Precautions while using centrifuge

Centrifuge
1. A centrifuge is a machine designed to separate heavy material from light material. When the substance is a very fine solid in a solution, separating parts of the mixture can be more difficult than a solid. In our case, we will use a centrifuge to separate DNA from a liquid so we can focus just on the DNA. A centrifuge works by spinning the substance at high speed. You have probably seen the trick where you fill a bucket of water about halfway full, spin it around, and watch as the water stays in the bucket. The water is pushed against the bottom of the bucket by what is colloquially known as centrifugal force. Though not a real force, but a reaction to the centripetal force, centrifugal force pushes against the bottom of the bucket. This causes the particles in the solution to clump at the bottom of the tube. That solid clump is called a pellet, and the solution above it is called the supernatant . .....
A laboratory centrifuge
2. A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of laboratory equipment, driven by a motor, which spins liquid samples at high speed. There are various types of centrifuges, depending on the size and the sample capacity. Like all other centrifuges, laboratory centrifuges work by the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration is used to separate substances of greater and lesser density. .....
Background
3. Centrifugation may present two serious hazards: mechanical failure and dispersion of aerosols. This fact sheet describes safety and maintenance procedures to minimize centrifuge hazards. If a centrifuge malfunctions while in operation, turn it off immediately and unplug. If tube breakage occurs, turn centrifuge off immediately. Leave for 30 minutes to reduce the risk of aerosols. The operator should wear proper gloves, remove debris, clean and disinfect centrifuge interior, rotors, safety cups or buckets following the manufacturer s instructions. .....
Centrifuge Safety
4. Centrifuges can create aerosols and this must be considered with each use. The necessary precautions taken will depend upon what is being used. If hazardous materials such as carcinogens, highly toxic, or infectious agents will be placed in a centrifuge, then precautions must be taken to prevent an exposure of lab personnel to aerosols or liquids. .....
The work surface must be level and firm
5. Do not use the centrifuge on an uneven or slanted work surface. If a spill has occurred in the centrifuge, hold breath, close the centrifuge lid, turn centrifuge off, and immediately leave the lab. Notify others to evacuate the lab, close the door, post a biohazard spill sign at the lab door. Remove any contaminated protective clothing and place in a biohazard bag. Wash hands and any exposed skin surfaces with soap and water. Seek medical attention as necessary. .....
Balance the tubes in the rotor
6. If you want to run a tube with 10 mL of liquid, put another tube with 10 mL of water in the opposing hole on the rotor (see photo, below). If the liquid has a higher or lower density than water, you must balance the tubes by mass, not volume. The total mass of each tube should be as close as possible this becomes increasingly important at very high rotor speeds. Running a centrifuge with unbalanced load could permanently damage the centrifuge. It could also cause injury to you or someone else. .....
Do not open the lid while the rotor is moving
7. Even though many centrifuges have a safety shutoff if the lid is opened, the only thing this does is stop powering the rotor. The rotor will still spin due to its own inertia for a while until friction slows and eventually stops it. For centrifuges with swinging bucket rotors, fasten a protective inner safety lid (if available for your model centrifuge) onto the bucket; for those with fixed angle rotors, fasten an inner safety lid to the rotor before centrifugation. Ensure that the safety lid is properly sealed and positively locked into place. .....
If you see it wobbling or shaking pull the plug
8. A little vibration is normal, but excessive amounts can mean danger. FIRST, double check that you correctly balanced the tubes. If the answer is yes and the wobbling still happens, contact the manufacturer or dealer and get the unit serviced. If you bought the centrifuge from us, here s the contact info if the unit needs service or replacement. Do NOT continue to run a centrifuge that wobbles visibly when the rotor is spinning. .....
Wear a face shield and or safety goggles
9. Wear a face shield and / or safety goggles if you have to work anywhere near a centrifuge that s in use. Accidents happen sometimes under the most freakish or unexpected circumstances. The rotor is spinning very rapidly and generates extreme forces. Although a physicist would tell you that centrifugal force is an illusory force , the point makes not one bit of difference to the sample as it spins in the rotor. It might as well be experiencing a real force that pulls the particles toward the bottom / outside of the tube. These illusory forces have been known to tear apart enormous flywheels in factories, for example, with disastrous consequences (read some of the compilations of machinists stories from Lindsay Publications, for instance). .....
