Ratan tata

Biography
1. Ratan Naval Tata was born on December 28, 1937, in Surat. He is the present Chairman of the Tata Group, Indias largest conglomerate founded by Jamshedji Tata and consolidated and expanded by later generations of his family. Tata was born into the wealthy and famous Tata family of Mumbai. He was born to Soonoo and Naval Hormusji Tata. Ratan is the great grandson of Tata group founder Jamshedji Tata.

Ratans childhood was troubled, his parents separating in the mid 1940s, when he was about seven and his younger brother Jimmy was five. He was schooled at the Campion School, Mumbai and graduated from Cornell University in 1962 with a degree in Architecture and Structural Engineering. Ratan Tata holds a B.Sc. (Architecture) degree with structural engineering from Cornell University, USA and has completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School, USA. He joined the Tata Group in December 1962, after turning down a job with IBM on the advice of JRD Tata.

He was first sent to Jamshedpur to work at Tata Steel. Ratan Tata, a shy man, rarely features in the society glossies, has lived for years in a book crammed, dog filled bachelor flat in Mumbais Colaba district. Ratan Tata has his own capital in Tata Sons., the holding company of the group. Though his share is just about 1%, his personal holding is valued at US$ 1 Billion. If all the value of this is added his Net Worth is estimated at around US$ 50 Billion, making Ratan N. Tata one of the richest people in the world. JRD Tata with his successor Ratan Tata in 1971, Ratan was appointed the Director in Charge of the National Radio & Electronics Company Limited (Nelco), a company that was in dire financial difficulty. Ratan suggested that the company invest in developing high technology products, rather than in consumer electronics. In 1991, he took over as group chairman from J.R.D. Tata, pushing out the old guard and ushering in younger managers. Since then, he has been instrumental in reshaping the fortunes of the Tata Group, which today has the largest market capitalization of any business house on the Indian Stock Market. On March 26, 2008, Tata Motors, under Ratan Tata, bought Jaguar & Land Rover from Ford Motor Company. The two iconic British brands, Jaguar and Land Rover, were acquired for $2.3 billion. Ratan Tatas dream was to manufacture a car costing Rs 100,000. He realized his dream by launching Nano in New Delhi Auto Expo on January 10, 2008. .....

Family
2. Ratan Tata was born to Naval Tata and Soonoo Commisariat and has a younger brother Jimmy Tata. Ratans father, Naval Tata was remarried to Simone Dunoyer, after his divorce and had one son, Noel Tata, from his second wife. Ratans father was an adopted son of Sir Ratan Tata. .....
Early life
3. Ratan Tata is the son of Naval Tata, who had been adopted from the family of a distant relative by Navajbai Tata after the death of her husband, Ratanji Tata. Ratan Tatas parents Naval and Sonoo separated in the mid 1940s when Ratan was ten and his younger brother, Jimmy, was seven years old. Both he and his brother were raised by their grandmother Navajbai Tata.Ratan also has a step brother Noel Tata from Naval Tatas second marriage to Simone Tata.Ratan began his schooling in Mumbai at the Campion School and finished his secondary education at the Cathedral and John Connon School.He completed his B.S. in architecture with structural engineering from Cornell University in 1962, and the Advanced Management Program from Harvard Business School in 1975.Tata is a member of the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity. .....
Career
4. Tata began his career in the Tata group in 1960. He initially started on the shop floor of Tata Steel, shovelling limestone and handling the blast furnace.In 1991, J. R. D. Tata stepped down as Chairman of Tata Sons, naming Ratan as his successor.Under his stewardship, Tata Tea acquired Tetley, Tata Motors acquired Jaguar Land Rover and Tata Steel acquired Corus, which have turned Tata from a largely India centric company into a global business, with 65% revenues coming from abroad. He was instrumental in the development of Tata Nano, largely dubbed as the worlds cheapest passenger car.Ratan Tata retired from all executive responsibility in the Tata group on 28 December 2012 which is also his 75th birthday and he was succeeded by Cyrus Mistry, the 44 year old son of Pallonji Mistry and managing director of Shapoorji Pallonji Group. .....
Board Memberships and Affiliations
5. He is currently the chairman Emeritus of Tata Sons. He continues to serve as the chairman of the main two Tata trusts Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and Sir Ratan Tata Trust and their allied Trusts, which together hold 66% of shares in the group holding company Tata Sons.Ratan Tata has served in various capacities in organisations in India and abroad. He is a member of the Prime Ministers Council on Trade and Industry and the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council. He is on the jury panel of Pritzker Architecture Prize. considered to be one of the worlds premier architecture prizes.Ratan Tata is a director on the boards of Alcoa Inc., Mondelez International and Board of Governors of the East West Center. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of University of Southern California, Harvard Business School Board of Deans Advisors, X Prize and Cornell University. .....
Growing Up
6. Ratan N. Tata has been brought up in an old and well known business family. He belongs to a prominent Parsi family. He has not faced any such financial issues since his family had been successful businessmen since the British rule in India. Ratans father, Naval Tata was adopted by Sir Ratan Tata. He was brought up by his grandmother, Lady Navajbai.Ratan N. Tata is a highly educated businessman. He holds a Bachelors degree in Architecture from the Cornell University, USA, and has pursued and Advanced Management Program from the Harvard Business School, USA. It was in 1962 that he joined his family business; the Tata Group. .....
Ideal Beginning
7. Ratan N. Tata, after completing his higher studies returned to India and turned down a job at IBM on JRD Tatas advice and joined the Tata Group in 1962, for which he was sent to Jamshedpur to work on the shop floor at Tata Steel.In 1971, he was appointed as the Director of National Radio and Electronics, which was in a bad state of 40% losses and only 2% of consumer market share. But as soon as Ratan N. Tata joined the company he gave its statistics an upward turn, he took the company from 2% of market share to 25%. National Emergency was declared, which posed great problems such as, weak economy and labour shortage and NELCO was nearing collapse again.

