Precaution while using microscope

Introduction
1. Microscope design has not necessarily been a problem for short term use, long term sessions have in the past created problems for scientists and technicians who used the instruments. In order to view specimens and record data, microscope operators must assume an unusual and challenging position, with little possibility to move the head or the body, and may be unable to assume the correct posture necessary to avoid incurring injuries . They are often forced to assume an awkward posture with their head bent over the eye tubes, the upper part of the body bent forward, the hand reaching high up for a focusing control, and the wrists bent in an unnatural position. Poor posture and awkward positioning are the primary risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that can affect full time microscopists, who will often experience pain or injury to the neck, wrists, back, shoulders, and arms. .....
Use
2. Before using your microscope, look over its various mechanical and optical parts. Even light microscopes differ in how they work, so familiarize yourself with the operations of the particular model you have. You will want to know what each knob does before operating it to avoid overworking or straining the mechanisms. Position the arm of the microscope toward you and the stage that flat platform used for holding the specimen directed away from you. If your microscope has built in light, be sure it is powered on before trying to use it for viewing. Use your microscope in a well lit room or outdoors. Microscopes often use a mirror to direct available light to the specimen platform, so not enough light will make it difficult to view an object and can cause eye strain. When using your microscope at its highest magnification, some models require special preparation of the specimen or lens. .....
Handling
3. Although microscopes may seem sturdy, they are actually quite fragile as evidenced by their glass lenses and delicate focusing mechanisms. Microscopes have gone down in price over the past couple of decades, and there are many more microscopes available now that are made with inexpensive materials that may not be as durable as earlier models. Always pick up a microscope using both hands, one holding the arm of the microscope and the other supporting its base. Although it may seem tempting, never grab or carry a microscope by its eyepiece. When you put the microscope down again, be sure to do so on a flat surface, such as a tabletop. .....
light microscope could be the right choice
4. If you are interested in getting a close up view of the world around you, a light microscope could be the right choice. Light microscopes, which employ compound lenses and light, are commonly used in schools and homes. They work by using two lenses: an objective lens close to the specimen being viewed and an ocular lens or eyepiece. Understanding the proper care and use of the microscope can help ensure years of use. .....
Always carry the microscope with two hands
5. One on the arm and one underneath the base of the microscope. Hold it up so that it does not hit tables or chairs. Never swing the microscope. Always carry the microscope with two hands one on the arm and one underneath the base of the microscope. Hold it up so that it does not hit tables or chairs. Never swing the microscope. .....
Do not touch the lenses
6. If they are dirty, please raise your hand and ask for the special lens paper to clean the lenses. If using a microscope with a mirror, do not use direct sunlight as the light source eye damage may result. If using a microscope with a light, turn off light when not in use. .....
Do not use direct sunlight
7. If using a microscope with a mirror, do not use direct sunlight as the light source eye damage may result. If using a microscope with a light, turn off light when not in use. Always clean slides and microscope when finished. Store microscope set on the lowest objective with the nosepiece turned down to its lowest position (using the coarse adjustment knob). If using a lighted microscope, turn off light before pulling out the plug. .....
Always clean slides
8. Always clean slides and microscope when finished. Store microscope set on the lowest objective with the nosepiece turned down to its lowest position (using the coarse adjustment knob). If using a lighted microscope, turn off light before pulling out the plug. .....
Cover microscope
9. Cover microscope with dust cover and return microscope to storage if so requested. If you are interested in getting a close up view of the world around you, a light microscope could be the right choice. Light microscopes, which employ compound lenses and light, are commonly used in schools and homes. They work by using two lenses: an objective lens close to the specimen being viewed and an ocular lens or eyepiece. Understanding the proper care and use of the microscope can help ensure years of use. .....
Cleaning and Care
10. If your microscope has a cover or case, always put it in place when you arent using the device. Wet or dirty slides should never be put on the stage, which should always be kept dry. When cleaning your microscope, unplug it first, if applicable, and then clean the outside using a damp, soft cloth only. Never use a dry cloth or paper towel to wipe any optical surface as you could scratch a lens. Use an air blower or a camel hair brush to whisk away dust. If there is dirt on the eyepiece that cant be removed with air or the brush, gently wipe it with a piece of clean cotton. If you must clean the objective lens, use xylitol or absolute alcohol. Never try to clean or take apart the internal pieces of the microscope. .....