Do not bump jar or move the centrifuge while the rotor is spinning
10. Instruct all other persons in the area to stay clear of the unit while it s operating. Make sure you don t have the cord dangling from a table edge where someone could catch their foot in it and pull down the centrifuge. Start the centrifuge when the centrifuge lid should be covered only after the slow start. After separation, first turn off the centrifuge, the centrifuge stopped turning, only open the centrifuge cover and remove the samples, not with external force it to stop. centrifugation time is generally 1 to 2 minutes, during which the experimenter not to leave to do something else. .....
Discard any centrifuge tubes that have cracks in them
11. centrifuge pre cooled state, the centrifuge lid must be closed, after centrifugation turned out to be inverted in the experimental stage, dry the cavity more than water, the centrifuge lid is open. II. turned to when the transfer head covered in the pre cooling can be placed in the centrifuge platform, or placed in the experimental stage, do not tighten the float is not turned on, because once the errors start, turn skull will fly out, causing the accident! III. turn after tightening bonnet must use the touch of a finger and turned to whether the gap between the switch cover and, if re opened the gap to tighten the screw until the confirmation before starting the centrifuge seamless. IV. In the centrifuge process, the operator shall not leave the centrifuge chamber, in the event of unusual circumstances the operator can not turn off the power POWER, according to STOP. Fill in the pre cooling centrifuge before use records. .....
Lids
12. Discontinue use of any centrifuge that does not have a lid and do not retrofit the unit with a lid that does not have a latch. All personnel should follow universal precautions when performing centrifugation and other functions that may expose workers to splashed blood or body fluids. These precautions include wearing gloves, facial protection (e.g., shields), gowns or laboratory coats, and plastic aprons; these are described in detail in the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) tentative guideline and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration s (OSHA) bloodborne pathogens standard. .....
Latches
13. Discontinue use of any centrifuge that does not have a latch; the latch keeps the centrifuge lid closed in the event of tube breakage or other problems while the centrifuge is operating. All such units should be replaced or modified to include a latch; contact the manufacturer for information. .....
Interlocks
14. If available, purchase centrifuges that have lids with interlocks to prevent the user from opening the lid while the rotor is spinning. Centrifuge rotors are made to withstand these extreme centrifugal forces (i.e., they re designed to give enough centripetal force to keep the rotor together as it spins), but it s better to be prepared in case something fails. It may be fascinating to watch the tubes spin around in the centrifuge, but don t make it a habit. Turn the unit on and keep your distance until well after the timer shuts off the motor this is just a basic safety rule for all centrifuges. .....
Inner safety lids
15. When possible, purchase centrifuges that have inner safety lids for the buckets or rotor. If the units being purchased allow the outer lid to be opened while the rotor is spinning at low speeds, be sure they have protective inner lids. .....
Proper Use of Centrifuges
16. Ensure that the centrifuge tubes are properly balanced and that the speed and tube length are in accordance with the tube and the centrifuge manufacturer s recommendations. Do not use tubes that are not properly sized for the rotor. If using a swinging bucket rotor, ensure that the tubes are placed in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions; long tubes (e.g., greater than 100 mm) placed in the corner tube holders closest to the rotor shaft may break when the rotor buckets swing out. .....
Protective inner safety lid
17. For centrifuges with swinging bucket rotors, fasten a protective inner safety lid (if available for your model centrifuge) onto the bucket; for those with fixed angle rotors, fasten an inner safety lid to the rotor before centrifugation. Ensure that the safety lid is properly sealed and positively locked into place. .....
Maintenance Procedures for Centrifuges
18. During preventive maintenance, ensure that the nut that secures the rotor to the shaft is tight (check the manufacturer s instructions).Clean and disinfect all centrifuges regularly according to the manufacturer s recommendations. Contact the manufacturer for guidance if the operator s manual does not specify cleaning or disinfecting agents. Prolonged contact with some disinfectants (e.g., 10% sodium hypochlorite) may damage the rotor and other centrifuge components; be sure that such solutions are removed by rinsing well with water. .....