JRD Tata soon declared Ratan Tata his successor in 1981 and Ratan had to face criticism since people believed that hes not experienced enough to handle a business of the scale that of like the Tata Industries. After ten years of his entry into the Tata Industries, he was appointed the Chairman of the Tata Group. After Ratans appointment, The Tata Group reached absolutely new heights which had never been experienced by this group earlier. Under his direction, the company went through several different entrepreneurial ventures.The conversion of the corporate commonwealth of different Tata affiliated company into one cohesive company, the acquisition of Tetley, Jaguar Land Rover and Corus, which turned Tata from a major India Centric company to a global business name, all this is credited to Ratan N. Tata. His major releases have been Indica and Nano in India. Today, Tata Groups 65% of the revenue comes from abroad. After the liberalization of controls in the 1990s, the Tata Group of Companies achieved great success, which again is credited to Ratan N. Tata. .....

Conjugal Relationship
8. Ratan N. Tata is 73 years old, unmarried and has been in news regarding several of his relationships. But the big question is who would eventually succeed Ratan N Tata. Media has been talking about his strive for finding an appropriate successor. .....
Man of Substance
9. Ratan Tata serves the Indian organizations in senior capacities, for example, he is the member of the Prime Ministers Council on Trade an Industry. He is also on the advisory board of the RANDs center for Asia Pacific Policy.Ratan N. Tata is also an active participant in the Indias AIDS initiative program.Ratan Tata has a long list of foreign affiliations as well, such as, the membership of the international advisory board of the Mitsubishi Cooperation, the American International Group, JP Morgan Chase and Booze Allen Hamilton.As per the 2011report his Net Worth is US$970 million. He is not on the Forbes list of Indian Billionaires because about 65.8% of his share is held by charitable trusts. .....
Honorary distinctions
10. Legend in Leadership Award from the Yale.Honorary Citizenship of Singapore.Businessman of the Decade Award by the Federation of Indo Israeli Chambers of Commerce in 2010.Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, on behalf of the Tata Family.Ratan N. Tata has been also honored by the Government of India with the second highest civilian award, The Padma Vibhooshan, in 2008. .....
Company Profile
11. The Tata Group of Companies is the leading conglomerate company of India. The company has over 90 operating companies in seven business sectors communications and Information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. The group operates in over 80 countries. The Tata Group has over 395,000 employees working worldwide.The brand name Tata has been respected in the country for about 140 years. Their Market Capitalization is of about $99.78 billion and has a shareholder base of 3.5 million. .....
Obstacles faced
12. In June 2008, the Tata Group faced a global financial crisis due to the failure of the acquisition of Jaguar Land Rover (JLR). The bridge loan taken by them of US$ 3 billion which was used to fund the acquisition of the JLR was not paid back fully, only US$ 1 billion was paid.Complexity in raising funds before the acquisition was another problem for the Tatas.Tata had negative working capital and it was facing a problem in cash liquidity. The Tatas thought of merging with other big companies, but very soon it managed all the issues.Due to the Global financial crisis, the Indian automobile sector was highly affected the GDP growth declined and inflation took place due to which the prices of the fuels and automobiles products increased and hence Tata Motors, the leading automobile company of India suffered the most. .....
Virtues
13. Ratan Tata is a philanthropist and more than 65% of his share is invested in charitable trusts. His aim has been to raise the quality of life for Indians along with Human Development.Ratan thinks that Philanthropy can be seen in different perspectives, earlier philanthropy was to develop institutions, charitable hospitals etc. whereas, now its more about nation building. .....
Business Leaders
14. Warren Buffett Biography Lakshmi Mittal Biography Sam Walton Biography Bill Gates Biography Donald Trump Biography Henry Ford Biography Indian People Indian Billionaires Philanthropists Chairmen and CEOs Auto Industry Steel Industry. .....
personal life
15. Ratan Tata is an Indian businessman. He was the chairman of the most famous Indian brand Tata Group.Ratan Tata was born on 28 December 1937 in Bombay, India.Ratan Tatas father was Naval Tata and mother was Sooni. Naval Tata was adopted by Jamsetjis younger childless son Ratan Tata (Grandfathers name was same). At an age of seven Ratan Tatas parents got separated. He was raised by his grandmother Navajbai.Ratan Tata studied at Campion School in Bombay, Bishop Cotton School in Shimla and Cathedral and John Connon School. He completed his B.S. on Architecture from Cornell University in 1962. He got his degree in Advanced Management Program from Harvard Business School in 1975.From his childhood he was interested in the cars.Besides being great grandson of Jamsetji Tata, Ratan Tata started his career in Tata Group in 1962 as a general worker in the Tata steel. He did not have to work there for a long time.He was made chairman of Tata group in 1991 after the J.R.D Tatas resignation. At that time many people criticized that decision as he does not have that level of experience to run a company as big as Tatas.

