Precautions while using x rays
. It is a test used to look at the bones and internal organs of the body. It is done by exposing the body to a brief amount of electromagneticradiation and then producing an image over the film. X rays used for medical purposes are about one order of magnitude shorter in wavelength. Diagnostic rays are designated for tissue penetration and are carefully filtered to avoid X ray damage to the skin caused by the longer, more readily absorbed wavelengths.
. Analytical x ray equipment means any device or combination of devices utilizing x rays to determine the microscopic structure or composition of material, including but not limited to, x ray diffraction, x ray spectroscopy, x ray fluorescence or fluorescence x ray spectroscopy equipment. Electron microscopes are not regarded as analytical x ray equipment.
Safety Precautions Shielding
. The normal shielding, safety equipment and safety procedures are applicable for up to 75 kV peak X rays. Additional precautions are necessary for instruments operating at higher voltages. Prior to removal of shielding or before beginning work in the sample area, the operator must check both the warning lights and current meter on the console. The best way to avoid an accidental exposure is to turn the machine off before working in the sample area. Never put any part of the body in the primary beam. Exposure of any part of the body to the collimated beam for even a fraction of a second may result in damage to the exposed tissue.
. The use of safety glasses is encouraged when working with analytical X rays. While glasses cannot provide complete protection to the eyes, they can reduce X ray exposure. Glass provides about 10 times the protection of plastic. Neither one will adequately protect the eye from direct exposure to the primary beam.
Nature of Analytical X rays
. Analytical X ray instruments produce intense beams of ionizing radiation that is used for diffraction and fluorescent studies. At U of T, there are also numerous X ray producing machines for medical and/or dental applications. The chest X ray procedure often involves a view from the back to the front of the body (PA view) as well as a side view (lateral view). Other X rays are taken from front to back of the body (AP view). Occasionally, different angles are considered to interpret certain specific areas.
. One exposure X ray equipment testing technology: obtain kV, dose, dose rate, time, and HVL measurements in one shot for all modalities. The award winning TNT 12000 X Ray Test Device features smart detection technology with industry leading 40 kHZ sampling rate for best in class accuracy, repeatability, and reliability.
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. The TNT 12000 wireless display simultaneously displays all required results in one screen. Customizable to your X ray device safety test measurement routines, this dedicated display is designed to minimize keystrokes and window navigation in all modalities.
DoseMate with ion chambers
. This optional dosimeter technology allows for industry leading accuracy, energy independence, and accommodates ABC/AEC auto settings. The chest X ray procedure often involves a view from the back to the front of the body (PA view) as well as a side view (lateral view). Other X rays are taken from front to back of the body (AP view). Occasionally, different angles are considered to interpret certain specific areas.
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ZigBee wireless system
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Optional invasive or non invasive measurements
. The ability to access generators for direct measurements is changing. These best in class X ray testing tools are capable of both invasive and non invasive mA measurements to ensure your systems are covered now and in the future. X ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation, and therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short amount of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation induced cancer.
X ray Hazards and Biological Effects
. X rays produced by diffraction machines are readily absorbed in the first millimetres of tissue, and therefore do not contribute any dose to the internal organs of the body. However, the lens of the eye can receive a significant dose from X rays of this energy. Overexposure of lens tissue can lead to the development of lens opacities and cataracts.
used for medical purposes
. X rays used for medical purposes are about one order of magnitude shorter in wavelength. Diagnostic rays are designated for tissue penetration and are carefully filtered to avoid X ray damage to the skin caused by the longer, more readily absorbed wavelengths.
Tube Status Indicators
. There must be a visual indication located on or near the tube head to indicate when X rays are being produced. This is usually an assembly consisting of two red bulbs, wired in parallel and labelled X RAYS ON. If one of the bulbs is burned out, the operator should either replace it before leaving the room, or leave a note on the light assembly indicating that the bulb is burned out. An unlit warning bulb does not necessarily mean that X rays are not produced. Never trust a bulb, unless it is illuminated ON! Always check the control panel when the bulb is off.
Safety Devices Interlocks
. Interlock switches are used to prevent inadvertent access to the beam. They should not be bypassed. Interlocks should be checked periodically to insure that they are functioning properly. Interlocks and other safety devices, including warning systems, are not foolproof or fail safe. A safety device should be used as a back up to minimise the risk of radiation exposure never as a substitute for proper procedures and good judgement.
