President of india

Rajendra Prasad
1. Period-26-Jan-1950 to 13-May-1962

Political party-Indian National Congress

Contributions

Dr. Rajendra PrasadRajendra Prasad was a great leader of the Indian Nationalist Movement and also one of the architects of the Indian Constitution. He was elected as the first President of Republic of India. Rajendra Prasad was a crucial leader of the Indian Independence Movement, who left his lucrative profession to participate in the nationalist movement of India. He was also awarded with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award. on 28 February, 1963, following a brief illness, the great soul passed away.

Life

Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born into a big joint family of Mahadev Sahay in the Siwan district of Bihar, near Chhapra. His father, Mahadev Sahay was a scholar of Persian and Sanskrit language while his mother Kamleshwari Devi was a religious lady.

When Rajendra Prasad was five years old, his parents put him under a Maulavi learn Persian language followed by Hindi and arithmetic. After the completion of traditional elementary education, Rajendra Prasad was sent to the Chhapra District School. At the age of 12, Rajendra Prasad was married to Rajavanshi Devi. He, along with his elder brother Mahendra Prasad, then went on to study at R.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna. Mahendra was eight years older than him.

Since childhood, Rajendra Prasad was a brilliant student. He stood first in the entrance examination to the University of Calcutta and was awarded Rs.30 per month as scholarship. In 1902, Rajendra Prasad joined the Presidency College. He was initially a student of science and his teachers included J.C.Bose and Prafulla Chandra Roy. Later he decided to switch his focus to the arts. Prasad lived with his brother in the Eden Hindu Hostel. A plaque still commemorates his stay in that room. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was instrumental in the formation of the Bihari Students' Conference in 1908. It was the first organization of its kind in the whole of India. The move produced the entire political leadership of the twenties in Bihar

In 1915, Rajendra Prasad passed with a Gold medal in Masters in Law examination with honors. He then went on to complete his Doctorate in Law. Rajendra Prasad used to practice his Law & studies at Bhagalpur in Bihar and eventually emerged as a popular and eminent figure of the entire region. In 1916, Rajendra Prasad joined the High Court of Bihar and Orissa. Such was his intellect and his integrity, that often when his adversary failed to cite a precedent, the judges asked Rajendra Prasad to cite a precedent against himself.

Nationalist Movement

Dr. Rajendra PrasadIn 1911, during his stay in Calcutta (now Kolkata) as a legal practitioner, Rajendra Prasad joined the Indian National Congress Party and was subsequently elected to the AICC. During the Champaran movement, Mahatma Gandhi asked Rajendra Prasad to visit Champaran along with the other volunteers and partisans of the Indian National Congress. Initially Rajendra Prasad was not impressed with Gandhiji's appearance and conversation but deeply moved by the dedication, conviction and courage of Gandhi.

Rajendra Prasad also responded to the call of Mahatma Gandhi to boycott Western education. He asked his son Mrityunjaya Prasad, a brilliant student to leave the University and enroll himself in Bihar Vidyapeeth. He would write articles for magazines like Searchlight and Desh. When the earthquake of Bihar occurred on January 15, 1934, Rajendra Prasad was in jail. He was released two days later. He set himself for the task of raising funds and collected over Rs 38 Lakhs. Nationalist India expressed its admiration by electing Rajendra Prasad as the President of the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress Party in October 1934.

In July 1946, when the Constituent Assembly was established to frame the Constitution of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. And, eventually he was also elected as the first President of Republic of India. Unfortunately, on the night of 25 January 1950, a day before the Republic Day of India, his sister Bhagwati Devi passed away. He set about the cremation but only after his return from the parade ground.

Death

In September 1962, Rajendra Prasad's wife Rajavanshi Devi passed away. The incident helped in the deterioration of his health and after suffering from brief illness for around six months on February 28, 1963, Dr. Prasad expired. Rajendra Prasad spent the last few months of his life in retirement at the Sadaqat Ashram in Patna. Rajendra Prasad was awarded with """"Bharat Ratna, the nation's highest civilian award.

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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
2. Period-13-May-1962 to 13-May-1967

Political party-Independent

Born: September 5, 1888
Died: April 17, 1975
Achievements: First Vice President and second President of India. Placed Indian philosophy on world map.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was first Vice President of India and second President of India. He was also a philosopher and introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. He was a famous teacher and his birthday is celebrated as Teacher's Day in India.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888 at Tirutani, Madras in a poor Brahmin family. As his father was poor Radhakrishnan supported most of his education through scholarships. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan had his early education at Gowdie School, Tiruvallur and then went to the Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati for his high school. He joined the Voorhee's College in Vellore and later switched to the Madras Christian College. He chose Philosophy as his major subject and did his B.A. and M.A. in it.

After completing his M.A., Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, accepted an Assistant Lectureship at the Madras Presidency College in 1909. In college, he mastered the classics of Hindu philosophy, namely the Upanishads, Bhagvad Gita, Brahmasutra, and commentaries of Sankara, Ramunuja and Madhava. He also acquainted himself with Buddhist and Jain philosophy and philosophies of Western thinkers such as Plato, Plotinus, Kant, Bradley, and Bergson.

In 1918, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was selected as Professor of Philosophy by the University of Mysore. In 1921, Radhakrishnan was nominated as Professor of Philosophy at the Calcutta University, 1921. In 1923, Dr. Radhakrishnan's book Indian Philosophy was published. The book was hailed as a philosophical classic and a literary masterpiece.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was called to Oxford University, to deliver lectures on Hindu philosophy. He used his lectures as a platform to further India's cause for freedom. He also argued that Western philosophers, despite all claims to objectivity, were biased by theological influences from their wider culture. He showed that Indian philosophy, once translated into standard academic jargon, is worthy of being called philosophy by Western standards. He thus placed Indian Philosophy on world map.

In 1931, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was elected Vice Chancellor of the Andhra University. In 1939, Radhakrishnan became the Vice Chancellor of the Benaras Hindu University. In 1946, he was appointed as Ambassador to UNESCO. After Independence Dr. Radhakrishnan was requested to Chair the University Education Commission in 1948. The Radhakrishnan Committee's suggestions helped mould the education system for Indias needs.

In 1949, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was appointed ambassador to the Soviet Union. He helped laid the foundation for a strong relationship with Soviet Union. Radhakrishnan was elected first Vice-President of India in 1952. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna in 1954. After serving two terms as Vice-President, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was elected President of India in 1962. During his tenure as President India fought wars with China and Pakistan. As President he helped see India through those trying years safely. He retired as President in 1967 and settled in Madras.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan died on April 17, 1975. .....

Zakir Hussain
3. Period-13-May-1967 to 3-May-1969

Political party-Independent

Born On: February 8, 1897
Born In: Kaimganj, Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh
Died On: May 3, 1969
Career: Teacher and President of India
Nationality: Indian

Dr Zakir Hussain is best known for his two year stint at the office of the President of India spanning from May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969. He was the third President of independent India. However, it is not only his career in the President's office which makes him one of the greatest heroes that India has seen. Dr Zakir Hussain was one of the biggest exponents of education in India and it was under his leadership that the National Muslim University was founded. Till today, the National Muslim University exists under the name of Jamia Milia Islamia, a central university in New Delhi, and continues to flourish, producing some of the best students each year. Dr Zakir Hussain had served as the Governor of Bihar and had also taken oath as the Vice President of the country before ending his political career as the third President of India.

Childhood & Early Life

Zakir Hussain was born in the Kaimganj district of Farrukhabad in Uttar Pradesh. Though he was born an Indian, his family history can be traced back to the Pushtun tribes that occupied the border areas between Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is said that his ancestors migrated to Uttar Pradesh during the 18th century. His father and mother passed away when he was only 10 and 14 years old respectively, leaving young Zakir to complete his school education from the Islamia High School in Etawah. He, later, attended the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College in Aligarh (today known as the Aligarh Muslim University), the place which saw the beginning of his career as a reformist politician.

Middle Years

Zakir Hussain had already gained recognition throughout India as the leader of the student union during his years of study at the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College. However, it was not only politics that interested him. After completing his formal education, Zakir Hussain became the leader of a young group of students who together founded the National Muslim University in Aligarh on October 29, 1920. (The university then shifted base to Karol Bagh, New Delhi in 1925. Ten year later it yet again shifted base this time permanently to Jamia Nagar, New Delhi and was named it Jamia Millia Islamia). He was merely 23 years old when he established the educational institution

Zakir's keen interest and dedication towards education more than politics became evident when he went to Germany to pursue a PhD in Economics. It was in the University of Berlin that Zakir Hussain brought out an anthology of some of the best works of Urdu poet Mirza Khan Ghalib. The chief motive of Zakir Hussain was to use education as the chief tool to help India during the period of freedom struggle against the British. In fact, Zakir Hussain was so dedicated in his goal towards dissemination of education in India, that he was also successful in winning the attention of his adversary, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, in the field of politics.