Under the leadership of Ratan Tata, Tata Group became a global brand. Tata group acquired many companies including Tetley, Jaguar Land Rover, and Corus. TCS was also build in his leadership.His interest in car also helped to build Tata Nano and Tata Indica.On 28 December, 2012 Ratan Tata resigned from the post of chairman of Tata Group. Cyrus Mistry took his post.Ratan Tata won Padma Bhushan in 2000 and Padma Vibhushan in 2008. He was awarded Lifetime Achievement Award by Rockefeller Foundation in 2012. .....

Back against the wall
16. Taking over from JRD as group chairman in 1991 didnt resolve matters either, even though it was a Tata Sons board decision to make him group chairman.Tata Group historian R M Lala recalls speaking with JRD some 10 days after the announcement and asking whether Ratan had been chosen because of his integrity.Oh no, I wouldnt say that; that would mean the others did not have integrity, JRD replied. I chose him because of his memory. Ratan will be more like me.JRD may have seen his own reflection in his successor but others, both inside and outside Bombay House, did not, at least initially. Who expected Ratan Tata to become such a towering figure in his own right. The first three or four years were engaged in struggles with the satraps, says Lala.Individual company heads were larger than life personalities in their own right, and had ruled these satraps for decades Russi Mody at Tata Steel, Darbari Seth at Tata Chemicals, Ajit Kerkar at Indian Hotels, and Nani Palkhivala at ACC. Getting them to toe a group line and work in tandem with other companies was next to impossible.

It didnt help that they were more experienced and, many believed, more deserving than Ratan to head the group. Indeed, in an interview a few years ago, Ratan recalled his surprise on hearing of his appointment he had thought Palkhivala and Mody to be neck and neck in the race for the top post.As it happened, Palkhivalas political views and Modys clashes within the group worked against them. Mody, though, continued to be a thorn in the flesh of both JRD and Ratan. His battles with Ratan were loud, acrimonious and conducted in full public view, which went against the ethos of this low key business house an inside joke at the time was that Russi Mody had become Rude i Mody. JRD finally dismissed him in 1993. .....

Business as unusual
17. To his credit, Tata didnt let the criticism and internecine battles deflect him from his chosen path. On taking over in 1991, he dusted off the 1983 plan and updated it, taking the newly opened economy into account.Now, the thrust was equally on technology driven leadership, global competitiveness and being among the top three domestically, regardless of the line of business.That meant rationalising the Tata business structure. The remnants of the era of government controls combined with independent functioning of group companies in decades past could be seen in the way the group had grown till then unstructured, with overlapping business across multiple companies.

When Ratan took over, there were three group companies manufacturing cement; five were involved in pharmaceuticals, while nine companies operated in the IT space. One of his first acts was to sell Tomco; swift exits from pharma and textiles and, later, cement, followed.Management consultancy McKinsey was brought on board to help with the reorganisation. The Tata Group is still a diversified, salt to software group, but now there is a method to the business expansion.Tata also paid attention to brand Tata. By 1998, there was a single group logo and the Tata brand belonged to Tata Sons. Now, companies needed to sign brand equity and business promotion agreements with Tata Sons before they got use of the brand name. .....