Storage
11. When you are finished with your scope assignment, rotate thenosepieceso that its on thelow power objective, roll thenosepieceso that its all the way down to thestage, then replace the dust cover. Proper microscope use is crucial for scientists of any age. A laboratory or classroom can be a complicated place, and knowing microscope safety is important. A microscope may seem like a mundane instrument, but improper handling can cause serious problems. Everyone in the lab or at home should know the basics of microscope safety. .....
Clean materials and work area
12. Clean all slides, materials, and work area when youre done. Please, be careful with the slides and cover slips. They are made of glass and if broken, you will get cut and you will bleed. When storing the microscope, place the objective lenses on the lowest setting. Use the coarse adjustment to put the nosepiece on its lowest setting. Make sure the light is shut off. These steps of microscope use will keep the unit in good working order as well as make it ready for the next user. .....
Never touch the finger onlenses
13. Never touch thelenseswith your fingers. Your body produces an oil that smudges the glass. This oil can even etch the glass if left on too long. Use onlyLENS PAPERto clean the glass. Most educational labs want the microscopes to be covered and put back into the storage cabinet. Check with the head of the laboratory to verify if this microscope safety procedure is required. Some laboratories leave the microscopes out so it is best to double check. .....
Transporting
14. When you pick up the microscope and walk with it, grab thearmwith one hand and place your other hand on the bottom of thebase. Be sure to clean and disinfect the eyepiece! The eyes, nose, and mouth spread germs and bacteria very easily, and its realistic someone could catch an infection from a dirty eyepiece. So wipe it down well with a soft cloth and disinfectant glass cleaner after every use. .....
Why do I need to know how to use themicroscope
15. Becausemicroscopescost several hundred dollars it is very important to make them last for a long time. Microscope safety isnt complicated. Often it requires the user to think ahead and be courteous to others. Clean, carefully handled microscopes will last a long time and provide many educational opportunities for years to come. Learning proper microscope use will keep you safe, and the lab or classroom running smoothly! .....
Sharp Objects
16. Glass knives, razor blades and scalpel knives are still sharp after being used. Discard only in containers provided for that purpose, or well sealed, and labeled cardboard boxes, so cleaning personnel will no be injured. Some microscopes may have mercury lamps. Mercury is a dangerous substance and it is important to follow your manual for microscope use closely. If there is a mercury lamp explosion, the lab often needs to be evacuated and sealed until the proper department can clean up the mess. .....
Equipment
17. Most vacuum evaporators do not have a safety switch to turn off power before opening the bell jar. Follow the instructions on the equipment. Never observe metal evaporation without goggles. The intense brightness can burn your retina. .....
Embedding Resins
18. Most embedding resins may cause dermatitis. 1 When preparing the mixtures and during embedding procedures, ALWAYS use disposable gloves. 2 Cover working areas with paper towel or diapers and wipe spills immediately with alcohol. 3 Do not use alcohol to remove resins from your skin, it increases penetration. Use soap & water. 4 Get medical attention for any suspicious skin rash. 5 Harden all waste resin before disposal, wrap discarded containers, beakers, vials, pipettes, etc. carefully. 6 Never pour any plastic containing solutions (e.g., propylene oxide epon mixture) down the drain. They will harden. 7 Store in fume hood, until disposal, all hardened waste: RESINS, RESIN MIXTURE AND FILM MAKING SOLUTIONS (A coffee can or large bottle can be used). .....
Basic Rules for Caring for Microscopes
19. EVERYTHING on a microscope is unbelievably expensive, so be careful. Hold a microscope firmly by the stand, only. Never grab it by the eyepiece holder, for example. Hold the plug (not the cable) when unplugging the illuminator. Since bulbs are expensive, and have a limited life, turn the illuminator off when not in use. If used constantly on full power the bulb will overheat and blow (or gently melt the inside of the housing). This is not a good idea! Always make sure the stage and lenses are clean before putting the microscope away. NEVER use anything but good quality lens tissue on any optical surface, with appropriate lens cleaner or distilled water; organic solvents may separate or damage the lens elements or coatings. Cover the instrument with a dust jacket when not in use. Focus smoothly; dont try to speed through the focusing process or force anything. If it isnt working DONT try to fix it unless you really know what you are doing. Make a note of the symptoms and ask someone who knows. .....