Return To India

Though Dr. Zakir Hussain visited Germany for his education, he returned soon after to provide academic and administrative leadership to Jamia Milia Islamia. The university was on the verge of being shut down in the year 1927 and it was due to the efforts of Dr Zakir Hussain that the educational institution has managed to stay afloat. He continued to lend his support, providing academic and managerial leadership to the institution for twenty one years. It was due to his efforts that the university immensely contributed in India's struggle for freedom from the British Rule. As a teacher, Dr Zakir Hussain propagated the learnings of Mahatma Gandhi and Hakim Ajmal Khan. He was an active member of several educational reform movements in the country in the mid 1930s.

Dr Zakir Hussain was elected the Vice Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University (his alma mater previously known as Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College) in independent India. During his stint as Vice Chancellor, Dr Zakir Hussain was able to avert several teachers within the institution from lending their support in creating a separate state of Pakistan. Dr. Zakir Hussain was awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1954. With the end of his term as Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Dr Zakir Hussain was nominated to the Rajya Sabha and thus, became a member of the Indian Parliament in 1956. However, he held this position only for a year after which he became the Governor of Bihar, a post he occupied for five years from 1957 - 1962.

Zakir was honored with the Bharat Ratna award in 1963. He was also the recipient of D.Litt. (Honoris Causa) by the Universities of Delhi, Calcutta, Aligarh, Allahabad and Cairo. With the end of his term as Governor, Dr Zakir Hussain soon succeeded to the office of Vice President of India, becoming the second Vice President of the country for a period of five years. It was on May 13, 1967 that Dr Zakir Hussain created history by being the first Muslim President of India to be elected for such a prestigious position. He was also the third politician to occupy the office of the Indian President, after Dr Rajendra Prasad, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

Death

Dr Zakir Hussain passed away on the 3rd of May, 1969, two years after he was sworn in as President of India. His death also made him the first President to die while still in office. He was buried on the campus of the Jamia Millia Islamia (or Central University) in New Delhi.

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Varahagiri Venkata Giri
4. Period-3-May-1969 to 20-Jul-1969 and 24-Aug-1969 to 24-Aug-1974

Political party-Independent

Born On: August 10, 1894
Born In: Berhampur, Orissa
Died On: June 23, 1980
Career: Freedom Fighter and Statesman
Nationality: Indian
If the situation in the labor force of India is going from strength to strength, if workers in Indian industries and other sectors are able to exercise their rights today, then the only person responsible for this is the charismatic activist and social reformer V.V Giri. Thanks to him, the labor force found a new voice and it was only through his struggles and leadership, his sympathies and concern for the weaker class that ensured that the rights of workers were not trampled upon. V.V. Giri was built on the socialist mold, but at the same time, he was a pragmatist who believed in the practical and humane approach to all problems. His dream of a career in law was cut short when he came under the influence of Irish nationalists and a chance meeting with Gandhi made him decide to work for his country. He realized that if the labor force of India can be organized then not only can their condition be improved, but they can also become a potent force in the national struggle for freedom from the British rule. His commitment to his cause and his abiding empathy for the weak and the downtrodden had kept him in a league that is far different from any other politician nowadays.

Childhood & Early Life

Varahagiri Venkata Giri was born in a Telugu-speaking Brahmin family in Berhampur in the year 1894. His father, Varahagiri Venkata Jogaiah Pantulu, was an eminent and prosperous lawyer. The young lad completed his primary and secondary education in his hometown. In order to study law, V.V Giri went to the University College Dublin in 1913. The same year, he met Gandhi who influenced Giri deeply and finally made him realize that the freedom struggle is far more important than law. At college, Giri became involved with the Sinn Fein movement which led to his expulsion from Ireland in 1916, leaving him unable to complete his law degree. It was the freedom and workers movement of Ireland and the revolutionary ideas of people like De Valera, Collins, Pearee, Desmond Fitzgerald, MacNeil, and Connolly, whom he met personally, that influenced him further to participate in such movements in India. Subsequently, V.V Giri returned to India and started actively participating in the Labor Movement, later becoming the General Secretary. He was also very active in the Nationalist Movement.

Career

Pre-Independence

By 1922, Giri became a trusted aide of N.M. Joshi, who worked for the cause of the workers, and with the support of his mentor, Giri aligned himself with the organizations working for the cause of the working class. Later, because of his commitment to the Trade Union Movement, he was elected as the President of the All India Railwaymens Federation. He also served as the President of the All India Trade Union Congress twice, once in 1926 and again in 1942. He was instrumental in propelling the various trade unions towards the nationalist movement. From 1931 to 1932, as a Worker's Representative, Giri attended the Second Round Table Conference in London. In 1934 he was selected as a member of the Imperial Legislative Assembly. His tryst with politics began when he stood in 1936 General Elections as a Congress candidate. He won the election and the next year his party made him the Minister of Labor and Industries in the Madras Presidency. When the Congress Government resigned in 1942 to protest against the British rule, V.V. Giri returned to the Labor Movement to take part in the Quit India Movement. He was imprisoned and sent to jail. Again, after the General Election of 1946 he was given the labor ministry.

Post-Independence

After India got its independence, V.V. Giri was sent to Ceylon as the High Commissioner. After his tenure there, he returned to India and ran for Parliament in 1952, when he was elected for the 1st Lok Sabha and served till 1957. During this time, Giri was made a member of the Union Cabinet heading the Ministry of Labor and served from 1952 until his resignation in 1954. After his stint at the Lok Sabha, he headed a team of distinguished academicians and public men working towards promoting the study of labor and industrial relations. Their efforts bore fruit when in the year 1957 The Indian Society of Labor Economics was established. After union activism and politics, another era for this statesman began when he was appointed as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh, where he served from 1957 to 1960 and then as the Governor of Kerala from 1960 to 1965 and finally as the Governor of Mysore from 1965 to 1967.

From 1957, while still occupying the post of Governor, he worked as the President of the Indian Conference of Social Work. Then after a decade long spell of being the Governor of various Indian states, he was elected as the Vice-President of India in 1967. In 1969, when the then President Zakir Hussain passed away V.V Giri became the acting President. He, then, ran the election for the post of the president and after initial opposition from his party members whom he prevailed over he became the fourth President of India and served till 1974. The Government of India recognized his contributions and achievement when he was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award in 1975. Throughout his life, V.V Giri was noted for his oratorical skills. He was also a prolific writer who has written books on Industrial Relations and Labor problems in Indian industry.

Legacy

In 1974, the Government of India's Ministry of Labor established an autonomous institution for research, training, education, publication and consultancy on labour related issues. This institution was, in 1995, renamed the V.V Giri National Labor Institute in his honor. An outspoken activist of labor rights, Giri will always be remembered for his work towards uplifting the workers and working towards preserving their rights.

Personal Life & Death

V.V Giri married early in life to Saraswati Bai. At the age of 85, Giri passed away in Chennai in the year 1980. .....

Muhammad Hidayatullah
5. Period-20-Jul-1969 to 24-Aug-1969

Political party-Independent

Muhammad Hidayatullah, the first Muslim Chief Justice of India, the second Muslim to hold the post of the President of India (July 20,1969-August 24,1969) was born in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh in 1905.

His father was Mirza Samiullah Beg, former Chief Justice of Hyderabad State.After completing his education in India at St. Georges Summer School, Hyderabad, he graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, England with Honors in Archaeological and Anthropological and Historical Triposes in 1934 followed by a M.A. Degree from Cambridge University.

Then he pursued further education at the London School of Economics in Public Finance, political theory and organization, constitutional law and international law. At the Bar Examinations held by the Council of Legal Education in England, he came first class first in Hindu and Mohameddan laws.

In 1941 he was called to the Bar. He began his career as an Advocate of the Allahabad High Court in 1942. In 1971 he was appointed as the Chief Justice of Himachal Pradesh . In January 1968 he became the first Muslim Chief Justice of India.

He became the acting President of India in 1969 after President Varahagiri Venkata Giri. He was the second Muslim to hold the post after Zakir Hussain. He served as the Vice-President of India from August 1979 to August 1984. In Jodhpur a national law university has been set up in his name. .....

Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
6. Period-24-Aug-1974 to 11-Feb-1977

Political party-Indian National Congress

Born On: May 13, 1905
Born In: Hauz Qazi, Old Delhi
Died On: February 11, 1977
Career: Lawyer, Political Leader
Nationality: Indian

Regarded as one of the greatest sons of Assam and India, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was a highly successful political leader who left a permanent imprint on the political landscape of India, leaving every citizen immensely inspired till date. Such was the impact of this eminent leader's long and distinguished career who made priceless contributions towards the Indian independence movement. Further, by occupying the position of the President of India is just one shining example of his commitment towards the selfless service and ethical values bestowed upon the nation and its people. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, this prominent leader grew to lead the nation with undying love, passion, and determination.