Centrifuge Safety Guide
19. Centrifugation may present two serious hazards: mechanical failure and dispersion of aerosols. This fact sheet describes safety and maintenance procedures to minimize centrifuge hazards. Use of centrifuges by new users must be closely supervised by the employee responsible for each centrifuge until he/she is satisfied that unsupervised usage of the instrument is safe. All users must be familiar with the safety procedures for all of the centrifuges that they use, including proper load selection, balancing and maintenance of rotor where necessary. .....
Safe Procedures for Centrifugation
20. Before centrifugation 1 Train each operator on proper operating procedures, review the user manual. 2 Use only rotors compatible with the centrifuge. Check the expiration date for ultracentrifuge rotors.3 Check tubes, bottles, and rotors for cracks and deformities before each use. 4 Make sure that the rotor, tubes, and spindle are dry and clean. 5 Examine O rings and replace if worn, cracked, or missing. 6 Never overfill centrifuge tubes (don t exceed ? full). 7 Always cap tubes before centrifugation. Always balance8 buckets, tubes, and rotors properly.9 Check that the rotor is seated on the drive correctly, close the lid on the centrifuge, and secure it.10 When using swinging bucket rotors, make sure that all buckets are hooked correctly and move freely. .....
During centrifugation
21. During centrifugation 1 Close lids at all times during operation. Never open a centrifuge until the rotor has stopped. 2 Do not exceed safe rotor speed. 3 The operator should not leave the centrifuge until full operating speed is attained and the machine appears to be running safely without vibration. 4 Stop the centrifuge immediately if an unusual condition (noise or vibration) begins and check load balances. .....
After centrifugation
22. After centrifugation 1 Allow the centrifuge to come to a complete stop before opening. 2 Wear new pair of outer gloves to remove rotor and samples. 3 Check inside of centrifuge for possible spills and leaks, clean centrifuge and rotor thoroughly if necessary. 4 Wash hands after removing gloves. .....
Centrifuging infectious materials or human samples
23. Avoid the use of celluloid tubes with biohazards. If celluloid tubes must be used, an appropriate chemical disinfectant must be used to decontaminate them. 2 Always use sealed safety cups, safety buckets, or sealed rotors with O rings as secondary containment. 3 Always wear gloves when handling tubes or rotors. 4 Place a biohazard label on the centrifuge. 5 Fill centrifuge tubes, load into rotors, remove from rotors, and open tubes within a biological safety cabinet whenever possible. 6 Wipe exterior of tubes or bottles with disinfectant prior to loading into rotor or bucket. Seal rotor or bucket, remove outer gloves, and transport to the centrifuge. 7 Wait at least 10 minutes after the run to allow aerosols to settle before opening the centrifuge. Check for possible spills or leaks. For spills of infectious materials transmitted by inhalation, see Emergency Procedures below. .....
Centrifuge Maintenance
24. Moisture, chemicals, strong cleaning agents, and other substances can promote corrosion of centrifuge parts and cause centrifuge failure. The following are general maintenance recommendations: 1 Follow manufacturer instructions for maintenance and cleaning.2 Keep the centrifuge clean and dry. 3 Clean all spills immediately and decontaminate the rotor after use with biological or radioactive materials. 4 Clean rotors and cups with non corrosive detergents (mild detergent and distilled water are recommended), then dry the surface thoroughly. .....
Know your rotors and maintain a log book
25. Rotors (high speed and ultra) of unknown history may not be used. A complete and comprehensive rotor log is to be kept for every high speed and ultracentrifuge rotor, and will include all user names, run dates, durations, speeds, total rotor revolutions, and any notes on rotor condition.Rotor manufacture date, and the date of stress testing (magnaflux or other professionally recognized analysis) if applicable, shall be recorded and kept with the rotor log. .....
General Before centrifugation
26. Train each operator on proper operating procedures, review the user manual. .....
Warrantie details
27. All centrifuge maintenance must be clearly documented in the log book provided in the lab for each unit. This includes record of service history, warranties and warranty expiration dates as well as details of maintenance carried out by laboratory users.2. If no reliable record of centrifuge history is found, or records are inadequate or not up to date, the unit concerned must be immediately taken out of service. A service representative from the centrifuge manufacturer must be contacted and the unit completely inspected and parts requiring replacement ordered and replaced by the service representative. Proper records must be kept thereafter. .....
