Precautions while using cng
what is cng
. Compressed natural gas CNG Methane stored at high pressure can be used in place of gasoline petrol, Diesel fuel and propane LPG. CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the fuels mentioned above. It is safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released. CNG may be found above oil deposits, or may be collected from landfills or wastewater treatment plants where it is known as biogas.
. It comes as a surprise to many to hear that natural gas is one of the safest transport fuels available. Natural gas is a naturally occurring product, consisting mainly of methane approx. 90Percent.
In its natural state, natural gas is odourless. As a safety measure, the gas is odorised prior to distribution to provide a ready means of leak detection. An average person can easily detect the smell of gas at a concentration as low as 0.3Percent by volume in air. That concentration is about 16 times lower than the level which will support combustion.
Natural gas requires a concentration of between 5Percent and 15Percent in air for combustion to occur, meaning in most cases the smell of gas would be detected well before combustion conditions are met. These are the upper and lower flammability limits of the fuel. Natural gas also has a high ignition temperature, about 600 degrees Celsius, compared with about 315o C for gasoline 1110o F.
Natural gas has no known toxic or chronic physiological effects i.e. it is not poisonous. Exposure to a moderate concentration may result in a headache or similar symptoms due to oxygen deprivation but it is likely that the smell would be detected well in advance of concentrations being high enough for this to occur.
. As CNG is stored at high pressure, it is often perceived that the high pressure of the product makes it more hazardous than other fuels. While a high pressure gas leak tends to make a lot of noise while the gas is escaping, the high pressure forces the gas to escape very rapidly causing high concentrations of gas to build up in the immediate vicinity of the leak. The resulting high concentrations of gas and its tendency to dissipate upwards make it less likely for the gas in the immediate vicinity of the leak to ignite. Naturally, the high pressure does cause the gas to escape with some force so obvious precautions are necessary.
Experts say CNGs safe
. Automobile experts have ruled out the possibility of CNG causing fire in the Maruti Esteem car that collided with an auto on DND flyway on Thursday night. On the contrary, they feel that the fire could have been more devastating had the car been running on petrol.
. As for all automotive vehicles, NGVs require regular maintenance to limit preventable accidents. For CNG powered NGVs regular inspection of the high pressure fuel storage vessels and fuel system components is best supported by a system that monitors compliance to national or regional regulations.
. Natural gas has been distributed safely for years. In most circumstances, it is delivered via underground pipeline networks, the same networks that deliver natural gas to our homes and businesses. This method not only eliminates the need for road tankers to deliver fuel from the refinery, but also the need for ocean going oil tankers to deliver crude oil to the refinery. Hazards associated with each of these delivery methods are unfortunately well known and even in the event of a harmless spill i.e. without any resulting fire the issues associated with cleaning up present additional safety and environmental problems.
Warning Statements Used in this Manual
. All replacement parts must adhere to the accepted standards and ratings as specified by Agility Fuel Systems. The usage of any part that is not approved by Agility Fuel Systems is not recommended and may compromise the integrity and safety of the system.Do not remove components from original packaging until absolutely necessary. Any components that are to be reinstalled must be thoroughly cleaned, inspected, and stored in a satisfactory manner until reinstallation.
. If the vehicle has been in an accident or fire, cylinders and system must be examined by a qualified inspector.
. CNG systems should be maintained and nspected exclusively by trained personnel. As with all pressure vessels, CNG storage and fuel delivery systems are dangerous.
. 1. CNG safety signage should be visible at all applicable locations as stipulated by federal, state and municipal law.
2. Natural gas rated fire extinguishers should be accessible and visible throughout all servicing and fueling areas. Be sure that fire extinguishers are charged and up to date.
3. In case of emergency, self contained breathing apparatus should be on site in an easily accessible area.
4. Areas designated for CNG fueling systems must have adequate lighting that complies with NFPA and other applicable codes.
5. Protective footwear and eyewear should be worn by all personnel in close proximity to a CNG system.
6. Search for leaks using only certified leak detecting solutions and equipment such as Swagelok Snoop?. Any other product or solutions are unacceptable.
7. Use tools that are in good working order with proper calibration.
8. Wear appropriate attire while servicing or maintaining any CNG system.
General Safety Precautions
. 1. Follow all maintenance procedures in order; do not skip steps unless so noted.