Early Life

Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was born in Hauz Qazi area of the walled city of Old Delhi to Col. Zalnur Ali and daughter of Nawab of Lohari. His father, during his bachelorhood, was serving in Indian Medical Service when he was asked to leave Assam. He, along with Col. Sibram Bora, was offered seats in the Shillong Club away from the European guests at a function. On boycotting the function, he was transferred to the distant North-West Province. This was where he came in contact with the Nawab of Lahori in Delhi and eventually, married his daughter. Fakhruddin received his formal education at Government High School, Gonda district, Uttar Pradesh. On completion of his matriculation from Delhi Government High School, he went to England in 1923 to pursue his higher studies from St. Catherine's College, Cambridge. After his return from London, he started practicing law in Lahore High Court in 1928.

Political Career

During his stay in England, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed met Jawaharlal Nehru in 1925 whose progressive ideas touched him so much that he treated him as his mentor and friend from 1930s onwards. On Nehru's request, Ali Ahmed joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in the Indian freedom struggle, though he was persuaded by his co-religionists to join the Muslim League. He offered Satyagraha in 1940 for which he was arrested and imprisoned. Further in 1942, he supported the Quit India Movement for which he was yet again arrested in August 9, while returning from the historic session of All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting in Bombay. He was, thus, detained as a security prisoner for three and a half years until April 1945.

While serving as a Congress leader, Ali Ahmed occupied several positions. To begin with, he was a member of Assam Pradesh Congress Committee since 1936 and was elected to Assam Assembly in 1935. Later, he became the Minister of Finance, Revenue, and Labor in September 1938. During his term at the Ministerial office, Ali Ahmed gave a proof of his administrative abilities. He introduced the Assam Agricultural Income Tax Bill, the first of its kind in India, which levied taxes on tea garden lands in the Province and his pro-labor policy in the labor strike in the British-owned Assam Oil Company Ltd. Though Ali Ahmed also met with criticism, what was one thing that had been established was his ability as a administrator.

Post-Independence

After India gained independence, Fakhruddin was elected to Rajya Sabha in 1952 and eventually became Advocate-General of the Government of Assam. He fought from Congress in the Assam Assembly and served two terms, from 1957-62 and 1962-67. He gained a senior position in the Chaliha Ministry in 1957 and was asked by Nehru to join his cabinet in January 1966. In 1971, he was elected to Lok Sabha from Barpeta constituency. During his tenure, Ali Ahmed handled various portfolios, including Food and Agriculture, Cooperation, Education, Industrial Development, and Company Laws. He attained the membership of AICC from 1947 to 1974.

Tenure As A President

With the split of congress in 1969, Fakhruddin chose to be with Indira Gandhi due to his deep-rooted association with Nehru and his family. As such, he was picked up by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as the President of India on August 29, 1974, thereby becoming the second Muslim Indian president after Dr Zakir Hussain. In the wake of Emergency rule in 1975, Fakhruddin became the target of his detractors claiming that he put his signature at the behest of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

Honors

Fakhruddin was a multifaceted personality. His deep and intense interest in sports and other extra-curricular activities was extremely popular during his time. Being a half tennis player and golfer, he was elected as the President of the Assam Football Association and Assam Cricket Association on various terms. He even served as the Vice President of Assam Sports Council. Apart from being a member of Delhi Golf Club and Delhi Gymkhana Club since in 1961, he was selected as the President of All India Cricket Association in 1967. During his visit to Yugoslavia in 1975, he was conferred upon with an honorary doctorate by the University of Pristina in Kosovo.

Personal Life

Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed married a young 21-year old Abida on November 9, 1945 at the age of 40. Abida was educated at Aligarh Muslim University and belonged to a respectable family from Uttar Pradesh. Begum Abida Saheba was elected to Lok Sabha in 1981 from UP constituency.

Death

Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was unable to complete his 5-year tenure as the President of India since he suffered a heart attack immediately after his return from a tour of the South-East Asian countries. He breathed his last on 11th February, 1977 in Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi while still in office. He was 71 years old.

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Basappa Danappa Jatti
7. Period-11-Feb-1977 to 25-Jul-1977

Political party-Independent

Basappa Danappa Jatti was the Acting President of India, who served in office from 11 February 1977 to 25 July 1977. He was also appointed as the 5th Vice President of India. Jatti was born on September 10, 1912 in Savalgi in Jamakhandi Taluk of Bijapur district in a Kannadiga Lingayat Banajiga family. He completed his graduation as a lawyer from Rajaram College, in Kolhapur, which was then affiliated with the University of Bombay. Later he became an Attorney in Jamakhandi. Basappa Danappa Jatti entered Indian politics as a Municipality member at Jamakhandi in the year 1940 and eventually became was appointed as its President. Later he was elected to the Jamakhandi State Legislature. Jatti was a well mannered person who ascended from his modest beginning as a member of the Jamakhandi Municipality to second highest office in India during a diversified political career that lasted for over 5 decades.

Political Career of Basappa Danappa Jatti

Basappa Danappa Jatti was a Law Graduate from Rajaram College, in Kolhapur, Kolhapur. He practised as an Attorney General for a brief period in Jamakhandi. He was appointed minister of Jamakhandi state, and subsequently became Chief Minister. Jatti was also nominated as member of the Bombay State Legislative Assembly to represent the merged area, and, within a week of his nomination, he was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the then Bombay Chief Minister B G Kher. After the general elections held in the year 1952, Jatti was appointed as the Minister of Health and Labour of the Bombay Government and held that post till the re-organisation of states.

Basappa Danappa Jatti became the member of Mysore Legislative Assembly and was also the Chairman of the Land Reforms Committee. He became Chief Minister in the year 1958 and continued in that office until 1962. Jatti was appointed Finance Minister on July 2, 1962 in the Nijalingappa Ministry. He was re-elected from the same constituency and made Minister of Food and Civil Supplies to the fourth Assembly. He was appointed as the Governor of Orissa in the year 1973. He became Vice President in 1974 and assumed office until 1980. He became acting President for a brief period after the death of Fakruddin Ali Ahmed.

Personal Life of Basappa Danappa Jatti

Basappa Danappa Jatti was a religious man and was the founder president of the Basava Samithi, which spread the preaching of 12th century saint philosopher Basaveshwara. He was also involved in various organisations concerned with social activities. He died on 7 May 2002 at the age of 88 years. .....

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
8. Period-25-Jul-1977 to 25-Jul-1982

Political party-Janata Party

Born On: May 19, 1913
Born In: Illuru, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh
Died On: June 1, 1996
Career: Political Leader, Preseident of India
Nationality: Indian

India remembers Neelam Sanjiva Reddy as the sixth President of India and a veteran statesman and administrator. Right from his childhood, Reddy had been actively involved into the freedom movement and hence, held several eminent positions before and after India attained independence. Political leaders in our nation are assumed to play an unfair game when they hold the position of a speaker while electing for parties from the same ticket. In Reddy's case, he was the first person to formally resign from his political party after being elected to office. Further, he is the only elected President of India without any opposition who brought about distinctive changes to public life through his intense commitment towards parliamentary democracy and its essential norms. His active participation in the freedom struggle landed him in prison but that did not stop his faith, determination, and passion for nation's independence. Early Life

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was born in a well-to-do peasant family in the village of Illuru in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. He received his early formal education at Theosophical High School at Adyar in Madras. He later joined the Government Arts College at Anantapur to pursue his higher studies. It was Mahatma Gandhi's visit to Anantapur in 1929 that changed the course of his life and left a great impact on Reddy. As a result, he left his studies midway and gave away his foreign clothes only to dress himself in khadi.

Association With Congress

Reddy joined the Indian independence movement in 1931. He joined the Congress Party and was active in the student Satyagraha. At a young age of 25 years, Reddy was appointed as the Secretary of Andhra Pradesh Provincial Congress Committee in 1938. He remained in the office for 10 years. For most of the period from 1940-45, Reddy spent time in prison. Though he was released in March 1942, was re-arrested in August. During this tenure in Amraoti jail in Madhya Pradesh, he met Shri Prakasam, Shri Satyamurti, Shri Kamaraj, Shri Giri and others, who along with him remained imprisoned until 1945. 1946 was a turning point for Reddy when he was elected to the Madras Congress Legislature Party and became the Secretary in 1947. In the same year, he was elected as a member of the Indian Constituent Assembly.

Reddy served as the Minister of Prohibition, Housing, and Forests in Madras from 1949 to 1951. He then resigned from this post in 1951 to contest for the election of the Presidentship of Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee (APCC). Eventually, he won. In the following year in 1952, he was elected as a member of Rajya Sabha. During this period, his 5-year old son met with a tragic accident and died which left Reddy deeply shocked. He was so moved that he resigned from the post of President of APCC though he was forced to withdraw his resignation later on. He became the Deputy Chief Minister in the cabinet of T. Prakasam and became the leader of the Congress Legislature Party. In 1955, he was re-elected to the Legislature Assembly and assigned the post of Deputy Chief Minister under B. Gopala Reddi's cabinet.

