Vienna

Vienna
1. Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.Vienna is Austria primary city, with a population of about 1.757 million (2.4 million within the metropolitan area, more than 20 percent of Austria population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre.It is the 7thlargest city by population within city limits in the European Union.Until the beginning of the 20th century it was the largest Germanspeaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the AustroHungarian Empire in World War I the city had 2 million inhabitants.Today it is the second only to Berlin in German speakers.Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC.The city lies in the east of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.These regions work together in a European Centrope border region.Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants.In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. .....
Schonbrunn Palace
2. Schonbrunn Palace is a former imperial summer residence located in Vienna, Austria.The 1,441room Baroque palace is one of the most important architectural, cultural and historical monuments in the country.Since the mid1950s it has been a major tourist attraction.The history of the palace and its vast gardens spans over 300 years, reflecting the changing tastes, interests, and aspirations of successive Habsburg monarchs. .....
Hofburg Palace
3. Hofburg Palace is the former imperial palace in the centre of Vienna.Part of the palace forms the official residence and workplace of the President of Austria.Built in the 13th century and expanded in the centuries since, the palace has housed some of the most powerful people in European and Austrian history, including monarchs of the Habsburg dynasty, rulers of the AustroHungarian Empire.It was the principal imperial winter residence, as Schonbrunn Palace was their summer residence.The Hofburg area has been the documented seat of government since 1279 for various empires and republics.The Hofburg has been expanded over the centuries to include various residences (with the Amalienburg), the Imperial Chapel (Hofkapelle or Burgkapelle), the Naturhistorisches Museum and Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Austrian National Library (Hofbibliothek), the Imperial Treasury (Schatzkammer), the Burgtheater, the Spanish Riding School (Hofreitschule), the Imperial Horse Stables (Stallburg and Hofstallungen), and the Hofburg Congress Center. .....
Belvedere
4. The Belvedere is a historic building complex in Vienna, Austria, consisting of two Baroque palaces (the Upper and Lower Belvedere), the Orangery, and the Palace Stables.The buildings are set in a Baroque park landscape in the third district of the city, on the southeastern edge of its centre.It houses the Belvedere museum.The grounds are set on a gentle gradient and include decorative tiered fountains and cascades, Baroque sculptures, and majestic wrought iron gates.The Baroque palace complex was built as a summer residence for Prince Eugene of Savoy.The Belvedere was built during a period of extensive construction in Vienna, which at the time was both the imperial capital and home to the ruling Habsburg dynasty.This period of prosperity followed on from the commanderinchief Prince Eugene of Savoy successful conclusion of a series of wars against the Ottoman Empire. .....
St Stephen Cathedral
5. St.Stephen Cathedral (more commonly known by its German title Stephansdom) is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal Schonborn, OP.The current Romanesque and Gothic form of the cathedral, seen today in the Stephansplatz, was largely initiated by Duke Rudolf IV (1339 1365) and stands on the ruins of two earlier churches, the first a parish church consecrated in 1147.The most important religious building in Vienna, St.Stephen Cathedral has borne witness to many important events in Habsburg and Austrian history and has, with its multicoloured tile roof, become one of the city most recognizable symbols.The funeral of the Italian composer, Antonio Vivaldi occurred in this cathedral in 1741. .....
Tiergarten Schonbrunn
6. Tiergarten Schonbrunn, is a zoo located on the grounds of the famous Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria.Founded as an imperial menagerie in 1752, it is the oldest zoo in the world.Today Tiergarten Schonbrunn is considered and regards itself as a scientifically administered zoo which sees its main purpose as a centre for species conservation and general nature conservation as well as in the fulfillment of the education mandate given to it by the legislation.The still preserved buildings of the baroque era, which have been complemented in the last years by elements of modern zoo architecture, still convey a good impression of the 18th century menageriebuildings after the Versailles model. .....