Proper handling
20. An obvious yet important rule of microscope safety is to carry the unit properly. Always carry the microscope with both hands. One hand should support the bottom, and the other should have a firm grip on the arm. Be sure to carry it high enough so that it does not bump against anything. .....
Respect the light source
21. Another microscope safety step that is important to follow has to do with the light source. If the microscope uses a mirror, one should never use direct sunlight to light a specimen, as it can cause severe damage to the eyes. Protect your eyes by following this rule! When it comes to lighting, its a good practice to shut off the light when not in use. This will save energy, protect the specimens, and improve the longevity of the microscope. It will also keep the light from getting too hot to the touch. .....
Mercury lamps
22. Some microscopes may have mercury lamps. Mercury is a dangerous substance and it is important to follow your manual for microscope use closely. If there is a mercury lamp explosion, the lab often needs to be evacuated and sealed until the proper department can clean up the mess. .....
Watch those slides
23. Its always important to follow microscope safety when handling glass slides and covers, as glass slides could break and cut you. Additionally, chemicals and specimens on the slides could be harmful. If a slide does break, it is important to notify the teacher or head of the lab. They can recommend the proper methods of disposal. .....
Chemicals or biological substances
24. Since most slides are covered with chemicals or biological substances, extra vigilance is recommended. Users should always wear proper clothing and protective gear as needed. Food and drinks should be kept out of the workspace, as they can potentially contaminate the slides. .....
Proper microscope care
25. Taking proper care of the microscope is another important part of microscope use and safety. For example, the lenses are very delicate and should not be touched directly. Touching the lenses can cause smudges, possible scratches, or even a break that could cut someone. If the lenses become smudged, use a special lens paper to clean them instead of putting pressure on them with a cloth. .....
The coarse adjustment
26. When storing the microscope, place the objective lenses on the lowest setting. Use the coarse adjustment to put the nosepiece on its lowest setting. Make sure the light is shut off. These steps of microscope use will keep the unit in good working order as well as make it ready for the next user. .....
Laboratory to verify
27. Most educational labs want the microscopes to be covered and put back into the storage cabinet. Check with the head of the laboratory to verify if this microscope safety procedure is required. Some laboratories leave the microscopes out so it is best to double check. .....
Be sure to clean and disinfect the eyepiece
28. A special word about cleaning:Be sure to clean and disinfect the eyepiece!The eyes, nose, and mouth spread germs and bacteria very easily, and its realistic someone could catch an infection from a dirty eyepiece. So wipe it down well with a soft cloth and disinfectant glass cleaner after every use. .....
Stay Safe and Have Fun
29. Microscope safety isnt complicated. Often it requires the user to think ahead and be courteous to others. Clean, carefully handled microscopes will last a long time and provide many educational opportunities for years to come. Learning proper microscope use will keep you safe, and the lab or classroom running smoothly! .....
INITIAL PROCEDURES
30. USING BOTH HANDS, REMOVE YOUR MICROSCOPE FROM ITS CABINET AND PLACE IT ON THE LAB BENCH IN FRONT OF YOU. PLUG THE POWER CORD INTO THE BENCH SOCKET AND TURN ON THE LIGHT. When it comes to lighting, its a good practice to shut off the light when not in use. This will save energy, protect the specimens, and improve the longevity of the microscope. It will also keep the light from getting too hot to the touch. .....
10X OBJECTIVE IS IN POSITION
31. MAKE SURE THAT THE 10X OBJECTIVE IS IN POSITION OVER THE VIEWING AREA. THE OBJECTIVE SHOULD BE POSITIONED ABOUT 1/4 3/8 ABOVE THE SLIDE. Glass knives, razor blades and scalpel knives are still sharp after being used. Discard only in containers provided for that purpose, or well sealed, and labeled cardboard boxes, so cleaning personnel will no be injured. .....
FOCUS ON SPECIMEN
32. FOCUS ON SPECIMEN, FIRST USING THE COARSE AND THEN THE FINE FOCUS CONTROLS. YOU MAY HAVE TO MOVE THE SLIDE AROUND ON THE STAGE OF THE MICROSCOPE TO BRING THE SPECIMEN INTO THE VIEWING AREA. Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples and objects that cannot be seen with the unaided eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy. .....
