Precautions while using cathode ray oscilloscope
Cathode ray oscilloscope
. The cathode ray oscilloscope CRO is a common laboratory instrument that provides accurate time and aplitude measurements of voltage signals over a wide range of frequencies. Its reliability, stability, and ease of operation make it suitable as a general purpose laboratory instrument. The heart of the CRO is a cathode ray tube shown schematically.
The cathode ray is a beam of electrons which are emitted by the heated cathode negative electrode and accelerated toward the fluorescent screen. The assembly of the cathode, intensity grid, focus grid, and accelerating anode positive electrode is called an electron gun. Its purpose is to generate the electron beam and control its intensity and focus. Between the electron gun and the fluorescent screen are two pair of metal plates one oriented to provide horizontal deflection of the beam and one pair oriented ot give vertical deflection to the beam. These plates are thus referred to as the horizontal and vertical deflection plates. The combination of these two deflections allows the beam to reach any portion of the fluorescent screen. Wherever the electron beam hits the screen, the phosphor is excited and light is emitted from that point. This coversion of electron energy into light allows us to write with points or lines of light on an otherwise darkened screen.
. A simplified block diagram of a typical oscilloscope is shown in Fig. 3. In general, the instrument is operated in the following manner. The signal to be displayed is amplified by the vertical amplifier and applied to the verical deflection plates of the CRT. A portion of the signal in the vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal. This pulse turns on the sweep generator, initiating the sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates. Usually, additional provisions signal are made for appliying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering. Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal amplifier.
. The controls available on most oscilloscopes provide a wide range of operating conditions and thus make the instrument especially versatile. Since many of these controls are common to most oscilloscopes a brief description of them follows.
Switching the cro on
. O.K. this may seem simple, but the first step is simply the act of locating the power switch and turning the CRO on.Seems simple but just keep it in mind that somebody is going to have trouble doing this.
Ensuring the cro is calibrated correctly
. Rotate both Gain Variable Controls and the Time Base Variable Control completely clockwise, or untill an audible click becomes apparent.Taking the action mentioned above allows us to be sure that the CRO is properly calibrated and any readings taken are accurate.Where can I find diagrams showing the location of these controls.
Adjusting the trace position and appearance
. First we set the AC GND DC for both Channels A and B to GND.this should allow us to see a horizontal line across the display The next thing that we do is use the Mode Selector to allow us to view channel A on the display.Now that we can see the position of the trace we use both the Intensity and Focus controls to achieve a clear appearing trace.Finally we move the trace into the center of the display using the both the Horizontal Position Control and the Vertical Position Control corresponding to Channel A.Use the Mode Selector to view the trace of Channel B on the display.Repeat d .Finally to check that the above steps have been carried out correctly we can set the Mode Selection Switch to DUAL which will allow us to view both traces on the displays.s
Checking that the cro is triggered correctly
. Before any measurements can be made we must ensure that the CRO is correctly triggered. The best way to do this is to follow the steps listed below. First check that the Trigger Level Control is set in the AUTO position. This is done by pulling the knob towards you.Now we put the Slope Control to the Positive selection.Ensure that the Sync Selector is in the A.C. position.Finally make sure that unless otherwise advised, leave the Source Selector in the INT position.
Connecting the cro to the circuit
. It is most important, when connecting the CRO to make a circuit measurement, to remember that the CRO can only take readings of VOLTAGES. This means that the CRO should always be connected in PARALELL to the circuit element over which we are trying to find the voltage.We now need to select which device we will use to connect the CRO to the circuit. The two devices that we have to choose from are the X10 Probe and the Coaxial Cable. In almost all cases we will use the Coaxial Cable as the X10 Probe is only required when we wish to make extremely accurate readings.
Measuring the input signal
. O.K. now we that the CRO has been connected to the circuit we can actually adjust the view of the signal on the display to allow us to make an accurate reading This is done by following the instructions listed belowSelect the input channel that we wish to view using the Mode Selector.i.e. if Channel A is required the Mode Selector would be in the CH A position, Channel B the CH B position and to see both of the input signals the Mode Selector would be in the DUAL position.
After selecting the input we wish to the AC GND DC Selector is moved from the GND position to the D.C. position.NOTE It may seem that if an A.C. signal is being measured, the AC GND DC Selector should be set in the A.C. position. This is not neccessary unless there is a large D.C. offset in the A.C. input. So please avoid the temptation to use the A.C. selection.At this point the Vertical Gain must be adjusted. This is adjusted to allow the signal to be viewed on a scale that is convienient. Show me examples of how the Vertical Gain Controls Work..
. To learn how to operate a cathode ray oscilloscope.