Ringstrabe
7. The Ringstrabe (Ring Road) is a circular road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights.Its architecture is typical of the eclectic, historicist style called Ringstrabenstil (Ringstrabe Style) of the 1860s to 1890s.The street was built to replace the city walls, which had been built during the 13th century and funded by the ransom payment derived from the release of Richard I of England, and reinforced as a consequence of the First Turkish Siege in 1529.The walls were surrounded by a glacis about 500m wide, where buildings and vegetation were prohibited.But by the late 18th century these fortifications had become obsolete.Under Emperor Joseph II, .....
Kunsthistorisches Museum
8. The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria.Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstrabe, it is crowned with an octagonal dome.The term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to both the institution and the main building.It was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Naturhistorisches Museum, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of AustriaHungary.The two museums have identical exteriors and face each other across MariaTheresienPlatz.Both buildings were built between 1872 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer. .....
Museumsquartier
9. The Museumsquartier (MQ) is a 60,000 m2 large area in the 7th district of the city of Vienna, Austria it is the eighth largest cultural area in the world.The Museumsquartier contains Baroque buildings as well as Modern architecture by the architects Laurids and Manfred Ortner (Ortner & Ortner Baukunst).The renovation of the former court stables began in April 1998.Three years later, the Museumsquartier opened in two stages (June and September 2001).The total cost of the construction was 150 Million Euro (two billion Schilling). .....
Rathaus
10. The Rathaus (Town Hall) is a building in Vienna which serves as the seat both of the mayor and city council of the city of Vienna.The town hall also serves, in personal union, as Governor and Assembly (Landtag) of the State of Vienna, a state with the Austrian federal system. .....
Vienna State Opera
11. The Vienna State Opera (German Wiener Staatsoper) is an opera house and opera company with a history dating back to the mid19th century.It is located in the centre of Vienna, Austria.It was originally called the Vienna Court Opera (Wiener Hofoper).In 1920, with the replacement of the Habsburg Monarchy by the First Republic of Austria, it was renamed the Vienna State Opera.The members of the Vienna Philharmonic are recruited from its orchestra. .....
Albertina
12. The Albertina is a museum in the Innere Stadt (First District) of Vienna, Austria.It houses one of the largest and most important print rooms in the world with approximately 65,000 drawings and approximately 1 million old master prints, as well as more modern graphic works, photographs and architectural drawings.Apart from the graphics collection the museum has recently acquired on permanent loan two significant collections of Impressionist and early 20thcentury art, some of which will be on permanent display.The museum also houses temporary exhibitions. .....
Prater
13. The Prater is a large public park in Vienna 2nd district (Leopoldstadt).The Wurstelprater amusement park, often simply called Prater, stands in one corner of the Wiener Prater and includes the Wiener Riesenrad.The name Prater derives from one or the other or possibly both Latin words pratum meaning meadow and Praetor meaning magistrate or lawyer, possibly via Spanish prado. .....
Spanish Riding School
14. The Spanish Riding School (German Spanische Hofreitschule) of Vienna, Austria, is a traditional riding school for Lipizzan horses, which perform in the Winter Riding School (Winterreitschule) in the Hofburg.Not only is it a centre for classical dressage, the headquarters is a tourist attraction in Vienna that offers public performances as well as permitting public viewing of some training sessions.The presentation builds on four centuries of experience and tradition in classical dressage.The leading horses and riders of the school also periodically tour and perform worldwide. .....
Wiener Riesenrad
15. The Wiener Riesenrad (German for Viennese giant wheel), or Riesenrad, is a 64.75metre (212 ft) tall Ferris wheel at the entrance of the Prater amusement park in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Austria capital Vienna.It is one of Vienna most popular tourist attractions, and symbolises the district as well as the city for many people.Constructed in 1897, it was the world tallest extant Ferris wheel from 1920 until 1985.The Wiener Riesenrad was constructed in 1897 by the English engineer Lieutenant Walter Bassett Bassett (18641907), Royal Navy, son of Charles Bassett (1834 1908). .....