Registration of X ray Instruments
. Users of X ray producing devices on U of T campuses (or in areas that are controlled by U of T) must register their instrument with the University RPS. Registration is necessary for the reporting requirements of the Ontario Ministry of Labour (MOL) and Ministry of Health.
How do X rays produce an image
. As the radiation penetrates the body, it is absorbed in varying amounts by different body tissues. Bones absorb maximum X ray radiation while lung tissue absorbs very little, allowing most of the X ray beam to pass through the lung. Thus when one does the Chest X ray the lungs appear black and bone appear white in color.
Which are the commonly done X rays
. A chest X ray is most commonly done X ray. It helps to detect abnormalities in the lungs, but can also detect abnormalities in the heart, aorta, and the bones of the chest. It can pick up pneumonia, fluid in the lungs, cysts, infections, fractures and heart enlargement commonly. Other X rays done commonly are the X ray of the spine to spinal problems, X rays of the limbs for fractures and X ray of the teeth. Any part of the body can be X rayed depending on what the doctor is suspecting.
What precautions should be taken while doing X ray
. Jewelry, any metallic pin, button is removed from the field of X ray to avoid interference and improve accuracy of the interpretation. Patients are asked to take a deep breath and hold it during the chest X ray in order to inflate the lungs to their maximum to increase the visibility of different tissues. X rays can be taken from front to back. The chest X ray procedure often involves a view from the back to the front of the body (PA view) as well as a side view (lateral view). Other X rays are taken from front to back of the body (AP view). Occasionally, different angles are considered to interpret certain specific areas.
What are the risks of an x ray
. X rays expose the patient to a minimum amount of radiation. We are exposed to radiation from natural sources all the time. The average person in the U.S. receives an effective dose of about 3 mSv per year from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic radiation from outer space. These natural background doses vary throughout the country. The radiation exposure from one chest x ray as equivalent to the amount of radiation exposure one experiences from our natural surroundings in 10 days. Thus X rays are quite safe when used with care. However X rays should be avoided during pregnancy to avoid radiation to the fetus.
Is X ray the same as CT scan or MRI
. Though all these procedures are on the same principal of Radiation, the radiomagnetic fields are different and thus each gives different delineation. X rays are very useful to detect bone and lung lesions. CT is very useful to pick up problems in the internal organs such as brain and abdomen. MRI can delineate anatomy as well as pathology in the organ well. Besides CAT scan and MRI can cause lot of radiation and thus are not done as routine tests.
Warning Signs and Lights
. All analytical x ray equipment must have the following items: A clearly visible label, near any switch energizing an x ray tube, which bears the radiation symbol and the words: Caution: This Equipment Produces X rays When Energized. To Be Operated Only By Authorized Personnel. A clearly visible label, near the x ray tube housing, which bears the radiation symbol and the words: Caution: High Intensity X ray Beam.
exposed to radiation during an X ray
. People are often concerned about being exposed to radiation during an X ray. However, everyone is exposed to sources of natural radiation throughout their life. Natural radiation is sometimes known
an X ray of your chest
. an X ray of your chest, teeth, arms or feet is the equivalent of
an X ray of your skull or neck
. an X ray of your skull or neck is the equivalent
an X ray of your breasts
. an X ray of your breasts (mammogram), hip, spine, abdomen or pelvis is the equivalent of a few months to a year s worth of background radiation, and has a
an X ray that uses a contrast fluid
. an X ray that uses a contrast fluid, such as a barium meal, is the equivalent of a few years worth of background radiation, and has a
X rays and pregnancy
. The doses of radiation used during an
Are Any Precautions Needed When Taking X rays
. Some people worry about radiation, but when doctors and dentists order X ray pictures they take into consideration the minute risk and have decided that the value outweighs the risk. X rays are used to detect injuries to bones, such as breaks and dislocations, and to monitor the recovery from injuries. Chest X rays help doctors look at your heart and lungs, and to confirm a diagnosis of pneumonia, a collapsed lung or lung cancer. Dentists use them frequently to check teeth and bone under the gums.
X rays send small amounts of radiation
. X rays send small amounts of radiation through the body. Because bone is dense, few X rays pass through, so bones show up as white unexposed areas on the X ray image. Softer tissues, such as muscle and blood, appear as gray shadows on the film. Depending on what part of your body is to be X rayed, you will be asked to lie on a table, sit or stand. A lead apron may be draped over part of your body to shield from X rays. With a chest X ray, you will be instructed to take a deep breath and hold it for a few seconds.
before having the X ray
. If you re pregnant or think you might be, speak up. You may be told to skip the X ray. If you ve had an X ray of this part of your body before, old X rays can be compared with the new ones to determine change. If you have any metal in the part of your body being X rayed, say something. Metal items can block part of the image. Try to stay calm during the X ray process. If you move, you ll probably have to repeat the test.