2. Never use an open flame as a source of illumination in proximity to a CNG system.
3. Any process or procedure that generates sparks, flames or heated particles should not be practiced in areas designated for CNG.
4. If a CNG system requires a process or procedure that generates sparks, flames or significant heat, conduct the procedure in an isolated area and make sure the CNG system has been completely purged with an inert gas.
5. CNG fuel systems are to be serviced in designated areas that comply with all federal, state and municipal laws and regulations.
6. CNG servicing and fueling areas must be well ventilated.
7. Perform all maintenance and service procedures in a dust free environment.
8. Never attempt to depressurize or vent a system by loosening a fitting.
CNG Vehicle Safety Precautions
. The following safety precautions should be considered at all times when operating natural gas fuel systems and equipment
1. A portable fire extinguisher must be installed on the vehicle in an easily accessible location.
2. Do not start the engine if a natural gas leak is detected.
3. Never attempt to open system components that are under pressure.
4. System pressure must not exceed 3000 psi for public vehicles in Canada.
5. For all other vehicles the system pressure must not exceed 3600 psi i.e. Private captive fleets.
6. Do not smoke or produce an open flame within 30 feet of a CNG vehicle or a CNG dispensing filling station.
7. Always ground a vehicle prior to defueling.
8. If a CNG vehicle must be out of service for an extended period of time, turn cylinder valves to the OFF CLOSED position and run the engine until it stalls. This will consume the residual fuel in the closed off lines.
Welding And Hot Work Precautions
. For any welding in or near a CNG storage system, consider the following recommendations
1. Ensure the vehicle is in a well ventilated area. Do not park the vehicle in an area where natural gas may accumulate.
2. Turn all cylinder shutoff valves to the closed position.
3. Make sure the manual shutoff valve on the FMM is turned to the ON position.
4. Turn on the vehicle and run the engine until it stops.
5. Ensure the vehicle is off and proper vehicle lock out procedures have been followed. Remove ignition key.
6. Check gauges on FMM to ensure all pressure has been relieved.
7. Remove access cover to fill panel. 8. Slowly relieve excess pressure using the bleed valves.
9. The system is now fully depressurized up to the primary solenoid lock off valve. There may be residual pressure downstream of the solenoid valve.
10. To remove gas downstream of the primary solenoid lock off valve, disconnect the electrical connector from the fuel panel and use a 12V or 24V power source as the vehicle requires to activate open the solenoid lock off valve.
Repressurize After Welding
. 1. Make sure vehicle is turned off and keys removed from the ignition.
2. Ensure bleed valve is closed.
3. Ensure low pressure coalescing filter is reconnected.
4. Perform a leak test and repair any leaks.
5. Reconnect the electrical connectors and main vehicle battery.
6. Re install the FMM cover.
7. Slowly turn the cylinder shutoff valves to the ON position.
8. Start the engine.
Codes and Compliances
. For complete and detailed information concerning CNG codes and regulations please refer to the following.
. The storage cylinders for CNG fuel are housed in metal frames that are bolted to the truck body or chassis. These structures are designed to protect the cylinders in a collision. Each individual cylinder has a valve at one end which allows the fuel in that cylinder to be isolated from the rest of the fuel system. During regular operation, all cylinder valves are open, although some operators prefer to close one cylinder and use it as a reserve tank. The fuel management module FMM is equipped with a 1 4 turn shutoff red handle valve which isolates the fuel storage system from the engine for emergency situations. This valve is OPEN for normal operation.
Emergency Response for Gas Leaks
. If the vehicle has sustained damage or a gas leak is detected
1. Do not approach the vehicle if any sources of ignition may exist such as fire, sparks, electrostatic charges, lights or electronic devices.
a. If ignition sources may be present, vehicle fuel cabinet doors should remain closed.
b. I if no ignition sources are present, keep the vehicle and fuel cabinet doors open to prevent gas accumulation.
2. If the vehicle is indoors, move the vehicle outside and away from any ignition sources. 3. Do not use road flares.
4. Do not smoke or allow anyone else to smoke near the vehicle.
5. Turn the ignition switch off, set the parking brake and turn off the battery at the main disconnect.
6. If it is safe to do so, close the main shutoff valve and the cylinder valves. Check the fuel system near the damaged area for leaks by smell, sight, and sound. CNG is odorized.