CONDENSER DIAPHRAGM ADJUSTMENT
33. USING THE CONDENSER FOCUS ADJUSTMENT KNOB THAT IS LOCATED ON THE LEFT SIDE OF YOUR MICROSCOPE JUST BELOW THE STAGE, MOVE THE CONDENSER UP TOWARD THE STAGE AS FAR AS IT WILL GO. Optical and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the subsequent collection of this scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. This process may be carried out by wide field irradiation of the sample (for example standard light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) or by scanning of a fine beam over the sample (for example confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). .....
BE CAREFUL
34. ONCE THE SLIDE IS IN FOCUS, IT MAY BE MOVED AROUND ON THE STAGE. AS LONG AS THE DISTANCE MOVED IS NOT TOO LARGE, THE OIL DROPLET WILL REMAIN BETWEEN THE 100X OBJECTIVE AND THE SLIDE. YOU WILL NOTICE THAT WHEN THE SLIDE IS MOVED, IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO RE FOCUS THE 100X OBJECTIVE USING THE FINE FOCUS CONTROL. AT VERY HIGH MAGNIFICATIONS, VERY SMALL CHANGES IN THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SLIDE AND THE OBJECTIVE WILL CAUSE THE IMAGE TO GO OUT OF FOCUS. IRREGULARITIES ON THE SLIDE AND ON THE STAGE OF THE MICROSCOPE ARE LARGE ENOUGH TO CAUSE CHANGES IN FOCUS. .....
Finding a better fit
35. Ergonomics is concerned with finding a better fit between people and the things they do, the objects they use, and the environmental setting in which they live, work, travel, and play. Also called human engineering, it is a relatively new branch of science that was founded in 1949, spurned by the development of new technologies during World War II. Throughout this period, it had become clear that, in order to be used safely and effectively, new technologies and products would need to account for human and environmental factors. .....
Heavy users of microscopes
36. A regional survey of cytotechnologists (heavy users of microscopes) found that slightly over 70 percent reported having neck, shoulder, or upper back symptoms, while 56 percent had an increased incidence of hand and wrist symptoms. Other studies have revealed that approximately 80 percent of microscopists in all fields have experienced job related musculoskeletal pain and that 20 percent have missed work because of medical problems related to microscope use. The rather high 5 to 10 year dropout rate for cytotechnologists is attributed, in part, to physical discomfort associated with long hours examining specimens through the microscope. A majority of reported problems occur with the neck, back, shoulders, and arms, but there is also a percentage of microscopists reporting discomfort with their eyes. .....
Eye Fatigue
37. Eye fatigue can be a major problem for microscope operators, especially if they have poor vision resulting from near or far sightedness, or astigmatism. If you are a beginning microscopist, you may tend to tense up when viewing. You think you have to set your eyes for near vision because, after all, you want to view something small. This is not the correct attitude in microscopy and may cause you strain in the long run. There is an easy remedy: First, look into the distance with your eyes relaxed and then into the eyepieces without changing the setting of your eyes. Only then should you set the interpupillary distance of the eyepieces via the folding bridge until you see only one circle instead of two. Remember to consciously use both your eyes for viewing. .....
Microscope eyepieces
38. The diopter adjustment provided on most microscope eyepieces can be used to compensate for minor focus problems, but microscopists who have moderate to severe astigmatism should wear glasses when viewing specimens through the eyepieces. In order to accommodate the longer eye point necessary for observation with eyeglasses, manufacturers offer specialized high eye point eyepieces. Users who do not wear eyeglasses should also keep this distance to permit the entire light from the microscope to find its way to the iris of the eye (Figure 2). If you slowly move your head back and forth in front of the eyepieces, you will soon find the optimum, relaxed posture that will allow you to see the entire circle of the field of view. If you do not wear glasses, the optional rubber cups on the eyepieces will be useful to you. They not only protect the eye from ambient light, but also help to keep the correct distance between the eye and the eyepiece. .....