What are x rays and what do they do
. X rays are forms of radiant energy, like light or radio waves. Unlike light, x rays can penetrate the body, which allows a radiologist to produce pictures of internal structures. The radiologist can view these on photographic film or on a TV or computer monitor. X ray examinations provide valuable information about your health and play an important role in helping your doctor make an accurate diagnosis. In some cases x rays are used to assist with the placement of tubes or other devices in the body or with other therapeutic procedures.
Measuring radiation dosage
. The scientific unit of measurement for radiation dose, commonly referred to as effective dose, is the millisievert (mSv) Other radiation dose measurement units include rad, rem, roentgen, sievert, and gray. Because different tissues and organs have varying sensitivity to radiation exposure, the actual radiation risk to different parts of the body from an x ray procedure varies. The term effective dose is used when referring to the radiation risk averaged over the entire body.The effective dose accounts for the relative sensitivities of the different tissues exposed. More importantly, it allows for quantification of risk and comparison to more familiar sources of exposure that range from natural background radiation to radiographic medical procedures.
X rays over your lifetime
. The decision to have an x ray exam is a medical one, based on the likelihood of benefit from the exam and the potential risk from radiation. For low dose examinations, usually those that involve only films taken by a technologist, this is generally an easy decision. For higher dose exams such as computed tomography (CT) scans and those involving the use of contrast Materials (dyes) such as barium or iodine, the radiologist may want to consider your past history of exposure to x rays. If you have had frequent x ray exams and change healthcare providers, it is a good idea to keep a record of your x ray history for yourself. This can help your doctor make an informed decision. It is also very important to tell your doctor if you are pregnant before having an exam that involves the abdomen or pelvic region.
. X rays are electromagnetic energy traveling as waves. They are the same as gamma rays except that gamma rays are emitted from the nucleus of an atom while x rays originate in the atoms electron cloud. Analytical x rays are produced by accelerated electrons from a cathode to an anode (target) in an x ray tube.
X rays can be very penetrating
. X rays can be very penetrating. The voltage of the system indicates how penetrating the x rays will be. The higher the voltage of the generator, the more penetrating the radiation. Just like gamma rays, x rays interact with molecules in the body to produce ion pairs.
protect personnel from these penetrating rays
. To protect personnel from these penetrating rays, thick, dense material (e.g., lead, steel, etc.) is used as shielding. Certain analytical systems, (e.g., x ray diffraction), have sufficient voltage to produce low energy (e.g., 1 50 keV) or soft x rays. The soft x rays with energies from 1 to 20 keV are absorbed in the first few millimeters of the skin, although for extremities, some of this radiation may also be absorbed to the bone.
Excessive exposure from this type of radiation
. Excessive exposure from this type of radiation often produces skin reddening at exposures of approximately 300 rem (300,000 mrem) while severe skin burns can result for exposures above 500 rem. Because some types of analytical x ray systems can produce exposure rates between 1000 and 1,000,000 mrem/hr, even short exposures to the beam are capable of producing damage. For that reason, the primary radiation beam must always be contained in a shield.
. When you need to use an x ray system, work quickly and efficiently. Experiments should be carefully planned and rehearsed to minimize the exposure time. X rays can be very penetrating. The voltage of the system indicates how penetrating the x rays will be. The higher the voltage of the generator, the more penetrating the radiation. Just like gamma rays, x rays interact with molecules in the body to produce ion pairs.
. Because radiation is significantly reduced by distance, remaining at least 6 feet away from an x ray radiation source provides a great deal of protection. When an x ray system is being used, if you are not required to be near the system, move away. Note that many analytical systems use narrow x ray beams. With narrow beams, even being 6 feet away from the system may result in much of the radiation beam being absorbed by your body.
. On installation, primary consideration should be given to ensure each tube is protected by fixed shielding. Reliance should not be placed on protective aprons and other shielding worn by the person using the system. Emplaced shielding is the most effective mechanism of protecting workers from unnecessary x ray exposure. Always operate these systems with all shielding and safety components in place; never tamper with system interlocks.