7. Keep traffic and pedestrians away.
8. Beware that gas may continue to leak once ignition is turned off and the manual shutoff valves are closed.
Emergency Shut Down Procedure
. To shut down a CNG storage system
1. Turn the ignition switch to OFF and set the parking brake.
2. Turn off the battery disconnect switch.
3. Shut off fuel at 1 4 turn valve on the FMM.
4. Inform emergency personnel.
Fuel System Components
. All figures and illustrations are intended for reference only and do not necessarily reflect the exact configuration for any given system. All plumbing and fuel management module layouts are consistent across platforms; however there may be some differences depending on vehicle specific options. Please contact Agility Fuel Systems Product Support if you have any questions about your system that are not covered in this manual.
CNG Fuel Storage Cylinders
. The composite containers cylinders on the vehicle are manufactured to comply with FMVSS 304, NAI IAS, or the CSA B51 Part 2 specifications. Containers must have permanent labels in accordance with applicable regulations. These labels provide valuable information to cylinder inspectors and service personnel.
High Pressure Filter
. The high pressure filter is located in the FMM and is plumbed between the manifold and the solenoid valve. The high pressure filter purifies the fuel by removing moisture and contaminants.
The high pressure filter element has an efficiency rating of 1 micron. It should be changed with every oil change or once every 3000 miles, whichever occurs first.
When re assembling the HP filter, apply a silicone based spray lubricant on the filter bowl threads. DO NOT allow the lube to contaminate the filter or O rings.
Low Pressure Filter
. The low pressure coalescing filters is usually located near the engine. The low pressure filter removes residual contaminants and oil from the fuel before it enters the engine. Consult the engine manufacturer for maintenance and replacement guidelines.
Depressurizing CNG Systems
. 1. Ensure that the vehicle is turned off.
2. Turn all cylinder shutoff valves one on each cylinder clockwise to the OFF CLOSED position.
3. Ensure that the manual shut off valve is in the ON OPEN position.
4. Turn on the vehicle and run the engine until it stops.
5. Ensure that the vehicle is off and that the proper vehicle lock out procedures are followed. Remove the ignition key.
6. Check the gauges on the fill panel to ensure that all the pressure is relieved.
7. Remove the access cover on the rear of the fill panel optional.
8. Relieve the remaining pressure by slowly opening the bleed valve as shown below.
Testing and Finding Leaks
. Fittings and connections should be checked periodically for leaks. This task must be carried out by qualified personnel. For monthly maintenance, the entire fuel system can be leak tested with leak detection solution, and or a methane detector. All joints and connections should be tested. Leaks usually occur at fitting connections. When checking for leaks always use certified leak detecting equipment and solutions designed for use with stainless steel and brass such as Snoop? or FBI?.
1. Apply a certified leak detecting solution and look for bubbling or foaming.
2. Examine connections for icing or signs of condensation around the tubing.
3. Check for signs of damaged or perforated tubing.
. Perform leak repairs in the order shown below. Note Move on to the next repair only if the previous repair did not fix the leak.
Replacing Filter Element
. 1. Depressurize the system.
2. Drain the filter.
3. Unscrew the filter bowl by using a filter bowl removal tool or open end wrench.
4. Remove and replace the old filter element.
5. Inspect the O ring on the filter element holder for damage and replace if necessary.
6. Lubricate the filter bowl threads with a silicone lubricant. DO NOT allow lube to contaminate the bowl or filter element.
7. Reinstall the bowl and tighten to 40 ?1 ft lbs.
Returning to Supply
. The third method returns fuel to a distribution system. When using this process, pressure in the vehicle cylinder and the supply system pressure will equalize, so some pressure may remain in the vehicle fuel system.
. In this defueling method, a compressor at the fueling station extracts the gas from vehicle.
. The following section covers a variety of potential problems and their respective solutions. The issues addressed in this section are unique to CNG storage systems; however issues concerning other onboard systems may influence or directly cause problems with the CNG storage system.