General precautions
28. Centrifuging presents the possibility of two serious hazards: mechanical failure and aerosols. The most common hazard associated with centrifuging is a broken tube.To ensure safety when operating a centrifuge, take precautions to ensure the following: 1 Proper loading (accurate balancing) 2 Safe operating speeds (do not exceed manufacturer recommendations) 3 Safe stopping 4 Complete removal of materials 5 Proper cleanup. .....
Specific guidance
29. Follow these guidelines when working with a centrifuge: 1 When loading the rotor, examine the tubes for signs of stress, and discard any tubes that are damaged. 2 Inspect the inside of each tube cavity or bucket. Remove any glass or other debris from the rubber cushion. 3 Ensure that the centrifuge has adequate shielding to guard against accidental flyaways. 4 Use a centrifuge only if it has a disconnect switch that deactivates the rotor when the lid is open. 5 Do not overfill a centrifuge tube to the point where the rim, cap, or cotton plug becomes wet. 6 Always keep the lid closed during operation and shut down. Do not open the lid until the rotor is completely stopped. 7 Do not brake the head rotation by hand. 8 Do not use aluminum foil to cap a centrifuge tube. Foil may rupture or detach. 9 When balancing the rotors, consider the tubes, buckets, adapters, inserts, and any added solution. 10 Stop the rotor and discontinue operation if you notice anything abnormal such as a noise or vibration. 11 Rotor heads, buckets, adapters, tubes, and plastic inserts must match. .....
Low speed centrifuges
30. Low speed and small portable centrifuges that do no have aerosol tight chambers may allow aerosols to escape. Use a safety bucket to prevent aerosols from escaping. All centrifuges that have manufacturers rotor derating systems including ultracentrifuges,high speed centrifuges (Sorval and equivalent instruments) and high speed benchtop(Eppendorf, IEC, Jouan and equivalent instruments) must have an up to date record of the total hours of usage (refer to centrifuge use logs). Microcentrifuges and other low speed centrifuges do not require use logs. .....
High speed centrifuges
31. High speed centrifuges pose additional hazards due to the higher stress and force applied to their rotors and tubes. In addition to the safety guidelines outlined above, follow these guidelines for high speed centrifuges: 1 Filter the air exhausted from the vacuum lines. 2 Keep a record of rotor usage, in order to avoid the hazard of metal fatigue. 3 Frequently inspect, clean, and dry rotors to prevent corrosion or other damage. 4 Follow the manufacturer s operating instructions exactly. .....
Centrifuge tubes
32. Centrifuge tubes or centrifuge tips are tubes of various sizes made of glass or plastic. They may vary in capacity from tens of millilitres, to much smaller capacities used in microcentrifuges used extensively in molecular biology laboratories. The most commonly encountered tubes are of about the size and shape of a normal test tube (~ 10 cm long). Microcentrifuges typically accommodate microcentrifuge tubes with capacities from 250 ?l to 2.0 ml. These are exclusively made of plastic. .....
Glass centrifuge tubes
33. Glass centrifuge tubes can be used with most solvents, but tend to be more expensive. They can be cleaned like other laboratory glassware, and can be sterilized by autoclaving. Plastic centrifuge tubes, especially tend to be less expensive. Water is preferred when plastic centrifuge tubes are used. They are more difficult to clean thoroughly, and are usually inexpensive enough to be considered disposable. .....
Safety in different case
34. The load in a laboratory centrifuge must be carefully balanced. This is achieved by using a combination of samples and balance tubes which all have the same weight or by using various balancing patterns without balance tubes. Small differences in mass of the load can result in a large force imbalance when the rotor is at high speed. This force imbalance strains the spindle and may result in damage to the centrifuge or personal injury. Some centrifuges have an automatic rotor imbalance detection feature that immediately discontinues the run when an imbalance is detected. .....
Centrifuge rotors
35. Centrifuge rotors have tremendous kinetic energy during high speed rotation. Rotor failure, caused by mechanical stress from the high forces imparted by the motor, can occur due to manufacturing defects, routine wear and tear, or improper use and maintenance. Such a failure can be catastrophic failure, especially with larger centrifuges, and generally results in total destruction of the centrifuge. While centrifuges generally have safety shielding to contain these failures, such shielding may be inadequate, especially in older models, or the entire centrifuge unit may be propelled from its position, resulting in damage to nearby personnel and equipment. Uncontained rotor failures have shattered laboratory windows and destroyed refrigerators and cabinetry. To reduce the risk of rotor failures, centrifuge manufactures specify operating and maintenance procedures to ensure that rotors are regularly inspected and removed from service or derated (only operated at lower speeds) when they are past their expected lifetime. .....