MariaTheresien Platz
16. MariaTheresienPlatz is a large public square in Vienna, Austria, that joins the Ringstrabe with the Museumsquartier, a museum of modern arts located in the former Imperial Stables.Facing each other from the sides of the square are two near identical buildings, the Naturhistorisches Museum (Natural History Museum) and the Kunsthistorisches Museum (Art History Museum).The buildings are near identical, except for the statuary on their facades.The Naturhistorische facade has statues depicting personifications of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.The Kunsthistorisches facade features famous European artists, such as the Dutch Bruegel, among others.The Naturhistorisches Museum and the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the square adjoining them were built in 1889.At the center of the square is a large statue depicting Empress Maria Theresa, namesake of the square.The Modern Art Museum in the former Imperial Stables shows contemporary works that some may consider controversial.The three museums are popular destinations for tourists. .....
Burgtheater
17. The Burgtheater (en (Imperial) Court Theatre), originally known as K.K.Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K.Hofburgtheater, is the Austrian National Theatre in Vienna and one of the most important German language theatres in the world. The Burgtheater was created in 1741 and has become known as die Burg by the Viennese population its theatre company of more or less regular members has created a traditional style and speech typical of Burgtheater performances. .....
KunstHausWien
18. The KunstHausWien is a museum in Vienna, designed by the artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser.This museum in the Landstrabe district houses the world only permanent exhibition of Hundertwasser works, and also hosts regular temporary exhibitions of other artists.The KunstHausWien operates as a private business and does not receive any government aid.In 2009 the KunstHausWien received 174,000 visitors.The museum was created through the renovation of the 1892 building which housed the Thonet furniture factory (creator of the iconic bistro chair), in a style commensurate with Hundertwasser art.It stands less than half a mile from the Hundertwasserhaus, a municipally owned apartment block also designed by Hundertwasser and completed in 1986.The renovation was planned by Hundertwasser himself and carried out from 198991 with sponsorship from BAWAG P.S.K.The museum was opened in April 1991. .....
Stadtpark
19. The Stadtpark (City Park) in Vienna, Austria is a large municipal park that extends from the Ringstrabe in the Innere Stadt first district up to the Heumarkt (Hay Market) in the Landstrabe third district.The park is divided in two sections by the Wienfluss (Vienna River), and has a total surface area of 65,000 square metres (28 acres).Scattered throughout the park are statues of famous Viennese artists, writers, and composers, including Hans Canon, Emil Jakob Schindler, Johann Strauss II, Franz Schubert, and Anton Bruckner.The opulent Kursalon building on Johannesgasse, with its broad terrace that reaches into the park, is the site of popular waltz concerts. .....
Kirche am Steinhof
20. Kirche am Steinhof, also called the Church of St.Leopold, is the Roman Catholic oratory of the Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital in Vienna, Austria.The building designed by Otto Wagner is considered one of the most important Art Nouveau churches in the world.The church, situated 310 metres (1,020 ft) above sea level, dominates and forms part of the Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital previous official title was Niederosterreichische LandesHeil und Pflegeanstalt fur Nerven und Geisteskranke 'Am Steinhof' (Lower Austrian State Healing and Care Institution for the Neurologically and Mentally Sick, Am Steinhof).It is located on a hillside (the Baumgartnerhohe) below the Galitzinberg in the 14th Vienna district, Penzing.It has a separate status as part of the surrounding hospital and does not form part of the Archdiocese of Vienna. .....
Hundertwasserhaus
21. The Hundertwasserhaus is an apartment house in Vienna, Austria, built after the idea and concept of Austrian artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser with architect Joseph Krawina as a coauthor.This expressionist landmark of Vienna is located in the Landstrabe district on the corner of Kegelgasse and Lowengasse.Friedensreich Hundertwasser started out as a painter.Since the early 1950s, however, he increasingly became focused on architecture, writing and reading in public. advocating natural forms of decay) In 1972, he had his first architectural models made for the TVshow Wunsch dir wa, in order to demonstrate his ideas on forested roofs, tree tenants and the window right of every tenant to embellish the facade around his windows.In these models Hundertwasser also developed new architectural shapes, such as the eyeslit house and the highrise meadow house. .....