Cathode ray tube
. Power and Scale Illumination Turns instrument on and controls illumination of the graticule.Focus Focus the spot or trace on the screen.Intensity Regulates the brightness of the spot or trace.
Vertical amplifier section
. Position Controls vertical positioning of oscilloscope display.
Sensitivity Selects the sensitivity of the vertical amplifier in calibrated steps.
Variable Sensitivity Provides a continuous range of sensitivities between the calibrated steps. Normally the sensitivity is calibrated only when the variable knob is in the fully clockwise position.
AC DC GND Selects desired coupling ac or dc for incoming signal applied to vertical amplifier, or grounds the amplifier input. Selecting dc couples the input directly to the amplifier; selecting ac send the signal through a capacitor before going to the amplifier thus blocking any constant component.
Horizontal sweep section
. Sweep time cm Selects desired sweep rate from calibrated steps or admits external signal to horizontal amplifier.
Sweep time cm Variable Provides continuously variable sweep rates. Calibrated position is fully clockwise.
Position Controls horizontal position of trace on screen.
Horizontal Variable Controls the attenuation reduction of signal applied to horizontal aplifier through Ext. Horiz. connector.
. The trigger selects the timing of the beginning of the horizontal sweep.Slope Selects whether triggering occurs on an increasing + or decreasing portion of trigger signal.Coupling Selects whether triggering occurs at a specific dc or ac level.
. Before plugging the oscilloscope into a wall receptacle, set the controls as follows
a Power switch at off
b Intensity fully counter clockwise
c Vertical centering in the center of range
d Horizontal centering in the center of range
e Vertical at 0.2
f Sweep times 1
. Never advance the Intensity Control so far that an excessively bright spot appears. Bright spots imply burning of the screen. A sharp focused spot of high intensity great brightness should never be allowed to remain fixed in one position on the screen for any length of time as damage to the screen may occur.
. I. Set the signal generator to a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. Connect the output from the gererator to the vertical input of the oscilloscope. Establish a steady trace of this input signal on the scope. Adjust play with all of the scope and signal generator controls until you become familiar with the functionof each. The purpose fo such playing is to allow the student to become so familiar with the oscilloscope that it becomes an aid tool in making measurements in other experiments and not as a formidable obstacle. Note If the vertical gain is set too low, it may not be possible to obtain a steady trace.
Measurements of voltage
. Consider the circuit in Fig. 4 a . The signal generator is used to produce a 1000 hertz sine wave. The AC voltmeter and the leads to the verticle input of the oscilloscope are connected across the generators output. By adjusting the Horizontal Sweep time cm and trigger, a steady trace of the sine wave may be displayed on the screen. The trace represents a plot of voltage vs. time, where the vertical deflection of the trace about the line of symmetry CD is proportional to the magnitude of the voltage at any instant of time.
. A multimeter is used to make various electrical measurements, such as AC and DC voltage, AC and DC current, and resistance. It is called a multimeter because it combines the functions of a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Multimeters may also have other functions, such as diode andcontinuity tests. The descriptions and pictures that follow are specific to the Fluke 73 Series III Multimeter, but other multimeters are similar.
. A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes.It is used to test the response of circuits to common input signals. The electrical leads from the device are attached to the ground and signal input terminals of the device under test.
Features and controls
. Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape of the output from a small number of options.Square wave The signal goes directly from high to low voltage.Sine wave The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage.Triangle wave The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate.
Phase measurement using lissajous patterns
. To Measure the phase difference of two sine waves their frequencies must be equal.
1. Connect a 1Volt peak peak, 1KHz sine wave signal from the function generator to the horizontal input of the CRO.
2. Connect the output of phase shift network to the vertical input as shown in figure.
3. Adjust the vertical and horizontal gains properly for good display.
4. Observe Lissajous Patterns for different combinations of R and C values.
. 1. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. This may lead to damage the diode.
2. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram.
3. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram
How do you use an oscilloscope
. Plug it in. Thats not facetious.Turn it on. There is a push button at the lower right edge of the screen. It says Line and indicates a 0 and a 1 setting. Depress that button.Apply a signal to the input terminals.Your oscilloscope may have provision for more than one signal input. Choose Channel 1 if that is the case.
Measuring a simple signal
. Heres the connections for a simple signal measurement. The oscilloscope is being used to display the voltage output from a signal generator. You should do that also.
Some simple oscilloscope experiments
. Being able to use an oscilloscope is an important skill for anyone who takes electrical measurements. In this section well present a few things you can do with oscillscopes to get better acquainted with them.The first thing to do is to become acquainted with the oscilloscope you have and to learn its capabilities and limitations. Here are some things to do.