Tenure As President

Reddy was nominated as the official candidate of Congress party after President Dr. Zakir Hussain's death. Even though he was a strong candidate for the post of President of India, he resigned considering that he was assumed to take advantage of the position since he was already holding a position in hand. Further, Indira Gandhi, knowing that it would be hard to make Reddy follow her line of belief and thought, asked the electors to vote for one person, amongst Reddy and V. V. Giri as to who was suitable for the position. As a result, Reddy lost and Giri won the elections. Post elections, Reddy devoted much of his time towards agriculture, his fore-fathers occupation. But he re-entered politics in 1975, with support from Jayaprakash Narayan. He fought elections as a Janata Party candidate for Lok Sabha from Nandyal constituency in Andhra Pradesh in March 1977. Surprisingly, he was the only non-congress candidate to win from Andhra Pradesh and hence, was even elected as speaker of Lok Sabha on March 26, 1977. He served his term dedicatedly and passionately that led him to the title of the best speaker ever in Lok Sabha of Indian parliament. He even stated that he would prove to be one of the most influential and dynamic presidents India has given. True to his statement, he was nominated for the post of President of India and won the elections in July 1977. At this time, he was the youngest President and the only unanimous Indian President till date.

Other Achievements

Reddy served as Union Minister of Transport, Civil Aviation, Shipping, and Tourism from January 1966 to March 1967 under Indira Gandhi's cabinet. He was elected to Lok Sabha from Hindupur constituency in Andhra Pradesh. He was chosen as the speaker of Lok Sabha on March 17, 1967 that gave him immense recognition and admiration.

Personal Life

Reddy married Shrimati Nagarathnamma on 8th June, 1935. The couple gave birth to one son and three daughters.

Death

On completion of his tenure as the Indian President, Reddy retired back to his village of Illuru and continued with agriculture. He passed away on June 1, 1996 in Bangalore, at the age of 83. .....

Giani Zail Singh
9. Period-25-Jul-1982 to 25-Jul-1987

Political party-Indian National Congress

Born On: May 5, 1916
Born In: Sandhwan, Punjab
Died On: December 25, 1994
Career: Freedom Fighter & Politician
Nationality: Indian

Zail Singh, throughout his life, had been praised and criticized for his unflinching devotion to the Nehru-Gandhi clan. While early in his career such loyalty was instrumental in his rapid rise to the top, later on his outspoken commitment for the 'family' received only scorn and colored every other aspect of his character. To rise from a humble village life to the top position in public affairs of India requires a lot more grit and determination than only sycophancy, and Zail Singh showed that he had all that was required in a leader, which not even his enemies and critics could deny. For he started to display the qualities that would prove invaluable in his political career from a very early stage and the first of these was the epitaph 'Giani' fondly bestowed on him by people, which means 'one who is well versed in religious texts'. Coupled with his natural oratorical skills, he could very easily sway people. This quality which served him throughout his life was the very characteristic of a mass leader. To this day he remains one of the most enduring and controversial leaders of India.

Childhood & Early Life

Sardar Zail Singh, also known as Jarnail Singh was born in 1916 to Bhai Kishan Singh, a carpenter and Mata Ind Kaur in Sandhwan in the formerly princely state of Faridkot. He was the youngest of five brothers and sisters. He lost his mother at a very early age and was brought up by his mother's sister. His father was a simple and upright man who was a devout Sikh and so imparted in his children extensive religious learning. As a result, Zail Singh gained fluency in reading the Guru Granth Sahib as well as developed a broad knowledge of Sikh philosophy and history, though he received only little formal education. Later, he enrolled in the Shahid Sikh Missionary College at Amritsar even though he was not a matriculate. Early in his life he impressed his teachers and other people with his flair for public speaking, and mastered his oratorical skills while at college. He would captivate his audience with his speech mixed with Urdu verses and snippets from Sikh religion and history and also put his subtle sense of humor to good work.

Freedom Struggle

At the age of 15, Giani Zail Singh joined the Freedom Movement to liberate his country from foreign rule. In 1938 he joined the Riyasati Praja Mandal and was instrumental in establishing a branch of Congress Committee in Faridkot. At that time Faridkot was ruled by Raja Harinder Singh and this did not go down well with the Maharaja who had him arrested and sent to prison for five years. It was while in prison that he began to adopt the name Zail Singh. After his release from prison he was harassed by the Maharaja and so he had to spend a couple of years outside the state. Heavily influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, in 1946 he launched the Satyagraha Movement leading mass protests for freedom. He also campaigned against feudal rule and set up a parallel government in defiance of the Maharaja.

After Independence

After India gained Independence, Zail Singh worked towards building mass support for Faridkot's accession to India. When Punjab was divided, the small princely states were grouped into a new state, Punjab and in the year 1949 a non-party government was established in which Zail Singh was appointed the revenue minister. In 1951, the first election was held and in the congress-led government, he was elected as the agricultural minister. In 1955, he was sworn in as the President of the state Congress and after serving as the agricultural minister; he was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1956 and served as a Member of Parliament till 1962. In 1956, Zail Singh was also elected as the Vice President of the Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee. He contested the General Elections in 1972 and was elected as the Chief Minister of Punjab.

In 1977 when Indira Gandhi was voted out of power, Zail Singh placed his full support behind her and in 1980, when she came back to power; he was rewarded for his loyalty as she made him the minister of home affairs in the new government. The same year, he was also elected to the lower house of Legislature, the Lok Sabha. The congress party in the year 1982 announced that he was their candidate for the President of India and was subsequently, elected to the highest office of the country unanimously. As President, Zail Singh had to tide over some of the most tumultuous period in the nation's history. This period saw the height of Sikh extremism, the storming of the Golden Temple by the army on the orders of the Prime Minister, the assassination of PM Indira Gandhi and the subsequent political upheaval.

Fall From Grace

When Singh was the President, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the army to storm the Golden Temple to flush out the Sikh Extremists holed there. This hurt the sentiment of the Sikhs, as the temple was considered to be their holiest shrine, and they accused Zail Singh of not stopping her, as they thought that he had the power to do so, or resigning in protest. Since he continued acting as the President, it isolated him among his own community. Four months after the storming of the Golden Temple, Indira Gandhi's body guards assassinated her. Zail Singh immediately appointed her son, Rajiv Gandhi as the next Prime Minister. However, it was not smooth sailing with the new Prime Minister. A major conflict arose when Singh refused to sign a bill in 1987 making it into a law. This and his negative comments of Rajiv Gandhi further made him lose favor with the government.

Death

Giani Zail Singh passed away in 1994, in Chandigarh, at the age of 79 when he succumbed to his injuries in a car accident while returning from a pilgrimage from Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib. .....

Ramaswamy Venkataraman
10. Period-25-Jul-1987 to 25-Jul-1992

Political party-Indian National Congress

Born On: December 4, 1910
Born In: Tanjore, Tamil Nadu
Died On: January 27, 2009
Career: Lawyer, Freedom Fighter & Politician
Nationality: Indian

When Ramaswamy Venkataraman passed away, the Government of India declared a seven day state of mourning, a fitting tribute to a man who had spent his entire life in the service of the nation and its people. A true patriot, Venkataraman had the distinguished record of leading any post or organization that he was heading from strength to strength. And in his sparkling career he led many institutions with the wisdom and charisma of a true statesman. Be it defending Indians detained in Malaya and Singapore or presiding over the turmoil of coalition politics when he was the President of India, a period which saw three Prime Ministers in two years, he essayed each role with a felicity keeping only the national interest in mind. Venkataraman was perhaps the last of the ideal public servants who was noted for his work, integrity and commitment, rather than rhetoric and sycophancy that characterizes most of the so-called statesmen nowadays. A strict follower of the Nehru-Gandhi tradition, his life and work is a statement of the fact that he didn .....

Shankar Dayal Sharma
11. Period-25-Jul-1992 to 25-Jul-1997

Political party-Indian National Congress

Born On: August 19, 1918
Born In: Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
Died On: December 26, 1999
Career: Indian Politician, Teacher
Nationality: Indian

Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma was the ninth President of India, serving from 1992 to 1997. But his contribution to India has been much more than that. He was a scholar, holding an extraordinary portfolio of educational qualifications. He was also a journalist and wrote on diverse topics, from history to literature, philosophy to comparative religions, and many more articles. Additionally, he was also a renowned freedom fighter, actively involved in the Indian Freedom Movement and took part in various campaigns. Furthermore, he was a dedicated politician, handled many portfolios including education, law, public works etc and held many high positions in Indian politics before he was made the President. The respect he had earned during his lifetime rightly got him many honors and honorable positions. The following part will throw more light on the life and political career of Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma and on the honors that he received.

Early Life

Shankar Dayal Sharma was born on 19th August 1918 in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh to father Khushilal Sharma and mother Subhadra Sharma. He received his education from various institutions. Starting with St. John's College, he then got educated at Agra College after which he studied at Allahabad University. He obtained L.L.M from Lucknow University, and obtained his Ph D in Law from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge University. Later on he was awarded with a Diploma in Public Administration from London University. If this wasn't enough, he also taught law at Lucknow University for 9 years and later at Cambridge University. Sharma was a Bar-at-Law from Lincoln's Inn and even became a Fellow of the Harvard Law School. Not only was he good in studies, but he even excelled as a sportsman in athletics, rowing, and swimming. He even tried his hand in journalism by writing on diverse topics such as history, art & culture, philosophy, poetry, literature, and comparative religions. Quite a few of his publications, editorial assignments, articles, and addresses got recognition. At the time he was studying and teaching, he was actively involved in India's Freedom Movement against the British.