Donauturm
22. The Vienna Donauturm (English Danube Tower), opened in April 1964, is the tallest structure in Austria, at 252 metres (827 ft), and among the 75 tallest towers in the world.The tower is located near the north bank of the Danube River in the district of Donaustadt.The hills Leopoldsberg and Kahlenberg are visible in the background.Two highspeed elevators transport passengers to the tower viewing platform at 150 metres (490 ft).Each lift, carrying up to 14 passengers, takes only 35 seconds to reach the observation platform.In strong winds, the elevators travel at only half speed because of the possible fluctuation of the tower the movement of the elevator cable could be dangerous.By walking about 779 steps (775, according to architects Lintl), the platform can also be reached on foot.The stairs are, however, usually only accessible during the annual Donauturm run, or in an emergency. .....
Wiener Musikverein
23. The Wiener Musikverein, (German pronunciation Viennese Music Association), commonly shortened to Musikverein, is a concert hall in the Innere Stadt borough of Vienna, Austria.It is the home to the Vienna Philharmonic orchestra.The Great Hall (Grober Saal) due to its highly regarded acoustics is considered one of the finest concert halls in the world, along with Berlin Konzerthaus, the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, Boston Symphony Hall.None of these halls were built in the modern era with the application of acoustics science and all share a long, tall, and narrow shoebox shape. .....
Vienna International Centre
24. The Vienna International Centre (VIC) is the campus and building complex hosting the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV in German Buro der Vereinten Nationen in Wien).As colloquially also known as UNO City, the VIC is only the one part of it.The other one is the Austria Center Vienna (ACV).The VIC, designed by Austrian architect Johann Staber, was built between 1973 and 1979 just north of the river Danube.The initial idea of setting up an international organization in Vienna came from the Chancellor of Austria Dr.Bruno Kreisky.Six Yshaped office towers surround a cylindrical conference building for a total floor area of 230,000 square metres.The highest tower stands 127 metres tall, enclosing 28 floors.About 5,000 people work at the VIC, which also offers catering and shopping facilities (see Commissary below) and a post office (postal code 1400 Wien).Two banks (Bank Austria and United Nations Federal Credit Union offices), travel agents and other commercial services have offices on the premises. .....
Imperial Crypt
25. The Imperial Crypt (German Kaisergruft) in Vienna, Austria, also called the Capuchin Crypt (Kapuzinergruft), is a burial chamber beneath the Capuchin Church and monastery, founded in 1618 and dedicated in 1632, and located on the Neuer Markt square of the Innere Stadt, near the Hofburg Palace.Since 1633, the Imperial Crypt has been the principal place of entombment for members of the House of Habsburg.The bones of 145 Habsburg royalty, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are here, including 12 emperors and 18 empresses.The visible 107 metal sarcophagi and five heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo.Some of the dozen resident Capuchin friars continue their customary role as the guardians and caretakers of the crypt, along with their other pastoral work in Vienna.The most recent entombment was in 2011. .....
Heldenplatz
26. Heldenplatz (German Heroe Square) is a public space in front of Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria.Located in the Innere Stadt borough, the President of Austria resides in the adjoining Hofburg wing, while the Federal Chancellery is on adjacent Ballhausplatz.Many important actions and events took place here, most notably Adolf Hitler ceremonial announcement of the Austrian Anschluss to Nazi Germany on 15 March 1938.After the Napoleonic War of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian defeat in the 1809 Battle of Wagram and the Treaty of Schonbrunn, the remaining bastions of Hofburg Palace were slighted and replaced by a curtain wall with the still preserved Outer Castle Gate (Auberes Burgtor).Inside the Hofburg walls, several squares and gardens were laid out, including the Volksgarten public park. .....
