, all officials must be scrupulously careful to guard against any appearance or actuality of interest. In all questionable cases it is always wiser to acknowledge a possible source of a conflict and stand aside rather than permit suspicions to gain strength. .....
Journalists and other media
12. The media have their own standards of journalistic integrity, but have to work within the constraints imposed by editors, publishers and producers. Even so, they can make an important contribution to the publics appreciation of fair play through their reportage and commentary, and especially, by placing the events and incidents they cover into a fair and balanced perspective, and resisting the temptation to oversimplify or over dramatise a story. .....
Responsibilities of spectators
13. Spectators attend equestrian events for their own pleasure, and cannot be denied the right to express their own feelings. Nonetheless, basic fairness should dissuade them from attempting to influence the performances of the horses or the decisions of the judges. Audiences should carefully avoid acts that might upset the horses, such as untimely movement, applause or flash photography, especially in venues that bring them into close proximity to the competitors.

Though it is easy to more or less ignore the spectators and let them fend for themselves, it is important for them to be provided with program material and commentaries that help them not only to understand what is going on, but also to appreciate the skill and sportsmanship of all the competitors, and to applaud even if their hero or favourite team is not winning. Every time the spectators are neglected, a precious opportunity to invest in the future of the sport has been lost, no matter how well everything else has been handled. .....

The Line of the Ball
14. The most basic concept in the sport of polo is the line of the ball, a right of way established by the path of a traveling ball. When a player has the line of the ball on his right, he has the right of way. This can be taken away by moving the player off the line of the ball by making shoulder to shoulder contact. .....
Outdoor polo ball
15. The word polo is derived from the Tibetan word pulu which means ball. Outdoor Polo Ball A polo ball must be within the limits of 3 to 3 1/2 inches in diameter and 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 ounces in weight. A polo ball is usually made of a solid hard plastic. The most common polo balls in use are TEC Smooth Polo Ball Texas Polo Ball Polo Gear Argentine Polo Ball In the past, polo balls were made of wood. Wooden polo balls made a whistling sound as they moved through the air. Because of this, polo players could actually hear a ball coming and thus avoid being hit. However, wooden polo balls very often split apart when hit.

Modern plastic polo balls do not produce a whistling sound but they very rarely split apart. Bernard Cohen invented the modern day plastic polo ball in the 1970s. After testing was completed at Palm Beach Polo Club in Wellington, Florida, Bill Ylvisaker was so pleased with Bernies new plastic ball that he switched the club from wooden polo balls to plastic and never looked back. The new ball had an historic impact on the level of play and changed the game dramatically. Bernie named his new company TEC an acronym for his lovely wife Trudy Elizabeth Cohen and began manufacturing and selling the new polo ball with Tony Coppola.

A polo ball becomes misshapen every time it is struck by a polo mallet. Umpires and flagmen replace polo balls as necessary during a game. Each polo match requires approximately two dozen polo balls. The mounted umpires carry a pick up stick to retrieve a polo ball from the field without having to dismount. This saves time during the game. .....

Polo boots
16. Most polo riding boots are brown leather for a practical reason black boot polish would stain the white polo breeches during a game. Polo boots protect a players leg from wayward polo balls as well as bumps from another riders horse. Polo boots also provide a surface to grip the sides of the horse.

Equestrian riding boots come in a variety of styles and quality. When buying polo boots, try them on first and select a pair that is comfortable, particularly around the ankle area. It takes a couple of days of riding and a little saddle soap to break in a new set of polo boots. .....

Helmet
17. Research has shown that head injuries are the most common equine sport injury. The structure of a polo helmet should provide a cushioned foam lining to absorb a shock to the head resulting from hitting the ground or from a ball or mallet, thus preventing trauma to the head. .....
Gloves
18. Polo players have different preferences regarding the style, flexibility, and weight of their equestrian riding gloves. Designed to fit like a second layer of skin, a riding glove provides a secure grip to aid in user confidence and performance. The palm is constructed with a tackified leather throughout its fibers. This tackiness is enhanced during humid conditions and remains tackified in hot temperatures. A simple hand washing is needed when gloves get dirty. A velcro wrist closure ensures a secure close fit.

Neumann Tackified Polo Gloves Equestrian riding gloves come in a variety of styles and quality. Find a pair that is comfortable, particularly when holding and swinging a polo mallet. It takes a couple of chukkers of polo and a little dirt to break in a new set of polo gloves. .....

Knee guards
19. Polo players have different preferences regarding the style, flexibility and weight of their polo knee guards.Knee guards come in a variety of styles and quality. Find a pair that is comfortable, particularly when riding and swinging a polo mallet. It takes a couple of chukkers of polo and a little saddle soap to break in a new set of polo knee guards. .....
Jerseys
20. A numbered jersey with the team name and the players position number in the teams colors must be worn in a polo match. .....
Mallets
21. Mallet Length

Polo mallets range in size from 49 to 54 inches in length. The specific mallet length is usually on the head of the polo mallet.