Ratans folly
18. Still, the markets have usually considered Tata to be out of his depth, questioning and dismissing his big, bold moves as Ratans follies.The Indica was the first. People scoffed openly, when, in 1995, Tata spoke of building a passenger car with the Zens size, the Ambassadors internal dimensions and the price of a Maruti 800.The scepticism seemed justified as project costs escalated to Rs 1,700 crore (Rs 17 billion) and Tata Motors posted Rs 500 crore (Rs 5 billion) in losses the biggest splash of red in Indian balance sheet history.Even within Tatas, people kept asking me to distance myself from the project so that when it failed I wouldnt be stuck with the blame. And when I refused to do that, they distanced themselves from me, Tata said in an interview a few years ago.

Ratan proved his detractors wrong, and how. Indica went on to become Tata Motors great success story about a million units have been sold since its 1998 launch.The groups global ambitions were greeted with similar scepticism. The Corus deal would lead the group to bankruptcy, critics declared investors dumped Tata Steel shares after the announcement, and the share price plunged 11%.And Tata was driving straight to disaster with the Jaguar Land Rover deal the brands were troubled, demand was low. Tata went on to prove everyone wrong. The groups international acquisitions are doing well, some have started making money.When Tata took over, less than 5% of the groups revenues came from overseas. As the self consciousness eased, the confidence grew. And with it, the scale of ambition. .....

The old order changeth
19. In many ways, the successors task will be easier than Ratans. It begins with the selection process itself. When Ratan took over from JRD, it was a succession fraught with intrigue, suspense and bad blood.Resentment from established camps within the group at what was seen as an arbitrary decision was only compounded by Ratans own admission of surprise at the announcement. The ongoing selection process may be equally opaque at least, at present but there is some logic and purpose behind it, which should make the panels decision easier to accept.The new chairman is also not likely to be battling cliques and fiefdoms within the group his predecessor has already taken care of that. Instead of the corporate commonwealth that Ratan inherited, the Tata Group now operates more or less as a cohesive unit, which will work to the successors advantage.

Besides, there is now frequent churn at the board level as senior members attain retirement age most Tata Sons board members are nearing 75, when non executive directors have to retire. The heads of the three biggest companies in the group also retired last year theres fresh blood at the top at Tata Motors, Tata Steel and Tata Consultancy Services.Also, when Ratan took over, the Tata family had neither financial nor managerial control over many group companies. Indeed, at one point in the 1980s, the Birlas owned more stock in Tisco than the Tatas (through Tata Sons) did. That vulnerability to outside interference is now greatly reduced Tata Sons holding in most group companies is now around 26%, sometimes more.Clearly, the old order has changed. But some things will remain constant Tata stepped into the shoes of a giant in 1991. His successor will do likewise. .....

Getting better
20. Once the dust over the succession issue settled, the conglomerates new chief came into his own. His primary focus was the improvement of the operational efficiencies of several of the groups manufacturing companies and reiterating the very conglomerate nature of the entity. The main beneficiaries of the focus on operations were Tisco and Telco (Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co.). The former soon emerged as one of the lowest cost steel makers in the world. The two companies were also renamed Tisco as Tata Steel and Telco as Tata Motors. Simultaneously, Tata convinced group companies to pay royalty to Tata Sons for the direct or indirect use of the Tata brand name. He also moved towards increasing the promoters shareholding in key group firms. Until then, the promoting firms held minority stakes in most group companies, making them vulnerable to takeovers. The group also exited businesses such as cement, textiles and cosmetics even as it increased its focus on others such as software, and entered telecommunications, finance and retail.

These divestments and investments helped the Tata group shake off the slightly fusty image it had built up in the 1980s and make it fit for purpose in the modern world, according to Witzel. Indeed, today, the Tata groups most profitable company is information technology firm Tata Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS), which boasts around $10 billion (around Rs.54,700 crore) in revenue and serves customers around the world. I think the creation of the corporate brand was quite important. The Tata corporate brand is one of the worlds most valuable global brands because it harnesses the power of the whole group and creates a strong image in the minds of the stakeholders, Witzel added. Tata himself sees the re establishment of the group identity as one of his achievements. In the interview that was posted on the groups website, he said one of his most satisfying moments as chairman was the welding of the organization together in a more cohesive way than it had been in the past, that it was able to identify itself more as a group. And, even as some of these efforts to establish himself, improve the operational effectiveness of some companies, and reiterate a group identity were bearing fruit, Tata went out and made a big ticket global acquisition the Tetley group in 2000. .....