Donaukanal
27. The Donaukanal (Danube Canal) is a former arm of the river Danube, now regulated as a water channel (since 1598), within the city of Vienna, Austria .It is 17.3 km (10.7 mi) long and, unlike the Danube itself, it borders Vienna city centre, Innere Stadt, where the Wien River (Wienfluss) flows into it.The Donaukanal bifurcates from the main river at the Nubdorf weir and lock complex, in Dobling, and joins it again just upstream of the Praterspitz, at the Prater park in Simmering.The island thus formed between the Donaukanal and the Danube holds 2 of the 23 districts of Vienna Brigittenau (20th District) and Leopoldstadt (2nd District).The canal is crossed by 15 road bridges and 5 train bridges.Because in German, the name Kanal, which has been used since about 1700, evokes associations of an open sewer, attempts at renaming the Donaukanal have been made (one suggestion was Kleine Donau Little Danube) but have not met with success. .....
Austrian Parliament Building
28. The Austrian Parliament Building (German ParlamentsgebAude, colloquially das Parlament) in Vienna is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament conduct their sessions.The building is located on the Ringstrabe boulevard in the first district Innere Stadt, near Hofburg Palace and the Palace of Justice.It was built to house the two chambers of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat), the bicameral legislature of the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of the AustroHungarian Empire.Up to today, the Parliament Building is the seat of the two houses the National Council (Nationalrat) and the Federal Council (Bundesrat) of the Austrian legislature.The foundation stone was laid in 1874 the building was completed in 1883.The architect responsible for its Greek Revival style was Theophil Hansen.He designed the building holistically, each element harmonizing with the others and was therefore also responsible for the interior decoration, such as statues, paintings, furniture, chandeliers, and numerous other elements.Hansen was honored by Emperor Franz Joseph with the title of Freiherr (Baron) after its completion.Following heavy damage and destruction in World War II, most of the interior has been restored to its original splendour. .....
Judenplatz
29. Judenplatz (EnglishJewish Square) is a town square in Vienna Innere Stadt that was the center of Jewish life and the Viennese Jewish Community in the Middle Ages.It is located in the immediate proximity of Am Hof square, Schulhof, and Wipplingerstrabe.It exemplifies the long and eventful history of the city and the Jewish community focused on this place.Archaeological excavations of the medieval synagogue are viewable underground by way of the museum on the square, MisrachiHaus.Two sculptural works, a carved relief and several inscribed texts are located around the square that all have subject matter relating to Jewish history.One of these sculptures is a statue of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.The other is a memorial to Austrian Holocaust Victims, a project based on an idea of Simon Wiesenthal and unveiled in 2000.Created by British artist Rachel Whiteread, the memorial is a reinforced concrete cube resembling a library with its volumes turned inside out.The Judenplatz is the location of the Constitutional Court of Austria and the Administrative Court of Austria. .....
Wien
30. The Wien is a river that flows through the city of Vienna.It is 34 kilometres long (21 miles), of which 15 km are within the city.Its drainage basin covers an area of 230 km2 (89 mi2), both in the city and in the neighbouring Wienerwald.In German, the river is colloquially called the Wienfluss.Since English uses the name Vienna for what in German is called Wien, in English the river is sometimes called the Vienna River.The Wien has its source in the western Wienerwald near Rekawinkel and its mouth at the eastern end of the city centre of Vienna, next to the Urania, where it flows into the Donaukanal (Danube canal), a branch of the Danube.Within the city limits, the river bed consists almost entirely of concrete, which was installed between 1895 and 1899 in order to stop the devastating floods, sometimes accompanied by cholera, which the river had regularly caused before that time.At the same time, the Stadtbahn (city railway) was built, which makes use of the concrete river bed and is only separated from the river by a wall.It is now part of the Vienna UBahn system. .....