Political Career

Sharma's political career started during the 1940s when he patriotically involved himself in the Indian freedom movement by participating in the historic Quit India Movement of 1942, initiated because of Mahatma Gandhi's call for immediate independence. It was around the same time when he joined the Indian National Congress, a party under which he fought and was elected many times at numerous positions and remained faithful to it till the very end. It was from 1950 to 1952 that he served as the president of the Bhopal Congress Committee and in the very same year was made the Chief Minister of Bhopal, where he served till the year 1956. It was as the Chief Minister of Bhopal that he put all his efforts to abolish the the jagirdar system prevalent in India.

From the year 1956 to 1971, he remained a member of the Madhya Pradesh legislative assembly. All in between the years he supported Indira Gandhi's efforts to gain leadership of the congress party. In 1959, when UNESCO conference for the primary and secondary education was held at Karachi, he was the leader of the Indian Delegation. With short stints in quick successions, from being the President of the Madhya Pradesh Congress Committee to being the General Secretary of the Indian National Congress and by further serving as the President of the Indian National Congress; it was finally in the year 1974 that he was made the Union Minister for Communications under the leadership of Indira Gandhi and served till 1977.

Again, with short stints as the Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Maharashtra in 1984, 1985, and 1986 respectively; Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma proved his credentials as a qualified politician and a leader. In the year 1987, he became the eighth Vice President of India and was also made the Chairman of Rajya Sabha. He served as the Vice President of India for a five-year long term till 1992, when he took over the proceedings from Ramaswamy Venkataraman and was made the ninth President of India. During his stay as the President of India, it was his responsibility to swear in three Prime Ministers and was actively involved in the ceremonial matters. However, because of poor health, he not run for the next term of Presidency.

Honors and Honorable Positions

The Shankaracharya of Sringeri bestowed Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma with the title of Rashtra Ratnam. Another prestigious title of Dharmaratnakara was conferred upon him by the Pontiff of Shravanbelagola. For his striking contribution to the the legal profession and its obeisance, he was presented with 'The Living Legends of Law' award from the International Bar Association. Sharma also held numerous honorable positions such as the President of Indian Council for Cultural Relations, President of the Indian Institute of Public Administration, Chairman of the Jury for Jawahar Lal Nehru Award for International Understanding, and Chairman of the International Jury for Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament, and development.

Death

Ill health had got the better of Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma and during the last five years, it made life difficult for him. It was on 26th December, 1999 that Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma died of a major heart attack in New Delhi and was cremated at Karma Bhumi near Vijay Ghat. .....

Kocheril Raman Narayanan
12. Period-25-Jul-1997 to 25-Jul-2002

Political party-Independent

Born On: October 27, 1920
Born In: Perumthanam, Travancore, Kerala
Died On: November 9, 2005
Career: Lecturer, Political Leader
Nationality: Indian

K.R. Narayanan's biography is a story that effectively illustrates hard work and talent brings success even in adversity. Despite been born in an extremely poor and Dalit family, Narayanan struggled and overcame several obstacles to receive education and gain a good job. It was his dedication and devotion for the social welfare of the nation that declared him as the tenth President of India. The only Dalit and only Malayali to have held the post of presidency, Narayanan described himself as a citizen President and a working President. As such, he set a benchmark between an executive President who has been assigned with direct power and a rubber-stamp President who simply endorses government orders without questioning or deliberation. He was regarded as the best diplomat of the country by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1955.

Childhood & Early Life

K.R. Narayanan was born as Kocheril Raman Narayanan in a small thatched hut in the village of Uzhavoor in Perumthanam in Travancore in the present Kottayam district of Kerala state. He was born as the fourth of seven children to Kocheril Raman Vaidyar and Punnaththuraveettil Paappiyamma. His family was extremely poor and belonged to the Paravan caste, who were required to pluck coconuts according to the caste system. However, his father was highly respected since he was a learned physician of traditional Indian medical systems of Siddha and Ayurveda.

Educational Background

Narayanan attained his early formal education at Government Lower Primary School at Kurichithanam in 1927 and later went to Our Lady of Lourdes Upper Primary School at Uzhavoor from 1931-35. Due to his family's weak financial status, Narayanan walked 10-15 km daily to reach school through paddy fields. And often, he attended his lectures by standing outside the class due to his inability to pay the school fees on time. His brother, K.R. Neelakantan who was confined to home due to asthma helped Narayanan with his studies by borrowing books and copying down notes for him. Narayanan went to St. John's High School, Koothattukulam from 1935-36 and later matriculated from St. Mary's High School, Kuravilangad in 1937. He completed his intermediate studies from CMS College, Kottayam in 1940 through the support of a merit scholarship. In 1943, he attained his BA (Hons) and MA degrees in Literature from University of Travancore (now University of Kerala), with first position in the university. With this, be came the first Dalit to complete his degree with first class. However, he refused to accept the degree and job offered by the college since he belonged to a lower caste.

With a meritorious result in hand, Narayanan set out to Delhi to pursue a career but due to the poor conditions went back home. He worked as a journalist for The Hindu and The Times of India from 1944-45, but was keen on studying abroad. During this period, he even interviewed Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay on 10th April 1945. However, the fees demanded were extremely high, particularly for a guy like Narayanan, and there were no scopes for scholarships during those days. As such, he wrote a letter to JRD Tata requesting him to support with his financial needs. Tata came to his rescue and Narayanan traveled to London to study political science at the prestigious London School of Economics in 1945. He was honored to study under the guidance of renowned scholar Harold Laski. He took active participation in the India League under V.V. Krishna Menon. He served as the London correspondent of Social Welfare Weekly that was published by K.M. Munshi. He was fortunate to share his room with K.N. Raj and Veeraswamy Ringadoo (who became the first President of Mauritius). He even befriended Pierre Trudeau who later became the Prime Minister of Canada.

Diplomatic & Academician Career

On his attainment of B.Sc (Hons) in Economics with specialization in political science, Narayanan returned to India in 1948. His professor, Laski gave a letter of introduction addressed to Jawaharlal Nehru, following which Nehru interviewed Narayanan for full 20 minutes. He was offered a job in Indian Foreign Service (IFS) which he joined in 1949 and went to Burma. Here, he was allocated with some interesting assignments, serving as a diplomat in embassies of Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Canberra, and Hanoi. He even worked as the Indian ambassador to Thailand (1967-69), Turkey (1973-75), and People's Republic of China (1976-78). During his tenure in IFS, Narayanan taught at Delhi School of Economics in 1954, served as Jawaharlal Nehru fellow from 1970-72, and became as the secretary to the Minister of External Affairs in 1976. On his retirement from IFS in 1978, he became the Vice-Chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University in 1979 until 1980. However, he was offered by the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to serve as Indian ambassador to United States of America from 1980-84.

Political Career

On request from Indira Gandhi, Narayanan joined politics in 1984 and served as a member of Lok Sabha from Ottapalam constituency in Kerala on three consecutive terms in 1984, 1989, and 1991. He fought elections from a Congress ticket. Later in 1985, he became the Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under Rajiv Gandhi and looked after Planning portfolio in 1985, External Affairs in 1985-86, and Science and Technology in 1986-89. He fought elections from the opposition party when Congress was overthrown during 1989-91 and was not included in the Congress cabinet when it came to power again in 1991 because he was regarded as a Communist fellow-traveler. However, on the proposal of the then leader of Janata Dal party V.P. Singh, Narayanan was elected as the ninth Vice President of India on August 21, 1992, under presidency of Shankar Dayal Sharma. He served his entire 5-year term from 1992 to 1997. He described the demolition of Babri Masjid in December 1992 as the greatest tragedy India has faced since the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.

Tenure as President

On his successful completion of the post of Vice President, Narayanan graduated towards becoming the President of India on July 25, 1997, with 95% votes in his favor. With this, Narayanan became the first Dalit and first Malayali to be sworn as President of India. It was during his tenure that India completed 50 years of independence and celebrated the Golden Jubilee. With the onset of general elections in 1998, Narayanan became the first sitting President to cast his vote from a polling booth in the Rashtrapati Bhavan by standing in a queue just like any other ordinary citizen. By doing so, he set another new precedent that no Indian president had ever done.

Social and Economic Crisis

During his presidency, Narayanan emphasized on improving the conditions of Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, and poor and downtrodden through his endless speeches. He focused on the upliftment of social ills and evils, such as atrocities against women and children, caste discrimination, abuse of environment and public utilities, corruption and lack of accountability in the delivery of public services, religious fundamentalism, advertisement-driven consumerism, and flouting of human rights. With several experiences and examples from his home state Kerala, he encouraged increase in education for the betterment of human and economic development.