Looking without
21. In the mid 1990s, Tata Tea had tried and failed to acquire British tea maker Tetley. In 2000, it tried again and succeeded. The acquisition was meant to harness Tata Tea and Tetleys synergies. Tetley had a well established distribution network and experience of selling tea bags in markets such as the US, UK, Canada and Europe. Tata Tea was strong in countries like India and in the Middle East, according to Tata Log Eight Modern Stories From a Timeless Institution, a book by Harish Bhat, managing director and chief executive of Tata Global Beverages Ltd (earlier Tata Tea). The groups biggest acquisition to date is Tata Steels purchase of Anglo Dutch steel maker Corus Group Plc in 2007.

The company has since been renamed Tata Steel Europe. The acquisition of Corus, which was Europes second largest steel maker, catapulted the company into becoming the worlds seventh largest steel producer, although it hasnt been as financially remunerative as stock market analysts would have liked. Another acquisition, and more fruitful than the Corus purchase to date, was Tata Motors acquisition of the iconic British car maker Jaguar Land Rover. The acquisition provided a hedge against the weakness faced by the companys domestic passenger car business. There have been several other acquisitions TCS bought CMC Ltd; Tata Sons acquired a controlling stake in state run Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (now known as Tata Communications Ltd); Tata Motors bought the heavy vehicles unit of Daewoo Motors in Korea; Tata Steel acquired Singapores NatSteel; and Indian Hotels Co. Ltd took over management of The Pierre in New York. But if globalization reflects the buy side of the Tata story, then efforts to innovate indicate the make side of it. .....

Looking within
22. In many ways, the Indica started a trend in the Tata group. Every year since, Ratan Tata has feted individuals or teams that have worked on an interesting project even if it didnt succeed, under a programme called Dare to Fail. The Nano is, of course, the pinnacle of this innovation journey, but there have been other successes as well. Among them is Swach, a low cost water purifier aimed at making clean drinking water hard to find in rural areas available to the economically weak. Swach began as a corporate social responsibility initiative by TCS and soon became a business idea, commercially viable on its own. He (Tata) has played a strong role in encouraging innovation, but he has not been alone in this, Witzel says. Tatas leadership style is to suggest ideas, offer encouragement and motivation, not to lead the charge.

Its clearly an approach that has paid off. The groups aggregate sales at the end of 2011 12, at Rs.4.51 trillion, are 43 times the turnover in 1992 93, the first full fiscal after Tata took over as chairman. Net profit growth in the same period has been even more spectacular, rising 51 times to Rs.33,664 crore. The aggregate market capitalization of the group at Rs.4.54 trillion in fiscal 2012 is 33 times higher than it was in 1992 93. In the same period, the Sensex, the benchmark equity index of BSE, grew nearly eight times. The Tata groups closest competitor, in terms of turnover, is the oil to yarn and retail conglomerate Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL). RILs net sales in fiscal 2012 were Rs.3.58 trillion and it had a net profit of Rs.19,747 crore. Though RILs revenue growth in these two decades has been much higher than the Tatas, having grown 90 times, its net profit growth is lower. The result of Tatas strategic thinking reflects in the groups market capitalization, Piramal said. What Tata did after taking over wasnt very different from what Kumar Mangalam Birla did with the Aditya Birla Group after his fathers death. Kumar Birla took over as chairman of the group in 1995 at the age of 28 after his fathers sudden death and is credited with transforming the Indian business group into a multinational conglomerate. .....

The downs
23. It hasnt always been smooth sailing for Ratan Tata or the Tata group. A case in point is the Corus acquisition of 2007, which isnt panning out too well for the company. Sales and profitability at Tata Steels European operations have taken a hit, due to the 2008 09 financial meltdown and the subsequent euro zone crisis. Company executives do not expect the situation to improve any time soon. The Nano isnt a huge success either. Tata, in his interview on the group website, said the Nano was marketed like other cars, but as a minimal automobile at a low price.

I would love to have a chance to implement a new marketing plan for the product, if that were possible, Tata said. The emergence of a strong rival to Tata Motors in the passenger car segment, Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd (M&M), is another cause of concern articulated by Tata at the companys last shareholders meeting in August. We should do a great deal of introspection as to why M&M is ahead of us. I have great respect for the company. But we should look at this in sadness that we let that happen, Tata remarked. The conglomerate is also sitting on a debt pile of $26 billion (around Rs.1.42 trillion), a number that is causing concern among some investors. This needs to be seen in the context of the 29 listed group companies combined net worth of Rs.1.43 trillion, and cash and cash equivalents of Rs.36,289.38 crore, according to data from Capitaline. .....