Microscope with or without their glasses
39. Eyeglass wearers requiring simple lenses with a spherical power can use the microscope with or without their glasses, provided that the diopter setting of the focusing eyepiece is sufficient. However, if you require lenses with a toric power, for example lenses that refract light differently in the horizontal and vertical then you should wear your glasses for microscopy, since your eye has unsymmetrical aberrations that cannot be compensated by the diopter setting alone. This is how you test your glasses: view a simple geometric figure, such as a circle or a square, through the glasses you have removed from your eyes (see Figure 3). First you hold the glasses horizontally (Figure 3(a), then vertically (Figure 3(b) and 3(c)). If the figure appears compressed or expanded by this rotation about 90 degrees (Figure 3(b)), you will know that you are wearing lenses with a toric or another non spherical power. .....
Eyestrain problems
40. If the rules listed above are followed, eyestrain will be minimized when peering into the microscope eyepieces with relaxed eyes (similar to observing a subject at a large distance). Many of the eyestrain problems that develop during extended periods of microscope use can be alleviated by employing video camera systems that display the specimen on a computer monitor. Without reading glasses, however, one has to accommodate to see the image clearly on t he monitor. Future microscope designs may eliminate the eyepieces altogether, substituting instead a CCD or CMOS image sensor for the classical observation tubes. The digital imaging chip will be coupled to a sophisticated software analysis package that controls image capture and storage, digital processing, and other features such as time lapse cinemicrography and real time video movies. .....
Protecting from incorrect treatment
41. The design of a microscope will often times (partially) excuse incorrect treatment. However, the front nosecone of the objective with the sensitive front lens element is one particularly critical area. A number of precautions should be taken to ensure the objective lens is not damaged. The entire front optics of objectives with a high magnification are (in most cases) contained in a resilient, spring loaded mount. When touched, this mount backs away slightly (Figure 4). However, the distance available for this movement is very small (approximately 2 3 millimeters). Therefore, make sure that you do not move the stage too far upwards while focusing. In such cases, the sample will press against the objective tip, and once the front lens cannot retreat any further, the outcome may be an expensive breakage of glass. Immersion objectives have an additional protection facility to the one described above. Some varieties can be locked in the topmost position by carefully turning the front lens group housing (nosecone). The objectives can thus be parked at a safe distance. On the other hand, the escape route described above is then no longer available, and if one tries to use the objective in this retracted mode, the image will be distorted and there will be the danger of the stage colliding with other objectives when the nosepiece turret is rotated. .....
Can endure stationary positions for extended periods
42. The human body can endure stationary positions for extended periods if it is in a neutral body posture a position that can be maintained without a concerted effort or contortions. A neutral body posture is essential to working efficiently and effectively at the microscope for long hours. Because not everyone is able to buy a new, ergonomically designed microscope or workstation, the smartest idea is to find the means to modify the microscope to fit the user rather than forcing the user into awkward positions. .....
Length of work period
43. Work/rest schedules should be appropriate. It is important to take breaks away from the microscope to counteract the build up of postural and visual fatigue. A well designed job will incorporate both microscope and non microscope tasks. Frequent short breaks are preferable to occasional long breaks. This enables relief from the static, maintained working posture and a chance to look around and vary the accommodation of the eyes. Computer users are recommended to take 5 minutes every hour away from the computer; it may be preferable to take half hourly breaks away from the microscope. .....
Pre existing eye problems
44. Visual strain is pronounced for operators with uncorrected astigmatism and fusion insufficiency (poor eye co ordination). It is important to treat these problems, see an optician. Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface of the object of interest. The development of microscopy revolutionized biology and remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences. .....
Inappropriate lighting conditions
45. Eye fatigue is minimised in a well designed visual environment. Where possible, avoid high light levels and high contrast in the microscope in comparison to the room surroundings. Minimise glare and reflections in the work area. Glare can be reduced by removing light sources from the visual field. This can be done by re positioning workstations, using blinds or curtains, removing highly reflective surfaces or by using shielding screens. The Health & Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 give further information regarding work with VDU screens. .....
Environmental factors
46. Sedentary workers are particularly susceptible to the effects of their work environment. Draughts, temperature extremes, poor air quality, inadequate lighting and noise affect comfort and performance. It is important to consider the needs and preferences of the individual. .....