Life Post Retirement

After Narayanan's retirement from presidency, he and his wife spent the rest of their lives in a Delhi bungalow on Prithviraj Road. He lent his entire support towards the alternative globalization movement through the World Social Forum (WSF), held in Mumbai on January 21, 2004. He dedicated his ancestral home in Uzhavoor to Santhigiri Ashram in Pothencode for establishing Navajyothisree Karunakara Guru Research Centre for Siddha and Ayurveda. As such, this proved to be Narayanan's last visit to his hometown.

K.R. Narayanan Foundation

The K.R. Narayanan Foundation (KRNF) was established in December 2005 in the loving memory of Narayanan. The foundation was set up with the mission of improving the conditions of most suppressed sections of Kerala, including women, children, disable persons, aged, and other disadvantaged groups. The organization works on providing these groups with educational training, protecting their health and environment, improving their living conditions, and strengthening their family and community. The foundation has been working on a documentary on the life of Narayanan titled The Footprints of Survival, in his honor. Directed by senior journalist Sunny Joseph, the script of the documentary is based on the biography penned by Eby J. Jose, the General Secretary of KRNF. The documentary shall be published in both English and Malayalam.

Personal Life

During his job in Rangoon, Burma, Narayanan met Ma Tint Tint, an activist in YWCA. Since Ma Tint Tint was a foreigner and Narayanan an IFS, he required a special dispensation from Nehru as per the Indian law to marry a foreigner. The two got married on June 8, 1951 in Delhi. Ma Tint Tint adopted the name Usha and became an Indian citizen. Along with Narayanan, Usha worked on several social welfare programs for women and children. She is the only woman of foreign origin to become the First Lady in India. The couple had two daughters, Chitra and Amrita.

Death

Narayanan fell ill with pneumonia and consequent renal failure during his older days. He breathed his last on November 9, 2005 at Army Research and Referral Hospital, New Delhi. He was 85 years old then. He was bid adieu with full honor and respect and was cremated at Ekta Sthal on the banks of River Yamuna, next to the memorial of his mentor Jawaharlal Nehru, Shanti Van. His last rites were carried out by his nephew Dr. P.V. Ramachandran. He was paid a silent salute by the villagers of Uzhavoor who marched to his ancestral home as part of reverent homage. .....

APJ Abdul Kalam
13. Period-25-Jul-2002 to 25-Jul-2007

Political party-Independent

Bharat Ratna Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, generally known as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, was the 11th President of India (2002-07). He was elected against Lakshmi Sehgal in 2002 and had support from both the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress, the two leading parties of Indian politics. By profession he is a scientist and administrator in India. He worked with Indian Space Research Organisation and Defense Research and Development Organisation as an aerospace engineer before becoming the President of India. His work on the development of launch vehicle and ballistic missile technology has earned him the name of the Missile Man of India. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests conducted in India in 1998 after the age-long original nuclear test of 1974 saw him in a pivotal political, organizational and technical role.

At present Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Indore; the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad; and the Indian Institute of Management, Shillong. He is a professor of Aerospace Engineering at the JSS University in Mysore and at the Anna University in Chennai, apart from being an adjunct and visiting faculty at other research and academic institutions in India. He is the honorary fellow of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Chancellor of Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology at Thiruvananthapuram.

In his book India 2020, he has recommended plans to make the nation a fully developed one by the year 2020. His interaction with the student community and his motivational speeches have made him quite popular among the youth. In 2011 he launched a mission called 'What Can I Give Movement' aimed at the youth of India, which focused on defeating corruption in the country.

Detailed personal background

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born to a poor Tamil Muslim family on 15 October 1931 at Rameswaram in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. His father, Jainulabdeen, was a boat owner, and his mother, Ashiamma, was a homemaker. He started working at a young age to support his father. He received average grades in school but was seen as a hardworking and bright student with a strong desire to learn things. He used to study for hours, especially mathematics. He completed his schooling from Rameshwaram Elementary School. In 1954 he graduated in Physics from St. Joseph's College in Tiruchirappalli, which was then affiliated to the University of Madras. Thereafter in 1955 he moved to Madras and joined the Madras Institute of Technology and studied aerospace engineering. His dream was to become a fighter pilot but he was ranked ninth while the IAF offered only eight slots. He is a bachelor. .....

Pratibha Patil
14. Period-25-Jul-2007 to 25-Jul-2012

Political party-Indian National Congress

Born On: 19th December 1934
Born In: Nadgaon, Maharashtra
Career: President of India

Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the twelfth President of India and the first woman to be appointed to India's highest constitutional office. A former member of the Indian National Congress Party, Smt. Pratibha Patil created history when she succeeded Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam to become the first woman President of India. A lawyer by profession, she has also served the post of Governor of Rajasthan. But that is not all. In her 28 years long political career, Pratibha Patil has held several impressive ministerial portfolios, from being the deputy minister of education to being the minister of social welfare, tourism, and housing. With every position, Smt. Pratibha Patil has proved her spunk and it is due to her extraordinary political career that she was appointed as the President of India. Pratibha Patil got the motivation to step in the politics from her father. With her determination, deeds and service, she etched a name for herself in the glorious pages of Indian history that will be remembered and revered in the days to come. Know all about her life, work, and achievements in the write-up below.

Early Life

She was born in 19 December 1934 in Nadgaon, a village in Bodwadtaluka in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra. Her father Narayan Rao was a local politician. She completed her primary education from R.R. Vidyalaya, Jalagaon and received her Bachelor's degree in Law from Government Law College, Mumbai. She pursued her Master's in Political Science and Economics from Mooljee Jetha College, Jalagaon. In her college days, she actively participated in sports and did extremely well in table tennis. In 1962, she was entitled as 'College Queen' of M.J. College. On 7 July 1965, she married Dr. Devisingh Ramsingh Shekhawat and the couple has two children, a son Rajendra Singh and a daughter, Smt. Jyoti Rathore.

Career

She started her career as a practicing lawyer at Jalgaon District Court. At the age of 27 years, she was elected to the Maharashtra State Legislature from Jalgaon Assembly Constituency. For four consecutive years, she was elected as the MLA from the Edlabad (Muktai Nagar) Constituency. She has held various positions in the Government as well as in the Legislative Assembly of Maharashtra. From 1967 to 1972, she served as the Deputy Minister of education and has held several other ministerial portfolios- from Public Health to Tourism to Parliamentary Affairs and more. Smt. Pratibha Patil worked as the Leader of Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of Maharashtra. Apart from that, she has served as the Chairperson of Committee of Privileges and the Member of Business Advisory Committee, Rajya Sabha. Smt. Pratibha Patil became the Governor of Rajasthan on 8 November 2004 and remained in the position until June 2007. On 25 July 2007, she was sworn in as the 12th President of India. She won the Presidential Elections after defeating her competitor Bhairon Singh Shekhawat by more than 300,000 votes.

Besides her achievements in politics, she has been connected with various organizations and was the Chairperson of Maharashtra State Water Pollution Control Board from 1982 to 1985. From 1988 to 1990, she served as the President of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC). Apart from being on the position of Director and Vice-Chairperson of National Federation of Urban Cooperative Banks and Credit Societies, Smt. Pratibha Patil also worked as the Member of Governing Council of National Cooperative Union of India and the Chairperson of 20-Point Program Implementation Committee, Government of Maharashtra. Besides this, she has also attended the International Council on Social Welfare Conferences at Nairobi and at Puerto Rico. In 1985, Smt. Patil was appointed as a Member of the AICC (I) Delegation to Bulgaria and in 1988, she became the Member of Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. She also led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the 'Status of Women', which was organized in Austria, and in September 1995, she was chosen as the representative at the World Women's Conference, Beijing, China.

Contribution

She has played a very important role in the development of India and for the welfare of women and children and the neglected sections of the society. She set up various institutions for the progress of them. She established hostels for working women in Mumbai and Delhi, an Engineering College at Jalgaon for rural youth, the Shram Sadhana Trust that is involved in several welfare activities for the advancement of women. She also set up an Industrial Training School in Jalgaon for the visually handicapped children, schools for poor children of Vimukta Jatis (Nomadic Tribes) and Backward class children in Amravati District. Moreover, she has opened a Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Farmer's Training Centre) at Amravati, Maharashtra. She played a revolutionary role in the foundation of Mahila Vikas Mahamandal, in which Maharashtra State Government is responsible for the development of women. She was also involved in organizing music, computer and sewing classes for the poor and needy women at Amravati, Maharashtra. .....

Pranab Mukherjee
15. Period-25-Jul-2012 to Till now

Political party-Indian National Congress

Shri Pranab Mukherjee assumed office as the 13th President of India on July 25, 2012, crowning a political career of over five decades of exemplary service to the nation in Government as well as Parliament.Seventy six years old, Shri Mukherjee is a man of unparalleled experience in governance with the rare distinction of having served at different times as Foreign, Defence, Commerce and Finance Minister. He was elected to the Upper House of the Parliament (Rajya Sabha) five times from 1969 and twice to the Lower House of the Parliament (Lok Sabha) from 2004. He was a member of the Congress Working Committee, the highest policy making body of the Party for a period of 23 years.