. Smoke or strike a match
Operate any electrical switches or appliance controls,
Pull an plugs from outlets
Use a flashlight or lighter
Use a telephone or cell phone from the building
A Safe Place to Vent
. To vent the fuel that remains after the engine stalls or if the engine cannot be run to consume the fuel, the CNG can be vented safely into the atmosphere. Special precautions are necessary to safely vent the CNG without causing a fire. NFPA 52 Vehicular Gaseous Fuel Systems Code, the International Fire Code and some state and local regulations require that any venting system be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction AHJ, generally the fire marshal. Always use a vent system approved by the AHJ. If the vehicle is equipped with a special connection to transfer fuel out, it can be connected to the approved vent system and emptied as in the direct defueling example, making sure that the solenoid valves open.
Verification That Each Cylinder Is Empty
. If the cylinders are equipped with manual valves, these should be carefully cracked open after the piping is disconnected. If no significant pressure is present, the valve can then be fully opened, assuring that the cylinder is empty except for a small amount of gas at atmospheric pressure.
. Always use approved CNG kit And cylinder. It is dangerous and illegal to use substandard cylinder and fittings. Do not install LPG, Propane or any other cylinder in place of a CNG cylinder. It is unsafe and unlawful. It is advisable to have insurance coverage of the CNG kit along with the vehicle accessories. Always, park the vehicle at least 6 meters away from sources of ignition fire. Always refer to the CNG kit suppliers manual for operating instructions and do not do trouble shooting yourself, other than that recommended by the manufacturer. Be aware of the location and operation of cylinder valve, master shut off valve and burst disc in the CNG system. Ask your mechanic to identify these parts for you. It would be helpful for emergency handling of any CNG leak.
Daily safety checks
. Make sure that clamps are tight and cylinder fixed properly and safely.
Confirm that cylinder valve is safe and valve wheel is in place.
Ensure that gas tubing is intact and supported properly.
Check for gas leakage from the kit by using soap solution.
In case of gas leakage from CNG kit
. Check out of the vehicle.
Do not start the vehicle. Push vehicles to a place out side the station in open Air.
Stop all activities in the vicinity, which can provide source of ignition, e.g. smoking, use of mobile phone etc.
Close down the cylinder valve master shut off valve in the CNG system to control the leakage.
Call CNG kit retrofitter to repair the same.
In case of fire
. Evacuate the vehicle and surrounding place.
Take help of fire fighting experts.
Extinguish the fire with water fire extinguishers.
If feasible, close down the cylinder valve master shut off valve in the CNG system to control the gas leakage.
. Endorsement of CNG or bi fuel mode in Registration Certificate.
Annual checking of the CNG Kit and maintaining the certificate.
Hydro testing of the cylinder, once in 5 years, as per Gas cylinder rules.
Certificate of CNG Kit, Fitness and hydro test to be possessed by the driver all the time. Maintain cylinders in good condition.
No repair to be done on cylinder and valves. No oil, Grease or lubricant to be used for cylinder. Dont change the color of the cylinder.
If safety disc has burst, replace it with genuine one. Do not allow make shift arrangements.
Do not allow cylinder for heat treatment. In case vehicle is undergoing repairs involving welding or heat application to any part within 1.5 m of the cylinder,the cylinder should be flush out with inert gas.
. CNG has the narrowest flammability range, leading to slim chances of catching fire in the event of a leakage. Simplified, it means that the combustible mixture of natural gas and air does not ignite if the mixture is leaner than 5Percent or richer than 15Percent of the air fuel ratio required for ignition. Thus, this limited inflammability range makes CNG one of the safest fuels in the world. Being lighter than air, in case of a leak, CNG just rises and disperses into thin air. The CNG conversion kit is definitely safe, with the cylinders specially manufactured for use in vehicles being cast from a single piece of special steel alloy without any welded joints.
Safety Aspects in CNG Refilling Stations
. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas may be asked to review the layout of the dispensing stations to ensure easy approachability to dispensers and protection of the installed pumps.
Standardise all vehicle refuelling receptacles or nozzles on the NGV 1 standard to reduce filling time, minimise safety risk posed by leakage of gas due to O ring failure, and allow more efficient use of existing compression capacity.
Quality of Natural Gas
. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas may be asked to lay down the specifications of pipeline gas. The gas composition as indicated by methane content and the Wobbe index indicator to measure the effect of changes in gas composition on air fuel ratio and engine combustion should be laid down.