Analytical X ray Systems
. Analytical x ray machines (e.g., x ray diffraction, etc.) are used extensively for microstructure analysis in various research and teaching activities. Tubes for this purpose usually operate about 35 40 kV and 10 40 mA. In such equipment, the primary x ray beam is permitted to impinge on the specimen and the scattered radiation is measured by a radiation detector located at various angles with respect to the sample.
Precautions and Guidelines
. Get proper training/instruction from the person in control before operating x ray producing machines. Never assume the unit was left in a safe working condition by the previous user, check the shielding before turning the unit on. Unless a pre operational check was made, do not trust the warning lights when they are not lit. To check the light s operability, set the unit to its lowest kV and mA setting and check the warning lights and interlocks. Do not bypass any safety device or interlock without the approval of the person in control of the machine. In such cases, post a sign stating Safety Device Not Working. Return the system to its unmodified state with all interlocks operational as soon as possible.
Shielding should always be adequate
. Shielding should always be adequate so other factors need not be required for safety. However, exposure reduction techniques include, increasing your distance from the x ray source, increasing shielding, and decreasing the time spent near the x ray source. Do not work near the open, unshielded beam. However, if it is necessary to work near the unshielded radiation beam (e.g., for system alignment): Reduce the beam current (mA) and the beam energy (kV) to the lowest settings possible to reduce exposure rates. Keep hands and body at a safe distance from the beam by using appropriate alignment tools.
Analytical X ray Equipment Radiation Safety Requirements
. X ray producing devices at UWM are regulated by the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Family Services (DHFS), Radiation Protection Section. All applicable regulations and safety requirements should be adhered to whenever working with x ray producing equipment. Some of the most important safety requirements are: A safety device must be provided which prevents entry of any part of an individual s body into the primary x ray beam path or which causes the beam to be shut off immediately upon such entry.
. X ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation, and therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short amount of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation induced cancer. In medical imaging this increased cancer risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination. The ionizing capability of X rays can be utilized in cancer treatment to kill malignant cells using radiation therapy. It is also used for material characterization using X ray spectroscopy.
Interaction with matter
. X rays interact with matter in three main ways, through photoabsorption, Compton scattering, and Rayleigh scattering. The strength of these interactions depend on the energy of the X rays and the elemental composition of the material, but not much on chemical properties since the X ray photon energy is much higher than chemical binding energies. Photoabsorption or photoelectric absorption is the dominant interaction mechanism in the soft X ray regime and for the lower hard X ray energies. At higher energies, Compton scattering dominates.
. The probability of a photoelectric absorption per unit mass is approximately proportional to Z3/E3, where Z is the atomic number and E is the energy of the incident photon. This rule is not valid close to inner shell electron binding energies where there are abrupt changes in interaction probability, so called absorption edges. However, the general trend of high absorption coefficients and thus short penetration depths for low photon energies and high atomic numbers is very strong. For soft tissue photoabsorption dominates up to about 26 keV photon energy where Compton scattering takes over. For higher atomic number substances this limit is higher. The high amount of calcium (Z=20) in bones together with their high density is what makes them show up so clearly on medical radiographs.
. Compton scattering is the predominant interaction between X rays and soft tissue in medical imaging. Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of the X ray photon by an outer shell electron. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the scattering electron, thereby ionizing the atom and increasing the wavelength of the X ray. The scattered photon can go in any direction, but a direction similar to the original direction is a bit more likely, especially for high energy X rays. The probability for different scattering angles are described by the Klein
. Rayleigh scattering is the dominant elastic scattering mechanism in the X ray regime.The inelastic forward scattering is what gives rise to the refractive index, which for X rays is only. X rays can be very penetrating. The voltage of the system indicates how penetrating the x rays will be. The higher the voltage of the generator, the more penetrating the radiation. Just like gamma rays, x rays interact with molecules in the body to produce ion pairs.
. Spectrum of the X rays emitted by an X ray tube with a rhodium target, operated at 60 kV. The smooth, continuous curve is due to bremsstrahlung, and the spikes are characteristic K lines for rhodium atoms. Since X rays are emitted by electrons, they can be generated by an X ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anode, creating the X rays. In medical X ray tubes the target is usually tungsten or a more crack resistant alloy of rhenium (5%) and tungsten (95%), but sometimes molybdenum for more specialized applications, such as when softer X rays are needed as in mammography. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X ray fluorescence
. If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X ray photons are emitted. This process produces an emission spectrum of X rays at a few discrete frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. Usually these are transitions from upper shells into K shell (called K lines), into L shell (called L lines) and so on.