Main problem
47. Microscopists know how to align their microscope but few align themselves! Many users are slumpers and need training to avoid problems later. Optical or light microscopy involves passing visible light transmitted through or reflected from the sample through a single or multiple lensesto allow a magnified view of the sample.The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate orcaptured digitally. The single lens with its attachments, or the system of lenses and imaging equipment, along with the appropriate lighting equipment, sample stage and support, makes up the basic light microscope. The most recent development is the digital microscope, which uses a CCD camera to focus on the exhibit of interest. The image is shown on a computer screen, so eye pieces are unnecessary. .....
Main requirements
48. The bench height is important and ideally it should be adjustable so that eye piece height is adjustable but this is often not practicable due to cost. What follows will be based on a fixed bench height. Microscopy requires a good seating position in an adjustable, ergonomically designed chair. The back should be high enough to support the shoulder blades and be adjustable for height and angle, with the most prominent part being the lumbar support. The seat should be low enough to have the back perfectly straight to see through the oculars. Then move the chair towards the bench so that the chair fully supports the back this feels unnatural at first. Most people have the seat too high, which results in hunching. Sitting for long periods places strain on the lower back. .....
Information and care of the microscope
49. The microscopes used in this lab arecompound lightmicroscopes. They are designed to beparfocal; that is, if the microscope is clearly focused on a specimen with a lower power objective, it will be clearly focused (or very nearly so) when you swing the next highest objective into place. .....
Use of the microscope
50. Position the microscope so that you can comfortably look through the ocular. Adjust your chair height if necessary. See that the microscope is plugged into the outlet properly, with very little slack in the cord. Make sure the scanning (4X) power objective is in operating position. The scanning power objective lens magnifies the image by a factor of 4, for a total of 40X. (Total magnificationis the product of the magnifications of each lens being used, that is, the ocular lens at 10X and, in this case, the scanning lens at 4X.) Use of the e slide demonstrates the upside down, reversed image: as you move the slide to the left, the image goes to the right; as you move the slide away from you, the image moves toward you. Also with the e slide you can learn to appreciate the concept offield of view, which lessens as you advance to higher magnifications. .....
Additional rules to remember
51. Always focuswith thescanning power objectivelens first. Focus away from the specimen with thecoarse adjustment knobwhile viewing the object on scanning or low power. While using the high power objective, thefine adjustment knobshould be utilized for focusing because theworking distancedecreases as magnification increases.To increase magnification, always center an object of interest using themechanical stage knobsbefore rotating thenosepiece. Adjust thelight intensityusing theiris diaphragmattached to thecondensor. Do not drag the microscope across the lab table. Clean all lenses withlens paperbefore and after use of a microscope. Protect the microscope as you return it to its cabinet by replacing theplastic coverand carrying it with two hands (one holding it by thearmthe other supporting it by thebase). .....
Setting up
52. When you instructor gives you the go ahead, you may acquire a microscope from the cabinet in the front of the classroom. Carrying a microscope is a two handed job. Grasp the arm of the scope with one hand (the built in handle on CH 30 scopes) and as you remove the scope from the shelf place your other hand under the base. NEVER carry the scope with one hand or swing it about. These are delicate, expensive tools and must never experience rough handling or be dropped! Notice how the electrical cord is wrapped around the neck of the microscope. The cord should be tightly wrapped. In addition, the nosepiece should be adjusted to place the 4X lens in the locked position and the stage should be lowered. Move the nosepiece if this is not the case. Raise the stage and unwrap the cord. Turn the rheostat to 1, the lowest power level, plug the microscope in and flip the toggle to on. We always begin with the rheostat turned low in increase the working life of the bulb. .....
Positioning and focusing
53. Begin with the stage in the lowered position. Rotate the nosepiece of the microscope until the 4X objective is in the locked position.. Place the slide into the holder and use the coarse focus to raise the stage to the highest position. NOTE. do NOT raise the stage using the coarse focus if the 40X or 100X objective is in place. Adjust the rheostat to an intermediate position so that the light is not glaringly bright nor dim. Look through the ocular lenses and lower the stage using the coarse focus until the sample comes into focus. With a sample in place you can now adjust your ocular lenses. See the end of this page for deatail on using the oil immersion lens. .....