Succession again
24. The same retirement rule that saw some of JRDs satraps leave the group will mandate Tatas retirement as well. Some people have suggested that the retirement policy should not apply to the chairman, Tata said in his interview on the website. I have always believed that you dont make exceptions for yourself. So I took the view that the rule should apply to me too. I realize that I have to live by the rules that I have set and step down when the time comes. And that time has come. Cyrus Mistry has been working with Tata for a year now, and Tata says the Tata Sons chairman designate has the analytical skills to steer the business forward and the integrity to uphold the Tata ethos. On Monday, Tata Sons formally announced that Mistry would take over on 28 December and Ratan Tata would become chairman emeritus. Some of the challenges that lie ahead of Mistry are akin to those Tata faced when he ascended to the top job.

The succession this time round may not be as acrimonious as it was during Tatas time, but with many of Tatas chieftains nearing retirement, Mistry will have to scout for young talent from within the group and outside to fill the void. He has already started doing that. Madhu Kannan, a former chief executive officer of BSE, was his first hire. You can live in a house, drive a car, make a phone call, season your food, insure yourself, wear a watch, walk in shoes, cool yourself with air conditioning, and stay in a hotel all courtesy of Tata firms, said an article dated 1 December in The Economist. The dilemma is that the group may not necessarily be making money doing all of this. Tatas telecom business, for instance, is under severe strain following the upheaval in the sector in the wake of the 2G scam, and its future is uncertain. Elsewhere, though Taj is still one of the most respected names in the Indian hospitality industry, Indian Hotels isnt too profitable, with acquisitions weighing on the firm. Problems with Tata Steels European operations persist and the current dynamics of the steel business at home arent too exciting either. .....