During the period 2004-2012, Shri Mukherjee was instrumental in spearheading critical decisions of the Government on a range of issues such as Administrative reforms, Right to Information, Right to Employment, Food Security, Energy Security, Information Technology and telecommunication, setting up of UIDAI, Metro Rail etc. through Chairmanship of over 95 Groups of Ministers constituted for the purpose. In seventies and eighties, he was instrumental in setting up the Regional Rural Banks (1975) and the EXIM Bank of India as well as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1981-82). Shri Mukherjee was also author of a modified formula for resource sharing between the Centre and the States in 1991 which came to be known as the Gadgil - Mukherjee formula.

A powerful orator and scholar, Shri Mukherjee .....

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Top Cities To See In Your Lifetime
Rome Italy. Walking through Rome is like exploring the worlds largest open air museum. Simply put, no city on Earth combines fine art, cuisine, tons and tons of ancient history quite like the Eternal City. .....
Benefits of Cauliflower
Cancer Prevention. Cauliflowercontaining diets to cancer prevention, particularly with respect to the following types of cancer: bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer. This connection between cauliflower and cancer prevention .....
Benefits of Plum
Blood Clotting. Plums and prunes containvitamin K,which helps in normal clotting of the blood and promotes bone health. Deficiency of vitamin K in the body can result in excessive blood loss and other health concerns such as weak bones. .....
Tips to successful Relationship
Take nothing for granted. Cultivate a daily sense of gratitude for your partner and the thousands of little blessings he or she has brought into your life. Remember that, if youre happy in your relationship, your partner is doing a thousand little things for you every day to .....
Benefits of Cauliflower
Tips for Preparing Cauliflower. Cauliflower florets are the part of the plant that most people eat. However, the stem and leaves are edible too and are especially good for adding to soup stocks. To cut cauliflower, first remove the outer leaves and then slice the florets at the bas .....
Exercises Ideas
Feet Elevated Plank. Make the conventional plank more difficult by finding a raised surface such as a chair or low table you dont want the surface to be too high. .....
Cartoons Characters That You Wish Were Real
Mickey Mouse. Kind of just feels wrong to have a list like this and not have him on it. .....
Modi Ministry
Raosaheb Dadarao Danve. Consumer Affairs, Food and Public DistributionRaosaheb Dadarao Patil Danve (born 18 March 1955) is a member of the 16th Lok Sabha of India. He is now Minister of State in team of Mr. Naredra Modi. He represents the Jalna constituency of Maharashtra a .....
Rivers of India
Subansiri River. The Subansiri River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River in the Indian states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The Subansiri is 442 kilometres (275 mi) long, with a drainage basin 32,640 square kilometres ( .....
Feathery Facts About Peacocks
A FAMILY OF PEAFOWL IS CALLEDA BEVY. A group of the birds is also sometimes called an ostentation, a muster, or even a party. .....
What to Eat in Madhya Pradesh
Daal Makhani. Dal makhani or maa di dal, as it is popularly known in the punjab, with its smooth velvety texture and lovely flavour is a delicacy that is very much a dish of the punjab. Every punjabi restaurant, roadside eating place and food stall vendor makes th .....
Beautiful National Parks Around the World
Fiordland National Park New Zealand. Fiordland National Park ? is the largest of the 14 national parks in New Zealand, with an area of 12,500 km. .....
Precaution while using Microscope
FOCUS ON SPECIMEN. FOCUS ON SPECIMEN, FIRST USING THE COARSE AND THEN THE FINE FOCUS CONTROLS. YOU MAY HAVE TO MOVE THE SLIDE AROUND ON THE STAGE OF THE MICROSCOPE TO BRING THE SPECIMEN INTO THE VIEWING AREA. Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to vi .....
Most Beautiful Red Flowers
Cardinal. This ostentatiously beautiful flower comes in shades like deep red, crimson and scarlet bloom. Cardinal flower is closely related to the specie of genus lobelia and is native to North and Central America. .....
Car Maintenance
Check the tyre condition. In winter season, the old and overused tyres get cracked that low downs the tyre grip and stability. Also ensure that you never over inflate the tyres as it might damage the tyres. The tyre pressure should be lower than the tyre pressure that you inf .....
Most Expensive Pieces Of Jewelry In The World
Heart of the Ocean Diamond. Gloria Stuart wore one of the most expensive jewels ever at the 1998 Academy Awards. This Harry Winston Sapphire has an estimated price of $20 million and is an exact replica of the piece of jewelry from the Titanic. It is the most expensive piece of .....
World Carnival
Fantasy Fest Key West Florida. The Fantasy Fest is a ten day celebration during last week of October, which includes balls, a parade, costume competitions, AIDS fundraisers, body painting, drag queen contests, costume parties, alcohol, and pet and neighborhood parades for the whol .....
Isolated Buildings around the world
STONE HOUSE. NAS MONTANHAS DE FAFE, PORTUGAL .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
What menopause Leg raising. Lie on your back, side on and a short leg's length from a sofa or chair. Place a belt or long scarf around the foot closest to the support and raise your leg to vertical. Stretch your leg out onto the sofa or chair and relax for a couple of minutes i .....
Wedding
Know your partner well. If there are any skeletons in your closet, speak up now. You will feel better, and you will see if your partner accepts you completely. They might have some secrets to share too. .....
Most Beautiful Places To Visit Before You Die
Havasu Falls Grand Canyon National Park. Havasu Falls is paradise on Earth. This is an absolutely amazingly beautiful waterfall located in a remote canyon of Arizona. The spectacular waterfalls and isolated community within the Havasupai Indian Reservation attract thousands of visitors each .....
Benefits of Endives
Brillantes Endive. Higher yielding variety. Great performance through the entire UK season. Large quantities of blanched leaves within the heart. Thoroughly clean base. Ideal for both fresh market as well as processing. It could also be used as a mild laxative because .....
Benefits of Coriander
Other benefits. Coriander helps cure ulcers, inflammation, spasms, while acting as an expectorant and protecting the liver. It is anticarcinogenic, anticonvulsant, antihistaminic and hypnotic. Coriander is believed to be a natural aphrodisiac and traditionally, it w .....
How to Clean Jewelry
Bring water to a boil. You dont need to boil much water just enough to submerge all of the jewelry in. As youre waiting for the water to boil, set your gold jewelry in a sturdy bowl or another vessel that wont be damaged by boiling water. Pyrex or metal cooking bowls/dish .....
Tips to succeed in Sales
Your Price is Not High Enough. OK, so youve never heard that line, but wouldnt it be great to hear it? A price can never be too high .....
Benefits of Curry Leaves
Healing Properties. Curry leaf or Kari patta has antiinflammatory, anti oxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, carminative, antihypercholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic properties. It works as a stimulant, relaxant and mild laxative. it helps reduce blood sugar and blood .....
Xmas Entertainment Ideas
Santas Wooden Grotto Facade. Hire the Santas Wooden Grotto Facade which make for a fantastic feature at Christmas Events. Using the wooden facades, the Fun Experts replicate what we imagine to be Santas log cabin home, using a selection of theming to add warmth and magic to the .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Nontoxic Manicure Energizing hand massage. Warm a little oil between your palms by rubbing them together. Supporting your left palm with your right fingers, circle the middle of the palm with your thumb. Gradually widen the circle to cover the palm. Turn the left hand over, add more oil, and .....
Benefits of Kumquat fruit
Composition. Theessential oilof kumquat peel contains much of the aroma of the fruit, and is composed principally oflimonene, which makes up around 93% of the total.[7]Besides limonene andalpha pinene(0.34%), bothmonoterpenes, the oil is unusually rich (0.38% tot .....
Benefits of Tomatoes
Health Benefits. Tomato contains amazing amounts of lycopene which is said to have anti oxidant properties. Studies have shown that tomato can reduce prostate cancer especially in synergy with broccoli. A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institut .....
Benefits of Mangosteen
Alzheimer s. One of the major health benefits of mangosteen is its effectiveness in treating Alzheimer s disease. This disease is accompanied by symptoms like confusion and perplexity and difficulty in remembering things. it also contains a very good amount of mi .....
Wedding
Experiment. Do not be afraid to experiment with your decor. The most visually intriguing weddings are those where the bride and groom have incorporated all the things they love. .....
Free things to do in Tokyo
Contemporary art crawl. Based in a former junior high school near Akihabara is 3331 Arts Chiyoda hosting a score of free contemporary art galleries offering a mix of exhibitions and interactive installations. Also worth searching out are the galleries of the Bakuchoro ar .....
Help Save the Environment
Use reusable bottles for water. Most tap water in developed countries is safe to drink, which means that buying bottled water is unnecessary. Buy a glass or metal bottle and fill it with water.Request a water quality report from your city if you are concerned about the quality of t .....
Valentines Gift Ideas For Her