. This is radiation given off by the electrons as they are scattered by the strong electric field near the high Z (proton number) nuclei. These X rays have a continuous spectrum. The intensity of the X rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X ray tube.
. X ray detectors vary in shape and function depending on their purpose. Imaging detectors such as those used for radiography were originally based on photographic plates and later photographic film but are now mostly replaced by various digital detector types such as image plates or flat panel detectors. For radiation protection direct exposure hazard is often evaluated using ionization chambers, while dosimeters are used to measure the radiation dose a person has been exposed to. X ray spectra can be measured either by energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive spectrometers.
. A radiograph is an X ray image obtained by placing a part of the patient in front of an X ray detector and then illuminating it with a short X ray pulse. Bones contain much calcium, which due to its relatively high atomic number absorbs x rays efficiently. This reduces the amount of X rays reaching the detector in the shadow of the bones, making them clearly visible on the radiograph.
. Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians or radiation therapists to obtain real time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen to an X ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor. This method may use a contrast material. Examples include cardiac catheterization (to examine for coronary artery blockages) and barium swallow (to examine for esophageal disorders).
. The use of X rays as a treatment is known as radiation therapy and is largely used for the management (including palliation) of cancer; it requires higher radiation energies than for imaging alone. X radiation (composed of X rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3?1016 Hz to 3?1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X radiation is referred to with terms meaning R
. Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk. Diagnostic X rays (primarily from CT scans due to the large dose used) increase the risk of developmental problems and cancer in those exposed. X rays are classified as a carcinogen by both the World Health Organization s International Agency for Research on Cancer and the U.S. government. It is estimated that 0.4% of current cancers in the United States are due to computed tomography (CT scans) performed in the past and that this may increase to as high as 1.5 2% with 2007 rates of CT usage.
The Risks of an X Ray
. X rays use small amounts of radiation. The level of exposure is considered safe for adults. However, it is not considered safe for a developing fetus. Be sure to tell your doctor before the procedure if you are pregnant or believe you could be pregnant. Your doctor may suggest a different testing method that does not use radiation, such as an MRI. If you are having an X ray due to a traumatic event that caused pain and possibly a broken bone, you may experience additional pain during the X ray. The test requires you to adjust your body so that clear images can be taken. This may cause you discomfort. If you are worried, you can ask your doctor for pain medicine prior to your X ray.
How to Prepare for an X Ray
. X rays are standard procedures and involve almost no preparation from the patient. Depending on the area under review, you may want to wear loose, comfortable clothing that you can easily move around in. You may also be asked to change into a hospital gown for the test. You will be instructed to remove any jewelry and other metallic items from your body before the X ray is taken. You should always tell your doctor if you have any metal implants from prior surgeries. These can block the X rays from passing through your body.If your test requires contrast dye, a doctor or nurse will give it to you as an injection, an edema, or a pill to swallow before the test. If your X ray is examining your intestines, your doctor may tell you to fast for a certain amount of time beforehand, or to clear out your bowels.
How an X Ray Is Performed
. X rays can be done in a hospital
After an X Ray
. After the test, you can change back into your regular clothes and go about your normal activities. Your radiologist and doctor will review the X rays and discuss your condition. Results from your X ray may be available the same day. Your doctor will view the X rays and the radiologist
Is it safe to receive x rays during pregnancy
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. Attached by Pixes at 25 May 2014, this awesome wallpaper titled wonderful design with high speed performance on BMW 1000 RR Yellow Hi Res Wallpapers Motorcycle, originally have details dimension in 1920 px width and height in 1200 px. Labelled in Mo
Ideas to Boost Business
Raise Your Prices
. a. Has your competition raised their prices? Maybe you should too. b. Higher prices separate you from the crowd, and implies your product is better, an deserves a premium price. BMW does not compete with Yugos. c. Be careful in this area. The custo
Never seen Water Like This
Kangaroo River New South Wales Australia
. A long exposure captures the whirlpool action of this section of river in the Southern Highlands region.
Ten Ball Billiards
10 Ball Billiards Rules History
. Ten ball has been played competitively from 2000 to 2006 as the Florida Open Ten Ball Championship. On May 23, 2007, the first World Ten Ball Championship was held in Jacksonville Florida. The game is said to have been developed out of the request of