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Hood by Air. This House of Flies Tshirt from Hood by Air typifies the labels contemporary streetwear aesthetic. .....
Rules to play Ultimate Frisbee
Play to 15 points. Typically, a game of Ultimate Frisbee ends when one team scores 15 points, though you can amend this rule to fit your time constraints and your desires for the game. Typically, a game to 15 can take as long as an hour and a half, so you might want to .....
Benefits of Cauliflower
Increased blood flow. Decrease chronic ailments such as atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart attack and stroke. Cauliflower can help keep your blood flowing to essential organs of the body! Cauliflowers are available all around the year in the markets; however, they .....
New Hairstyles for Men
Cool Hairstyle For Men With Thinning Hair. Thinning hair doesnt mean you should wear only extra short hairstyles. Dominic Monaghan tries on a cut with elongated top and nape section and accurately trimmed edges. This variety lets him reveal the wispy texture of his hair that looks thin but ve .....
What to Eat in Himachal Pradesh
Gulab jamun. Gulab jamun is a milk-solids -based dessert, similar to a dumpling, popular in countries of the South Asian Subcontinent such as India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh, also in the Caribbean countries of Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname and Jamai .....
How to Care for Your Nails
Take biotin supplements. In several studies, researchers found that supplements of biotin (a member of the vitamin B family) increased nail thickness and prevented splitting and breaking. In a respected German study that evaluated 45 people with severe nail problems, 2.5 mil .....
Cool Inventions
Early Video Dating. Visitors to the Radio and Television Fair in Frankfurt, West Germany, Aug. 21, 1957, use a TV telephone to communicate with each other. Phones used for calls are linked to four TV sets and two cameras so each person can see a picture of himself and t .....
Innovative Kitchen Tools and Gadgets
Chefn VeggiChop Vegetable Chopper. This awesome gadget is designed to replace a standard cooking equipment with a manually powered piece. It is made to give you that kind of results youre looking for. .....
Benefits of Cloves
Under Eye Puffiness. Add one drop to your eye cream and apply sparingly in the morning. Clove bud oil promotes blood circulation, helping to reduce the puffiness. Clove oil is used for diarrhea, hernia, and bad breath. Clove and clove oil are used for intestinal gas, nau .....
Most Popular Xmas Vacation Destinations
Key West FL. For families that want to get away from it all, the last outpost in?the Florida Keys has serious appeal. Over the holidays the historic streets of downtown?Key West?are decked out with Christmas decorations, and families can choose from among?a pleas .....
Precaution while using Microscope
Information and care of the microscope. The microscopes used in this lab arecompound lightmicroscopes. They are designed to beparfocal; that is, if the microscope is clearly focused on a specimen with a lower power objective, it will be clearly focused (or very nearly so) when you swing th .....
Benefits of Turmeric
Inhibit skin cancer. Turmeric seems to hold much promise for skin treatments, as well as possibly inhibiting certain forms of cancer. .....
World Flags
Liberia. 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a white five-pointed star appears on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the stripes symbolize the signatories of the Liberian Declaration of Independence; the blue .....
Most Intense Sports of the Ancient World
Nguni Stick Fighting. One of the few sports on this list that is actually still practiced today, the name of this game just about sums things up. The Zulus would essentially beat the crap out of each other with sticks. Although people seldom died, the participants would o .....
Parking Rules
Adherence to these rules. No vehicle shall be stopped, left standing or parked on USC property except in conformance with these Rules & Regulations. Observe all posted signs at entrances and individual parking spaces, as applicable. Failure to familiarize yourself with these .....
New Mehandi Designs
Mehandi Design 12. Looking for simple mehendi designs for hands This design may look very simple but it covers the hands with beautiful motifs where required and fills in all the gaps. The diagonal design makes hands look beautiful and can be done on any occasion. This .....
Tips To Prepare a Government Job Interview
Stay Calm and Composed While the Interview. You have to remain calm like cucumber. Do not show frustration even though interview is too long. You have to achieve the final goal at any cost. .....
Forever Young Naturally Eating
Eating from Scratch Conserve taste. and nutrients Preserve as much folate and vitamin C as possible in vegetables by steaming rather than boiling. This helps maintain flavor, too. Stirfrying is also good for conserving taste and nutrients. .....
Smartphone Photography Tips and Tricks
Override the Defaults. Smartphones can be pretty good when it comes to choosing settings, but not always. Metering can sometimes be pretty shoddy indoors and in cloudy conditions, which is where overriding some of the settings can come in handy. If you think the white bala .....
Exam Tips
The Most Powerful Procrastination Squashing Technique For Exam Study. For many teens, exams are just a big annoying disruption to their social life. Instead of planning their study time carefully, they find it extremely difficult to knuckle down even when their exams are only days away. Procrastination. It gets us al .....
Xmas Party Games
Pass The Bauble. Split the children into teams. The teams line up side by side, either sitting or standing next to each other. At one end of each line place six (unbreakable) Christmas baubles. With their left hand each player must hold the right wrist of the person .....
Benefits of Beetroot
Fight Inflammation. Beets are a unique source of betaine, a nutrient that helps protects cells, proteins, and enzymes from environmental stress. Its also known to help fight inflammation, protect internal organs, improve vascular risk factors, enhance performance, and l .....
Chinese Embroidery
Blackwork. Blackwork, sometimes historically termed spanish blackwork, is a form of embroidery generally using black thread, although other colors were also used on occasion. sometimes it is counted thread embroidery which is usually stitched on even weave fab .....
Ideas to Boost Business
Track Your Clients Special Needs. a. Create a form to keep track of clients requests for special services and products and whether you can meet these requests. b. By studying these forms periodically, you can track interest in new products or services that you should offer. .....
Guglielmo Marconi
Marconis father. Marconis father Guiseppe was much older than his mother and in 1904 Guiseppe died.The time when he died was an important time for Guglielme Marconi, and in addition to this the young Marconi was very focussed on his long distance radio communications .....