Familiarisation with the main oscilloscope controls
. There are a number of different models of oscilloscope in the first year laboratory. All work on the same principal, but there are differences in the labelling of the controls and exact way different modes of operation are selected. You will therefore find alternatives at a number of points in the instructions below, and must determine which is appropriate for the equipment you are using.
Single channel operation
. 1. Set the coupling of channel 1 input to DC and connect the signal generator to this input. Note that the outer connectors of the coaxial sockets are connected to earth. This means that if one of the signal generators terminals is also grounded, the two grounded contacts must be the ones which are connected together. .
2. Set the generator to produce a sine wave of frequency 1 kHz and amplitude 1 V. Some signal generators specify the peak to peak amplitude or alternatively the r.m.s voltage. In these cases use 2 V p p or 1.41 V respectively .
3. If the signal generator has the option of adding a DC offset to the signal set this to 0V so that the signal is purely AC.
4. Reset the oscilloscope time base to 1 ms per division and set the channel gain to 0.5 V per division.
Two channel operation
. 1. Connect the signal generator 1 kHz, 1 V to the input and ground of the driver box provided.
2. Connect output one of the box to channel 1 of the oscilloscope and output 2 to channel 2. It is essential that the two earthed sides are connected to each other and to the earthed connection of the generator, if one exists . Failure to observe this rule will result in part of the circuit under investigation being shorted out.
3. Set the oscilloscope to display both channels 1 and 2 DUAL display mode. On some oscilloscopes this requires two buttons to be depressed simultaneously.
4. Set both channel couplings to AC, and adjust the gain and position of channel 2 in order to display both traces.
Use of the ac dc function
. A general waveform may contain both an AC and DC component the latter will appear as an offset of the AC waveform away from 0 V .When set to DC the oscilloscope displays all of the waveform DC and AC but in the AC setting the DC component is filtered out and only the AC component is displayed. This may be useful for cases where the DC component is significantly larger than the AC component making a measurement of the latter otherwise difficult.
. To study the different waveforms, to measure peak and rms voltages and the frequency of A.C.
measurement of frequency
. An unknown frequency source signal generator is connected to y plates of C.R.O . Time base signal is connected to x plates internally connected . We get a sinusoidal wave on the screen, after the adjustment of voltage sensitivity band switch Y plates and time base band switch X plates . The horizontal length l between two successive peaks is noted. When this horizontal length l is multiplied by the time base m i.e. sec div , we get the time period T .The reciprocal of the time period 1 T gives the frequency f . This can be verified with the frequency, measured by the multi meter.
Digital storage oscilloscope
. The digital storage oscilloscope, or DSO for short, is now the preferred type for most industrial applications. Instead of storage type cathode ray tubes, DSOs use digital memory, which can store data as long as required without degradation. A digital storage oscilloscope also allows complex processing of the signal by high speed digital signal processing circuits.
Dual beam oscilloscope
. A dual beam oscilloscope was a type of oscilloscope once used to compare one signal with another. There were two beams produced in a special type of CRT.
Analog sampling oscilloscope
. The principle of sampling was developed during the 1930s in Bell Laboratories by Nyquist, after whom the sampling theorem is named. The first sampling oscilloscope was, however, developed in the late 1950s at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in England by G.B.B. Chaplin, A.R. Owens and A.J. Cole.
. With that controller one can vary the unit for the time scale, i.e.Time Div.box length on screen is 1 cm. This will be technically realized in that oscilloscope in fitting the frequency of the saw tooth generator. This function allows to zoom in x direction.
. Another feature of most good scopes is Delayed Sweep. Delayed Sweep, allows the user that could be you, if you behave and eat your vegetables to trigger on an event and observe the signal after some predetermined time interval. For example: if you wanted to observe one single scan lineout of 525in a television signal, you would trigger off of the beginning of each television field time 16.67 msec but holdoff displaying that particular scan line HD 63.5 usec until the correct amount of time has passed. In essence the Delayed Sweep is just a fancy One Shot multivibrator with a ten turn pot, triggered from the scope s normal sweep circuit; and holds off the sweep across the screen until some time intervaldetermined by our old friends Ms.
Cathode ray tube experiment
. Now they applied magnetic field across the cathode ray tube by using external magnetic field. The negatively charged cathode ray or electrons are deflected.
. Specimens were previously charged by injecting a cumulative charge of 2.7 microCoulombs cm2 using an electron beam with a nominal beam energy of 4.0 MeV.
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. The diagrams below show waves displayed by a CRO cathode ray oscilloscope . Which wave is least likely to have been made by a musical instrument.
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