. Chess is a two player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight by eight grid. It is one of the world s most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide in homes, parks, clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.
Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. The objective is to checkmate the opponent s king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player s pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent s pieces, while supporting their own. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by voluntary resignation by the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middlegame, and endgame.
The Goal of Chess
. Chess is a game played between two opponents on opposite sides of a board containing 64 squares of alternating colors. Each player has 16 pieces: 1 king, 1 queen, 2 rooks, 2 bishops, 2 knights, and 8 pawns. The goal of the game is to checkmate the other king. Checkmate happens when the king is in a position to be captured (in check) and cannot escape from capture.
Starting a Game
. At the beginning of the game the chessboard is laid out so that each player has the white (or light) color square in the bottom right hand side. The chess pieces are then arranged the same way each time. The second row (or rank) is filled with pawns. The rooks go in the corners, then the knights next to them, followed by the bishops, and finally the queen, who always goes on her own matching color (white queen on white, black queen on black), and the king on the remaining square. The player with the white pieces always moves first. Therefore, players generally decide who will get to be white by chance or luck such as flipping a coin or having one player guess the color of the hidden pawn in the other player s hand. White then makes a move, followed by black, then white again, then black and so on until the end of the game.
How the Pieces Move
. Each of the 6 different kinds of pieces moves differently. Pieces cannot move through other pieces (though the knight can jump over other pieces), and can never move onto a square with one of their own pieces. However, they can be moved to take the place of an opponent s piece which is then captured. Pieces are generally moved into positions where they can capture other pieces (by landing on their square and then replacing them), defend their own pieces in case of capture, or control important squares in the game.
. The king is the most important piece,but is one of the weakest. The king can only move one square in any direction up, down, to the sides, and diagonally.The king may never move himself into check.
. The queen is the most powerful piece.She can move in any one straight direction forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally as far as possible as long as she does not move through any of her own pieces. And, like with all pieces, if the queen captures an opponent s piece her move is over.
. The rook may move as far as it wants, but only forward, backward, and to the sides. The rooks are particularly powerful pieces when they are protecting each other and working together!
. The bishop may move as far as it wants, but only diagonally. Each bishop starts on one color (light or dark) and must always stay on that color. Bishops work well together because they cover up each others weaknesses.
. Knights move in a very different way from the other pieces
. Pawns are unusual because they move and capture in different ways: they move forward, but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares. Pawns can only capture one square diagonally in front of them. They can never move or capture backwards. If there is another piece directly in front of a pawn he cannot move past or capture that piece.
. Pawns have another special ability and that is that if a pawn reaches the other side of the board it can become any other chess piece (called promotion). A pawn may be promoted to any piece. A pawn is usually promoted to a queen. Only pawns may be promoted.
. The last rule about pawns is called en passant, which is French for in passing. If a pawn moves out two squares on its first move, and by doing so lands to the side of an opponents pawn , that other pawn has the option of capturing the first pawn as it passes by. This special move must be done immediately after the first pawn has moved past, otherwise the option to capture it is no longer available.
. One other special rule is called castling. This move allows you to do two important things all in one move: get your king to safety (hopefully), and get your rook out of the corner and into the game. On a players turn he may move his king two squares over to one side and then move the rook from that sides corner to right next to the king on the opposite side. However, in order to castle, the following conditions must be met: it must be that kings very first move it must be that rooks very first move there cannot be any pieces between the king and rook to move the king may not be in check or pass through check.
Notice that when you castle one direction the king is closer to the side of the board. That is called castling kingside. Castling to the other side, through where the queen sat, is called castling queenside. Regardless of which side, the king always moves only two squares when castling.
Check and Checkmate
. As stated before, the purpose of the game is to checkmate the opponents king. This happens when the king is put into check and cannot get out of check. There are only three ways a king can get out of check: move out of the way, block the check with another piece, or capture the piece threatening the king. If a king cannot escape checkmate then the game is over. Customarily the king is not captured or removed from the board, the game is simply declared over.
. Occasionally chess games do not end with a winner, but with a draw. There are 5 reasons why a chess game may end in a draw: The position reaches a stalemate where it is one players turn to move, but his king is NOT in check and yet he does not have another legal move The players may simply agree to a draw and stop playing There are not enough pieces on the board to force a checkmate. A player declares a draw if the same exact position is repeated three times Fifty consecutive moves have been played where neither player has moved a pawn or captured a piece.
. Tournament games are played under time constraints, called time controls, using a game clock. Each player must make his moves within the time control or forfeit the game. There are different types of time controls. In some cases each player will have a certain amount of time to make a certain number of moves. In other cases each player will have a limited amount of time to make all of his moves. Also, the player may gain a small amount of additional time for each move made, either by a small increment added for each move made, or by the clock delaying a small amount of time each time it is started after the opponent s move
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. Extracts from two frequently consumed spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets.In the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and
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Introduction to Apricots
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Revives the eyes
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How to Remove Dark Circles Tips
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A good night s sleep Practice restful yoga
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