. The capabilities and capacities of the type approval institutions are inadequate leading to delays in testing. This should be improved in order to reduce the duration of the whole type approval procedure to reasonable, internationally common timeframes. The type approval procedure including the Information on Technical Specification to be Submitted by Manufacturer used by testing agencies needs to be reviewed in order to delete unnecessary.
Nozzles and safety
. As of now, type approval certificate has been given to CNG vehicles fitted only with nozzles meeting New Zealand Standards NZS. These are prone to frequent o ring failures an item in nozzles. We are informed that they occur on an average about once every 20 fills. This failure not only interrupts fueling and requires replacement of the oring, it also creates a fire hazard due to the release of a significant amount of high pressure gas.
When Leakage is Detected
. If, even after taking all the necessary precautions, a leakage is detected in a CNG car, there is no need to panic at all. All the owner driver needs to do is close the CNG cylinder valve to cut the gas supply, open all the doors, roll down all the windows and remember not to start the car in any condition. Later, a trained mechanic can be called to take a look at and repair the faulty system.
Check the Spark Plugs Regularly
. To prevent any misfirings that tend to result from insufficient spark generated by the spark plugs, it is very important that the spark plugs are checked on a regular basis and replaced with new ones after every 13,000 15,000 kms.Also, the performance of a CNG car can be greatly improved if instead of continuing to use spark plugs meant for a petrol car, users opt for spark plugs specially designed for a CNG vehicle.
Gas leak smells like rotten eggs
. If a really bad smell happens all of a sudden, get out of the house right away and find a grown up.
Dont hang on pipes
. The pipes might come loose, letting the gas escape. And remind grown ups to keep the outside meter clear in case of an emergency.
Be very careful using a gas stove
. Roll up your sleeves, keep towels and hot pads away from the flame, and make sure a grown up is around to help.
. Total cost of ownership per unit of energy generated is less than many other competitive fuels.
Tank Inspection And Expiration
. CNG fuel tanks must be US Dept. of Transportation DOT approved. As the structural integrity of CNG tanks degrade over time, all tanks are required to have an expiration label. Do not continue to use expired cylinders! CNG tanks and fuel systems must also be visually inspected after a motor vehicle accident or fire and at least every 36 months or 36,000 miles, whichever comes first, for damage and deterioration per DOT regulation FMVSS 304. CSA certified inspectors may be located here. Cylinder life cannot be extended. Expired cylinders must be removed from service.
. CNG tanks must be secured to the vehicle body, bed, or frame to withstand a force of eight times the weight in all directions of a fully pressurized container 8x G force impact. Only accept the use of brackets and mounting designs which have been approved by the tank manufacturer. Never accept the use of ratchet straps, aluminum bands, etc. on your vehicle.
. Tanks must be protected from road hazards, loading, unloading, direct sunlight, exhaust heat, accidental cargo leakage. Shield must not directly contact tank nor trap solid materials or liquids. Cylinders And valves must be shielded with minimum 9 inches road clearance when tires are deflated and cannot be located ahead of the front axle or behind the rear bumper attachment. Must be transversely mounted if behind rear axle.
. Corrosion resistant fuel lines generally stainless steel must be mounted, braced, and supported to minimize vibration and protected against damage, corrosion, or breakage due to strain or wear. No use of cast iron, plastic, galvanized pipe, aluminum or copper. Fueling connection must be ANSI listed.
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Essential Photography Tips
You can t shoot speed head on
. You can t properly capture speeding subjects as they come towards or move away from you. If you re shooting track events, position yourself side on to the action so that it passes across your field of view rather than coming towards it. Shooting into
Ideas to Boost Business
There Are Always Two Sides To Any Story
. If your paper prints a story regarding your business or industry that is negative, prepare a press release that shows the positive side of the story. If the topic is controversial it may spark a positive article with your company portrayed in a posit
Rules to play Baseball
Get familiar with the infield
. The baseball field (sometimes called the baseball diamond) is a specially designed field composed of two basic parts the infield and the outfield. The infield is the center of action. Its defined by four rugged pads set in the ground, called bases, a
Benefits of Star Anise
. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor some dishes drinks and candies and the word is used for both the species of herb and its licorice like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise anethole is found in