Mallet Head

Polo mallet heads are available in a variety of weights and shapes. Polo mallet heads are generally made of ash wood or maple. The striking head is 8 1/2 to 9 1/2 inches long. Different polo mallet head shapes enable a player to hit the ball in different ways. A polo mallet that is too heavy can eventually lead to muscle fatigue, wrist strain or even an injury.

Whippiness

The whippiness of a mallet refers to the flexibility of its shaft. Varying degrees of shaft flexibility provide increased control. Polo players have individual preferences for the amount of whippiness they need to properly time the hitting of a polo ball. A more flexible shaft allows better hitting distance but less control when in close. .....

Sit the Horse
22. The next time you get on a horse, try to feel these movements of the horses back in the walk. Feel one side of the horses back dropping under your saddle as the other side is rising. Feel the horses belly sway from side to side between your legs. .....
Attire pony
23. Polo saddles are English style and feature a breastplate, usually attached to the front billet. The breastplate is necessary for safety since a tie down standing martingale, or head check is often used. The tie down is generally supported by a neck strap. The stirrup irons tend to be heavier than most, and the stirrup leathers are wider and thicker.The ponys legs are wrapped, from below the knee to the fetlock, with polo wraps for injury prevention. In most cases, they match the team colors. The mane is roached shaved to the neck and the tail is braided so that the players mallet wont catch it. The pony also has a bit and, frequently, two sets of reins for the ultimate in control. .....
Attire player
24. Players wear a protective helmet, usually of a distinctive color so they can be differentiated from other players on the field, brown leather riding boots that hit just below the knees, leather knee pads, white trousers usually jeans and a colored shirt with a number indicating the players position. .....
Viewing
25. Binoculars can come in handy at a polo match. Opinions vary regarding the best way to watch the match, but most prefer to watch the main group of players as that is where most of the action occurs. .....
Seating
26. Most polo clubs have bleacher seating from which to watch the match. However, most spectators prefer to bring blankets or chairs to view the match right from the sidelines. .....
Refreshments
27. Tailgating is extremely popular at polo matches as are picnic lunches and, almost more importantly, afternoon tea. Most matches begin at 3pm and end around 5pm with prize giving presentations. .....
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Romantic Valentines Day Ideas
Make up silly nicknames. for each other that you ONLY call each other in private! .....
Importants Dates Of Indian History
Shift from Silver Standard to Gold Standard. Many historians state that India lost its glory and richness due to invasions, foreign culture diluting the traditions, British rule, territorial disputes among the princely states, etc. While all these were ingredients for Indians decline, the catal .....
Healthy Blood
Get moving. Every morning, take a brisk 15 minute walk.Amazingly, you dont need a lot of exercise to make a difference to your blood pressure. When Japanese researchers asked 168 inactive volunteers with high blood pressure to exercise at a health club for diffe .....
Benefits of Oregano
Research on Oil of Oregano. Researchers have uncovered numerous benefits to using oregano and extracted oil of oregano. But buyer beware, these significant health benefits are not as attainable if the oregano is not the true substance. True oil of oregano offers many exciting r .....
Tallest Dams In The World
Xiaowan Dam China. An arch dam on the Lancang (Mekong) River in China, its primary purpose is to provide hydroelectric power. .....
Valentines Gift Ideas For Her
The Kinfolk Table. Featuring profiles of 45 different tastemakers, The Kinfolk Table recaptures all the charm of its quarterly magazine. With stellar images, recipes and stories, this book will quickly become her favorite coffee table item. .....
Home Remedies
Hiccups. 1. Drink ½ glass water, slowly. w Keep a teaspoon of sugar in your month and suck slowly.2. Swallow ½ teaspoon mustard seeds (sarson) mixed with ½ teaspoon pure ghee.3. Grind 4 cardamom (chhoti illaichi) well. Boil it in 2½ cups or ½ litre water. Whe .....
Benefits of Yams
Phytochemicals. The tubers of certain wild yam, a variant ofandkokoroandyam and other species ofandDioscorea, such asandDioscorea nipponica, are a source for the extraction ofanddiosgenin, aandsteroidandsapogenin. The extracted diosgenin is used for the commercial s .....
Kitchen Design Ideas
A Mix of White and Wood. Soapstone counters, vintage lab stools, and a bank of whitewashed wooden cabinets add to the warmth of an already sunny kitchen. .....
Benefits of Black berries
BrainBoosting Benefits. eating blackberries is a smart move. A 2012 review published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry looked at data from human, animal, and cell culture studies and found that berries, including blackberries, benefit the brain in a few diff .....
P T Usha
Biography. Payyoli Tevaraparampil Usha was born in a poor family in Meladi Payyoli village, near Calicut (Kozhikode), Kerala on June 27, 1964 Kerala. Usha had to face ill health and poverty as a young girl. The initials in Ushas name stand for Payyoli Tevarapar .....
Benefits of Swiss Chard
Swiss chard is available at its best during summer months. Swiss chard is available at its best during summer months from June until October. Chard can be harvested while its leaves are young and tender or after maturity when the leaves are larger and attained slightly tougher stems. In the store, buy fresh .....
Chourishi Systems