Adjusting the ocular lenses
54. The intra ocular distance is adjusted simply by pulling the eyepieces apart or pushing them together. When you have the intra ocular distance set correctly, you should see a single image of your sample. You should note the width of your setting on the scale behind the right ocular so you can reset the lenses to your distance after someone else has used the microscope. .....
Putting the microscope away
55. You need to store the microscope in the correct fashion. Turn the rheostat to 1and then toggle the light off. Turn the nosepiece to the 4X objective and raise the stage to a high position. Wrap the electrical cord snugly around the arm and then lower the stage to help hold the cord in place. Using both hands to carry the scope, return it to the numbered slot in the microscope cabinet. .....
Using the oil immersion lens
56. To examine bacteria and other very small objects, we will need to use the oil immersion (100X lens). Special techniques must be used when using the 100X objective. With the 10 fold increase in magnification provided by the ocular lens, we are approaching the theoretical limit of light microscopy so must obtain the best possible resolution in order to get a clear image the sample. Because light travels more slowly through glass and most other media than it does through air, light leaving air and passing though glass is bent. You have probably observed this bending phenomenon when looking at objects in water whose position and appearance seem distorted. To prevent this distortion from occurring between the sample and the objective lens, we fill the space between with immersion oil which has the same optical properties as glass. Without immersion oil, objects seen under the 100X lens will appear fuzzy even at the best possible focus. .....
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Os Gemeos. The twins have an entirely unique, surreal style, and they are able to convey an incredible amount of emotion through their simple characters. .....
Republic Day
Republic Day Celebration. As Independence Day in India is celebrated to enjoy the freedom of India from the British Rule, Republic Day in India is celebrated to commemorate the coming of its own constitution into force.Officially it is celebrated every year in the national ca .....
Benefits of Cucumber
salad. Enjoy cucumbers in your salads and soups. My favorite snack? Crunchy cucumber sticks with creamy low-fat yogurt dip. Cucumbers have mild diuretic property, which perhaps attributed to their free-water, and potassium and low sodium content. This helps .....
Benefits of Radish
Low in calories high in nutrients. With a very low calorie count, less than 20 calories in an entire cup, radishes are a great way to add nutrients, fiber and tons of flavor to your meals without compromising your health. Radish leaves contain almost six times more vitamin C than its .....
Benefits of Cherry
Red Cherries for cardiovascular health. With the consumption of red cherries, reductions are seen in the triglycerides, VLDL, and monocyte chemoattractant protein1 (MCP1), a molecule that causes plaque buildup in the arteries. Studies show that consumption of red cherries can also lower an .....
Small Things That Can Bring You Joy
Meditate. The ancient practice of meditation is proven to make you happier, more focused, and more evenkeeled. Researchers say it can even make you nicer. .....
Quick Tips To Build Brawn
Pump Up The Protein. You must start taking postworkout nutrition seriously. Remember that the foods you consume during the postworkout period are going to directly influence how fast your body rebuilds that damaged muscle tissue, so theres no room for error. Eat protein .....
Ways to Make This the Best Christmas Season
Get the best wrapped presents award. If you re anything like us you ll know that your dream of having elegant and perfectly neat Christmas presents to give to your loved ones is a dream that is never going to become a reality. Yet wait, we have good holiday news for you and your kin .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Hire Internet Marketing Firm. Hiring an expert at times is the easiest ways to drive traffic to a site if you have the funds. I have enlisted the top Internet Marketing Firms. Increasevisibility.com Webimax.com Seop.com Intrapromote.com Arteworks.biz Oneupweb.com Seoimage.com Cu .....
Best Bodyweight Exercises for a Strong Core
Raised Knee In. Lie on back, arms along sides, palms down and just under lower back and butt. Press the small of your back against the floor and extend legs outward, with heels about 3 inches above the floor. Keeping lower back against the floor, lift left knee towa .....
Movies for Valentines Day
Two Weeks Notice. Director Marc Lawrence Starring Sandra Bullock, Hugh Grant, Alicia Witt, Dana Ivey, Robert Klein. Plot Lucy Kelton Sandra Bullock is the Chief Legal Counsel for one of New Yorks leading commercial real estate firms, the Wade Corporation. George Wad .....