Freyung
31. The Freyung is a triangular public square in Vienna, located in the Innere Stadt first district of the city.The square originally lay outside the Roman fortification walls of Vindabona.In the 12th century, Irish monks arrived by invitation of Duke Henry II of Austria to build a monastery.The monastery is called Schottenkloster, meaning Scottish Monastery, as Ireland at that time was known as New Scotland.The square around Schottenkloster was known as bei den Schotten (at the Scots).View of the Freyung, painted by Canaletto in 1758 The name Freyung has its origin from the old German word frey, meaning free.Since the monastery had the privilege of freedom from ducal authority, as well as the right to grant protection to fugitives, the square gained its name from its proximity to the Schottenkloster.The priory was added to the monastery in 1773 and became popularly known as Schubladkastenhaus (Chest of Drawers House) because of its shape. .....
Palmenhaus Schonbrunn
32. The Palmenhaus Schonbrunn is a large greenhouse in Vienna, Austria, featuring plants from around the world.It was opened in 1882.It is the most prominent of the four greenhouses in Schonbrunn Palace Park, and is also among the largest botanical exhibits of its kind in the world, with around 4,500 plant species.Several forerunners were built in the Palace Park in the 18th and 19th centuries, under Emperors Francis I and Joseph II.The present building was opened in 1882, under Franz Joseph I.Since 1918 it has been run by the BundesgArten (Federal Gardens). .....
Theater an der Wien
33. The Theater an der Wien is a historic theatre in Vienna located on the Left Wienzeile in the Mariahilf district.Completed in 1801, the theatre has hosted the premieres of many celebrated works of theatre, opera, and symphonic music.Since 2006, it has served primarily as an opera house, hosting its own company.Although Wien is German for Vienna, the Wien in the name of the theatre is actually the name of the Wien River, which once flowed by the theatre site an der Wien means on the banks of the Wien.In modern times, the river has been covered over in this location and the covered riverbed now houses the Naschmarkt, an openair market. .....
Augustinian Church
34. The Augustinian Church (German Augustinerkirche) in Vienna is a parish church located on Josefsplatz, next to the Hofburg, the winter palace of the Habsburg dynasty in Vienna.Originally built in the 14th century as the parish church of the imperial court of the Habsburgs, the harmonious Gothic interior was added in the 18th century.The official name of church and parish is St.Augustin, but it is locally called Augustinerkirche. .....
Congress of Vienna
35. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.The objective of the Congress was to provide a longterm peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries, but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution.France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains.Prussia added smaller German states in the west and 40 percent of the Kingdom of Saxony Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy.Russia gained parts of Poland.The new kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium. .....
Haus des Meeres
36. The Haus des Meeres (HdM, English House of the Sea) is a public aquarium in Vienna, Austria.It is located in Esterhazy Park in downtown Mariahilf district, one block south of the busy Mariahilfer Strabe.The Haus des Meeres houses over ten thousand aquatic beings on an area of around 4,000 square meters (43,000 sq ft) inside a tall concrete flak tower built during World War II. In 2012 the Haus des Meeres attracted a record high of 436,500 visitors. The Haus des Meeres is managed by Aqua Terra Zoo, a private nonprofit organization which, according to its web site, receives only marginal financial support from municipal authorities.[note 1] However, the maintenance costs for the former flak tower are paid by the taxpayer. .....
Konzerthaus
37. The Konzerthaus in Vienna (German Wiener Konzerthaus) was opened 1913.It is situated in the third district just at the edge of the first district in Vienna.Since it was founded it has always tried to emphasise both tradition and innovative musical styles.In 1890, the first ideas for a Haus fur Musikfeste (House for music festivals) came about.The idea of the new multipurpose building was to be more interesting to the broader public than the traditional Vienna Musikverein.In addition to the concert hall, the first drawings by Ludwig Baumann for the Olympion included an iceskating area and a bicycle club.In an attached open air area, 40,000 visitors would be able to attend events.The drawings were not accepted.However, today an ice skating area is situated right next to the building.The Konzerthaus was finally built between 1911 and 1913.The architects were Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer the work was done in cooperation with Ludwig Baumann. .....
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