A ThermoFisher laboratory bench top centrifuge
36. Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a rotational speed such as revolutions per minute. The acceleration is often quoted in multiples of g, the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth s surface. This distinction is important because two rotors with different diameters running at the same rotational speed will subject samples to different accelerations. .....
General Safety Measures
37. Centrifuges are instruments with strong potential for harming users due to the high speed at which they operate: mechanical failure of the rotor can result in injury, even death; and sample container breakage can generate aerosols that are harmful to inhale. Thus, it is very important to act safely when using and maintaining these instruments. .....
Centrifuge maintenance log User
38. It is the responsibility of the user to: attend a mandatory training session on centrifuge lab safety, use, care and maintenance before being allowed to operate a centrifuge,operate and maintain all centrifuges in accordance with NIEHS policy and good safe laboratory procedures, safety procedures as required),Read and follow all instructions for safe usage and maintenance of the centrifuge. .....
Maintenance
39. All centrifuge maintenance must be clearly documented in the log book provided in the lab for each unit. This includes record of service history, warranties and warranty expiration dates as well as details of maintenance carried out by laboratory users.2. If no reliable record of centrifuge history is found, or records are inadequate or not up to date, the unit concerned must be immediately taken out of service. A service representative from the centrifuge manufacturer must be contacted and the unit completely inspected and parts requiring replacement ordered and replaced by the service representative. Proper records must be kept thereafter. .....
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Enter the Ice Age Alaska. The last ice age may have ended thousands of years ago, but Alaskas Kenai Fjords National Park seems to be one of the last places on Earth where it is continuing. This mountainous area is subject to a monumental 400 inches of snowfall every year and .....
Benefits of Cloves
Blood circulation. Clove oil increases your body s metabolism by increasing blood circulation and reducing body temperature. An increase in blood circulation typically means a reduction in tension of the blood vessels, a problem commonly associated with tension headach .....
What to Eat in Manipur
Poora Mach. Ease the fillets away from the backbone of the fish, leaving them attached at the sides. Rub the oil on to the insides and outside of the whole fish. Apply in between the fillets.Mix together all the ingredients into a paste, marinate the fish with .....
Benefits of Tamarillo fruits
Health Benefits of Tree. Tree tamarillo contain high levels of vitamin A, imperative for boosting eyesight, maintaining skin health, and supporting ideal red blood cell levels. The fruits high vitamin C content assists the body with immunity, bone health, and wound repair. .....
Wedding
Frugality Define it. Some pre marital exercises have people describe whether their partner is frugal or lavish. But as one married friend pointed out, her husband .....
Pet Care
Precaution in snow 2. Health Tips : Never let your dog off the leash on snow or ice, especially during a snowstorm, dogs can lose their scent and easily become lost. More dogs are lost during winter than during any other season, so make sure you put ID tags to identify yo .....
Tips to get ready for Vacation
Getting Ready to Go Home After Your Vacation. Of course, one of the hardest parts of planning your trip is preparing for the end of your vacation. After a week of relaxation, fun and adventure, you just might not want to say goodbye to this tropical paradise. However, by making the most of your .....
Weird Hotels around the World
Bauer Il Palazzo. Venice, Italy In the heart of Venice, lies a highly unique boutique hotel combining soul, romance and culture. Built in the Venetian-style palazzo, the Bauer combines an eclectic mix of the finest Italian d?cor including Rubelli and Bevila .....
Precautions while using Electrical Equipment
Check that the outer cover of the equipment is not damaged. Check that the outer cover of the equipment is not damaged in a way that will give rise to electrical or mechanical hazards. Experiments carried out on students (with medical staff standing by just in case) have shown that a current of 50mA to 500 mA .....
Largest Shopping Malls Of The World
The Dubai Mall. Part of the 20 billion dollar Burj Khalifa complex, the Dubai Mall has over 1,200 shops.The Dubai Mall expansion has commencedThe massive expansion of The Dubai Mall, the world .....
World Flags
Saint Barthelemy. the flag of France is used .....
Chourishi Systems