The Fastest Accelerating Cars
ARIEL ATOM 3 Point 5 and 3 Point 2 SECONDS. Going about its business in a completely different way to the rarefied Pagani think light weight, a Japanese hatchback engine and no doors or windows the Ariel Atom 3.5 returns the same 062 mph (100 km/h) time as the Huayra. .....
Simple Science
The Senses. Sound: All the information which we possess of the world around us comes to us through the use of the senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Of the five senses, sight and hearing are generally considered the most valuable. In preceding Ch .....
Rules to play Aquatics
Zero depth entry pool rules. Throwing toys or balls may be limited for safety. Children must wear a swim diaper if not toilet trained. No climbing or hanging on play features. No climbing or hanging from ramp railings or walls .....
Tips for Hosting a Xmas Party
Outdoor Decorations. You know the large plastic Santa that usually lives on your roof during the holiday season? He certainly conjures up feelings of nostalgia, but elegance? Not so much. If youre going to have an upscale Christmas party, then you should have elegant out .....
Cool Inventions
Flying on the Ground. Albert H. Luke, center, instructor at the Sheil School, advises a student as she operates the controls of pre flight trainer called thePenguin in Chicago, Ill., July, 25, 1945. The penguin gives flight students the basicfeel of flying without leaving .....
Amazing Facts You Probably Didnt Know
Amazing Facts 34. Penguins will give their mate a pebble as a way of proposing. .....
Best Foods for Healthy Eyes
Spinach. Spinach provides four eye protecting ingredients, It comes packaged with vitamin C, beta carotene and large amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin . a matched pair of antioxidants found in high concentrations in the tissue of the macula. Because they absor .....
Benefits of Pineapple
Tips and Considerations. Enjoying pineapple juice on its own, try using it to create custom juice blends. Take advantage of pineapple juices sweetness to make nutrientpacked but bitter juices like kale juice more palatable. Use pineapple juice as a base for smoothies conta .....
Healthy Elbow
Supplement With Omega 3S. Reducing inflammation is just one more reason you should be supplementing with Omega3s or fish oil. This can help with the reduction of swelling and formation of scar tissue in your elbows.The other option would be to get more Omega3s in your diet fr .....
Best Marwari Mehndi Designs
Designs 5. Those looking for some traditional yet simple mehandi design may go for this one. The motifs used here are traditional with the tips being left open creating a great blend of latest and traditional mehndi styles. We love the unusual motifs and patter .....
Most Expensive Motorcycles
2011 Ducati GP11 VR2 Desmosedici. US$317,862 (sold for EUR245,700) One of two Ducati Desmosedici MotoGP machinesauctioned by Ducati in 2012, this bike was campaigned by the worlds most popular motorcycle racer, Valentino Rossi. .....
Good Things you can do for your Body
Drink warm water with lemon. Drink warm water with lemon .....
How To Do Nail Art At Home
Animal Prints. Animal prints like zebra, leopard are very easy to do and look very cute on your nails. .....
Extreme Guinness World Records
Most people dancing Michael Jackson s Thriller. Michael Jackson impersonator Hector Jackson performs with thousands of people at the Monument of the Revolution in Mexico City on Aug. 29, 2009. The Guinness World record of most people dancing Michael Jackson s Thriller is 13,597. .....
Best Eco Friendly Hotels and Resorts in the World
The Dune Eco Beach Hotel Pondicherry. The Dune is a very interesting concept indeed Situated on a sprawling 35 acre property with a beachfront location just north of Pondicherry The Dune has 30 villas and 20 rooms Theyre all unique and themed Its quite amazing Arty types will love it! Th .....
Exam Tips
Studying But Not Getting The Grades How To Find And Fix Your Trouble Spot. As with most things, students tend to sit on a spectrum. The straight A+ students are at one end, and the first prize for most number of absences are generally at the other end. This spectrum is generally directly proportionate to the number of study .....
Fish Aquarium
Coolie Loach. The Coolie Loach grows to 3 inches and does best when kept in a group. This bottom-dwelling fish does not do very well with active tank mates that also tend to spend their time at the bottom of the tank. It hides during the day, burying itself in gra .....
Ratan Tata
Looking within. In many ways, the Indica started a trend in the Tata group. Every year since, Ratan Tata has feted individuals or teams that have worked on an interesting project even if it didnt succeed, under a programme called Dare to Fail. The Nano is, of course .....
Chourishi Systems