Three Wishes Necklace. A thoughtful piece of jewelry with a magical twist that will remind her that her dreams matter and that anything is possible! Symbolic of a hopeful heart, this gesture will surely warm hers. .....
Zodiac Signs That Will be Successful in 2015
Cancer. A great year ahead for Cancer with a fun mixture of hard work and lots of play to enjoy. Your family will be supportive of your dreams and goals and you will share some very special experiences with them throughout the year of 2015. You can expect to .....
Most Attractive People in Sports
Trent Cole Philadelphia Eagles. Im willing to concede that this Trent Cole thing may be my own personal thing. I never see or hear him mentioned in such frivolous non football focused conversations. Though, thats not to say it doesnt continue to surprise me. I think it all stems f .....
What to Eat in Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Adadiya. Adadiya is famous Gujarati Winter special sweet. Adadiya is traditional Katchi and Kathiyawadi sweet. There are many ingredients in Adadiya which helps to keep body warm during winter. .....
Amazing Treehouses From Around The World
Treehouse in Muskoka. Designed by Lukasz Kos, 4Treehouse is constructed around four trees over Lake Muskoka in Ontario, Canada, and floats in the air like a big Japanese lantern on stilts. .....
Way To Wakeup
Create right associations. According to Tony Robbins, We are all driven by the need to avoid pain, and the desire to gain pleasure. Create a list of pleasures associated to waking up early and another list of pains associated to NOT waking up early. .....
Selfie Ideas
Take a Full Body Shot. A full length mirror works well for this type of selfie shot. Again, angle your body to the left or right, which is generally more flattering than shooting straight on. .....
SuperFood
Walnuts. and supply significant amounts of vitamin E, magnesium, and selenium, all of which are great for endurance and metabolism. Sunflower seeds are rich in phytosterols, plant chemicals that help reduce blood levels of cholesterol while supporting hormona .....
Delicious Cookie Recipes
Peach Drop Cookies. Unlike recipes which call for dried fruit, these soft cookies feature fresh peaches .....
Benefits of Carrots
Carrots. Carrots are an excellent source of vitamin A, providing 210% of the average adults needs for the day. They also provide 6% of vitamin C needs, 2% of calcium needs and 2% of iron needs per serving. Carrots also contain fiber, vitamin K, potassium, fol .....
Modi Ministry
Jual Oram. Tribal AffairsJual Oram (born 22 March 1961) is a member of the 16th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Sundargarh constituency of Odisha and is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) political party. He was also a member of the 12th, 13th a .....
Benefits of Gooseberry
Benefits of eating Gooseberry. The gooseberry features a higher nutrient content and is also obtainable in white colored, green, or even red types. One fourth of the everyday requisite of vitamin C are available in the average offering of gooseberries. Gooseberries usually have an .....
Benefits of Cardamom
Therapeutic Properties. Cardamom can be mixed into skincare products for antiseptic and anti inflammatory purposes to calm and soothe the skin, thanks to its therapeutic effects. When added to perfumes, it can stimulate the senses. Facial soaps use cardamom to impart a warm .....
Benefits of Coriander
Culinary Uses. Coriander is usually well known as Mexican or Chinese parsley and as Dhania in India. It is an essential ingredient of many curries and gravies as it has a mild aroma instigating the appetite. .....
Rules to play Lacrosse
Understand possession and offsides. When the faceoff is being fought for, a teams attackmen must be being the offensive restraining line and a teams defender must be behind the defensive restraining line. When possession is gained by either team, both attackmen and defencemen may move .....
Sachin Tendulkar
Turning Point. Initially Sachin Tendulkar wanted to be a fast bowler and even undertook trials at the MRF pace foundation, Chennai, but his short height proved to be an obstacle. Changing his school to Shardashram Vidya Mandir and meeting Mr. Ramakant Achrekar (who .....
Fitness Tips
Develop a positive attitude. Your thoughts determine how you feel and often determine what you can accomplish. As Napoleon Hill once said, .....
Simple Science
When do we Work. Man's Way of Helping Himself: Whenever, as a result of effort or force, an object is moved, work is done. If you lift a knapsack from the floor to the table, you do work because you use force and move the knapsack through a distance equal to the heig .....
Greatest Fashion Models
Chanel Iman. Her father is African American and her mother is half Korean and African American. She was born in Atlanta, Georgia but grew up in Los Angeles, California. Her mother is the owner of The Red Bag Boutique with daughter in Los Angeles. She helps local .....
Creating Comic Pop Art
Step 6. With this mix, draw some spikes on your nails (this is marked as step 2 in the below picture. Fill in the spikes as shown in step 3.) .....
Abraham Lincoln
Elected President. In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise, and allowed individual states and territories to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery. The law provoked violent opposition in Kansas and Illinois. And .....
Human Body Facts
Hair. A single strand of human hair can support 3.5 ounces of weight. Imagine the strength a head completely filled with hairs. .....
Healthy Lips
Moisturise your lips. It is very important to keep your lips hydrated and moisturised at all times. Dry and chapped lips look shabby and unkempt. When you are going out during the day, it is essential to apply some sun protection or petroleum jelly on your lips. If you ar .....
Valentines Day Chocolates Ideas
Handmade Caramel Nut Clusters. Some things are just meant to be together peanut butter and jelly, French fries and ketchup and chocolate and nuts. This classic combo gets a yummy addition with chewy caramel. 6 almond clusters and cashew clusters are topped with milk chocolate an .....
Best Black Mehndi Designs
Designs 8. Here s another glamorous black mehndi design that will easily add to the beauty of the bride s hands on her special day. The alternating filled and empty rhombus patterns with intricately done minute and varied patterns looks extremely alluring and a .....
Guglielmo Marconi
Groundbreaking Work and Nobel Prize. Marconi founded the Londonbased Marconi Telegraph Company in 1899. Though his original transmission traveled a mere mile and a half, on December 12, 1901, Marconi sent and received the first wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean, from Cornwall, .....
Rose Day
Dark pink roses. Dark pink roses are the indication of pleasure and appreciation and given to the loved ones to appreciate them. .....
Street Food in India
Idli Sambhar. The most favorite south Indian dish, common asbreakfast itemand served with combination of chutney and sambar. Sambhar which tastes so good with idlis and vadas is made with tamarind and pigeon peas. Idlis and vadas sambhar are the best food in the s .....
Best Valentines Day Gifts
Lindt Lindor Valentine Truffles Gift Box. I cant have these insanely delicious chocolates in the house, because I will inhale a whole box in one setting. The solid outer coating of milk chocolate melts away, revealing a luscious truffle filling thats really addictive. If youre shopping for a .....
Simple Science
Chemicals as Food Preservatives. Chemicals as Disinfectants and Preservatives: The spoiling of meats and soups, and the souring of milk and preserves, are due to germs which, like those producing disease, can be destroyed by heat and by chemicals. Milk heated to the boiling point do .....
What to Eat in Gujarat
Adadiya. Adadiya is famous Gujarati Winter special sweet. Adadiya is traditional Katchi and Kathiyawadi sweet. There are many ingredients in Adadiya which helps to keep body warm during winter. .....
Benefits of Dill Seeds
Release sweet and peppery flavor. Good quality seeds release sweet and peppery flavor especially when rubbed between the thumb and the index fingers. .....
Precautions while using Washing Machine
Always sort your laundry for washing. Separate whites, colored fabrics, synthetics,delicates, and woolens. .....
Tips to get ready for New Year
Believe that everything happens for a reason. Expect good things to come out of challenging experiences. .....
What to Eat in Tripura
Panch Phoron Taarkari. Heat the oil and add all the dry spices.Stirfry the spices, add the cut vegetables and mix well. Add the green chillies, sugar, salt, turmeric and mix thoroughly.Pour enough water and add milk to cook the vegetables.Simmer till vegetables are tender .....
Baby Care Tips
Skip the shoes. Look: Until your child can walk, she really doesn t need shoes. Socks? Absolutely! But not shoes. If you still put them on, be honest: It s aboutyou, not her. Save the money until she really needs them. .....
Most Beautiful Red Flowers
Poinsettia. Poinsettia is a bright red flower which is native to America. Poinsettia is not actually a flower; it is a cluster of leaves that changes color and form an incredible hue that people love. They come in colors like orange, cream, but most often in red .....
Bollywood Hits
Guide. Guide was released in the year 1965 directed by Vijay Anand, Based on R. K. Narayan's novel 'The Guide', this Dev Anand- Waheeda Rehman starrer film is regarded as one of the most classic films of Indian cinema. The film is about a guide who helps a .....
Human Body Truths
Muscles. About 200 muscles are required to just take a single step. .....
Cartoons Characters That You Wish Were Real
Fred Flintstone. Fred Flintstone is the main character of the popular cartoon The Flintstones. Fred lives in with his family in the town of Bedrock, in a prehistoric time with dinosaurs and cave people. Fred is the original dumb husband with a good looking wife which .....
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