Rules to play Rubiks Cube
Try speed solving. Theres an ever growing community of Rubiks cube enthusiasts calling themselves speed cubers. These people have created highly optimized solving systems and might know up to hundreds of move sequences by heart. Just ask for tips in one of the many spe .....
Global Dial Code
Nigeria. Exit Country Code + 234 + Area Code + The Number The Nigeria country code is 234. The nationality of Nigeria is Nigerians.The capital of Nigeria is AbujaLargest Cities in Nigeria by population: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Benin City, .....
Xmas Celebration Ideas
Word Find. Using Christmas words Christmas, Poinsettia, Candy cane, etc. have each person make as many smaller words from it as possible before the timer runs out. .....
Most Desirable Women
Shakira. Shakira thinks she s hot enough for people to want her scent, the hips don t lie crooner also has a truth telling hips that has caught the attention of Gerald Pique. .....
New Year Celebration Ideas
Flowery Sip to Toast to Welcome 2015 With. When the clock starts approaching midnight, youre gonna want a delicious drink to ring in the new year with. This champagne hibiscus cocktail has just the right amount of fun and celebration packing into each glass.With a flower blooming within the g .....
Surprising ways youre ruining your Hair
INSANE FACTS ABOUT HAIR 14. Egyptians were the first people known to remove unwanted body hair using natural products. .....
Benefits of Saffron
Saffron nutrition facts. Saffron is one of the highly prized spices known since antiquity for its color, flavor and medicinal properties. It is the dried "stigma" or threads of the flower of the S.crocus plant.Saffron has the distinct flavor because of the chemical component .....
Mahashivratri Festival
Shiva Poems. Recite melodious Shiva poems on the auspicious occasion of Shivaratri. Shiva poetry invoke devotion and dedication towards Lord Shiva and help us to receive blessings of the holy figure. Given below are some beautiful poems of Lord Shiva. Divine Lord .....
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Why Sardar Patel called the Iron man of India. Sardar Patel has delivered such a policy for protecting, uniting and developing country called Hindustan, after Kautilya Vishnu Gupta Chankya. When British govt has declare Independent by giving rights to princy state. British policy Intent to make I .....
Rules to play Broomball
Open broomball. Get your feet wet playing some open broomball sessions. Just be sure to pick a venue that has your safety in mind. Broomball shoes, while not a must have, are required for USA Broomball tournaments for a reason they are designed to run on ice. The .....
Benefits of Curry Leaves
Make Tea from Curry Leaves. Boil some curry leaves in water, squeeze a lime and add some sugar to it. Drink this tea daily for 1 week to see results. This will increase hair growth, make your hair smooth, shiny and prevent gray hairs. Intake of curry leaves is good for the dige .....
Modern Christmas Decor Ideas
Fairy Tale Lights and Feathers. You can enjoy your fireplace safely this holiday season if you know a few tips & tricks. We all know a crackling fireplace makes all the difference during cold winter evenings. Adding feathers and a Christmas wreath decorated with lights gives the wh .....
Lotus Flower Tattoo
3 red lotus flower tattoos. I think its universal, that the red color always represents love. .....
Gym guide Ideas
Decline bench. These are benches for performing exercises during which your head is below your feet.Exercises include decline sit ups and decline triceps extensions. .....
Benefits of Garlic
As Protection for Your Pets. Garlic not only repels mosquitoes, but it also repels ticks, fleas and other parasites. Some brands of pet food contain dehydrated garlic to repel parasites that feed on pets. .....
How to Remove Dark Circles Tips
Relax. Relaxing might help remove sources of stress and anxiety that are preventing you from sleeping, eating and resting properly. In turn, relaxing enough will help the skin beneath your eyes to improve as you feel less stressed and more at ease. Skin ten .....
Longest Rail Tunnels In the World
Guadarrama Tunnel. The Guadarrama Tunnel is part of the Spanish high speed rail network connecting Madrid and Valladolid and is one of the most important travel links in Spain. Crossing the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain peninsula, this double fornix tunnel is 16.5 mile .....
Rules to play Lacrosse
Know the basic play. After the faceoff is won, the team with the ball passes the ball until they are close enough to the opponents goal to shoot. Meanwhile, the defenders try to keep the attacking team from scoring. A shot that travels past the goalie and into the goal c .....
Tips to get ready for New Year
Balance the Books. If you are in debt, its time to dip into your pockets and pay people off. The Chinese believe that if you start the new year in the red, you will finish it the same way. .....
Precautions while using Shampoo
Overdosage. Ketoconazole Shampoo, 2% is intended for external use only. In the event of accidental ingestion, supportive measures should be employed. Induced emesis and gastric lavage should not be performed toe avoid aspiration. Only apply shampoo to your scalp .....
Worlds Most Beautiful National Parks
Hortobagy Hungary. Hortobagy National Park was the first national park in Hungary. It was established as a national park in 1973. In 1999 the Park was elected among the World Heritage sites. Hortobagy is rich with unique folklore and interesting cultural history. Its a .....
Most Prettiest Faces In The World
Keira Knightley. Do you wish that you were someone who was capable of playing any part that was sent their way. Then you wish to be Keira Knightley. You have seen on screen, at the award shows, red carpet and many other talk shows too. And you just ca not get enough .....
Benefits of Lime
Limes and Skin Care. Lime juices and oils are exceptionally beneficial to the skin. Lime juice, consumed orally, or lime oil, applied topically, rejuvenate skin. Limes keep the human skin healthy, and shiny, not only does it help fight infections, lime juice also helps f .....
Benefits of Mangosteen
Menstruation. Mangosteen can be very useful in reducing premenstrual symptoms like dizziness, mood swings, hypertension, etc. In Malaysia, a mangosteen root decoction is consumed to regulate menstruation. ripe fruits should be placed in cool well ventilated place .....
Benefits of Lactuca
Use for healthy cell. Studies .....
Never seen Water Like This
Cloudbreak Tavarua Fiji. Another view from Scott Sporleder of what its like to be deep inside a wave. .....
What to Eat in Madhya Pradesh
Imarti. Imarti or Jhangri in south India, is a dessert invented in Mughal kitchen and is now popular across the Indian Subcontinent including Rajasthan, West Bengal and South India. Imarti is made by deepfrying urad flour batter in a kind of circular flower .....
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