. The city of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish Letzebuerg, French Luxembourg, German Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Luxembourgish Stad Letzebuerg, French Ville de Luxembourg, German Stadt Luxemburg), is a commune with city status, and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.It stands at the confluence of the Alzette and Petrusse Rivers in southern Luxembourg.The city contains the Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed.Luxembourg City lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km (132 mi) by road from Brussels, 372 km (231 mi) from Paris, 209 km (130 mi) from Cologne.
. Bock is a strong lager of German origin.Several substyles exist, including maibock (helles bock, heller bock), a paler, more hopped version generally made for consumption at spring festivals doppelbock (double bock), a stronger and maltier version and eisbock, a much stronger version made by partially freezing the beer and removing the ice that forms.Originally a dark beer, a modern bock can range from light copper to brown in colour.The style is very popular, with many examples brewed internationally.
Grand Ducal Palace
. The Grand Ducal Palace (Luxembourgish Groussherzogleche Palais, French Palais grand ducal, German Grobherzogliches Palais) is a palace in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It is the official residence of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and where he performs most of his duties as head of state of the Grand Duchy.As the official residence of the Grand Duke, the palace is used by him in the exercise of his official functions.He and the Grand Duchess, together with their staff, have their offices at the palace, and the state rooms on the first floor are used for a variety of meetings and audiences.On Christmas Eve, the Grand Duke Christmas message is broadcast from the Yellow Room.Foreign heads of state are accommodated at the palace, as guests of the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess, during official visits to Luxembourg, and the Ballroom is the setting for state banquets in their honour.Throughout the year, numerous other receptions take place at the palace, such as the New Year reception given for members of the Government and the Chamber of Deputies.
Notre Dame Cathedral
. Notre Dame Cathedral (Luxembourgish Kathedral Notre Dame, French Cathedrale Notre Dame, German Kathedrale unserer lieben Frau) is the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It was originally a Jesuit church, and its cornerstone was laid in 1613.It is the only cathedral in Luxembourg.The church is a noteworthy example of late gothic architecture however, it also has many Renaissance elements and adornments.At the end of the 18th century, the church received the miraculous image of the Maria Consolatrix Afflictorum, the patron saint of both the city and the nation.Around 50 years later, the church was consecrated as the Church of Our Lady and in 1870, it was elevated by Pope Pius IX to the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
National Museum of History and Art
. The National Museum of History and Art (Luxembourgish Nationalmusee fir Geschicht a Konscht, French Musee national dhistoire et d art, German Nationalmuseum fur Geschichte und Kunst), abbreviated to MNHA, is a museum located in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It is dedicated to displaying artworks and artefacts from all epochs of Luxembourg history.The museum is situated in Fishmarket, the historic heart of the city, in the Ville Haute quarter.
Luxembourg City History
. The Luxembourg City History Museum, French Musee d histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg, illustrates the thousand year history of the City of Luxembourg with both permanent and temporary exhibits.Founded on 22 June 1996, it was designed by Luxembourg architect Conny Lentz and Reperages, Paris.Like the city itself, the museum successfully combines ancient architecture with modern extensions.It is housed in four restored houses from the 17th to the 19th century which still bear archeological traces from the Middle Ages.Examples of how to combine old buildings with the expectations of museum visitors are the floating glass facade and the panoramic lift which offers extensive views of all floors.
. The Monument of Remembrance (French Monument du souvenir), usually known by the nickname of the Gelle Fra (Luxembourgish for Golden Lady), is a war memorial in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It is dedicated to the thousands of Luxembourgers who volunteered for service in the armed forces of the Allied Powers during World War I.The Gelle Fra is situated in Constitution Square, in the Ville Haute quarter of central Luxembourg City.
. The Petrusse (Luxembourgish Peitruss, German Petruss) is a river flowing through Luxembourg, joining the Alzette at Luxembourg City.It flows through the town of Hollerich.
. The Place dArmes (Luxembourgish Pless) is a square in Luxembourg City in the south of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.Centrally placed in the old town, it attracts large numbers of locals and visitors, especially in the summer months.It originally served as a parade ground for the troops defending the city.Now an integral part of the pedestrian zone, the square is surrounded by numerous cafes and restaurants, all with pavement terraces in the summer months.It has become the city main centre of activity, attracting locals and visitors of all ages.Visiting bands and music groups present concerts from the central bandstand every summer evening.Every second and fourth Saturday, there is a flea market and in December the square houses the Christmas market.
. The Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (French Musee dart moderne Grand Duc Jean), abbreviated to Mudam, is a museum of modern art in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.The museum stands on the site of the old Fort Thungen, in the Kirchberg quarter, in the north east of the city.First proposed in 1989 and championed by then Prime Minister Jacques Santer, the location of the future museum was much disputed, until it was agreed in 1997 to use Drai Eechelen Park and connect the museum to Fort Thungen.The building was designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect I.M.Pei, and cost 100m to build.The museum was inaugurated on 1 July 2006 by Grand Duke Jean, to whom the building is dedicated, and opened to the public the following day.The museum is directed by Enrico Lunghi.
. Neumunster Abbey is a public meeting place and cultural centre, located in the Grund district of Luxembourg City in southern Luxembourg.After the original Benedictine Abbey on the Altmunster Plateau had been destroyed in 1542, the monks built a new abbey or Neumunster in 1606 in the Grund.This in turn was destroyed by fire in 1684 but was rebuilt on the same site in 1688 and extended in 1720.After the French revolution, it served as a police station and prison before becoming a barracks for the Prussians after Napoleon defeat in 1815.From 1867, it once again became a state prison.Since 1997, it has been the home of the European Institute of Cultural Routes.During World War II, the Nazis used the Abbey to imprison political resisters to their occupation of Luxembourg.Among the most notable of those political prisoners was Luxembourg best known sculptor Lucien Wercollier.Following extensive renovation works, Neumunster was opened to the public in May 2004 as a meeting place and a cultural centre.It hosts concerts, exhibitions, and seminars.The Abbey is also now home to the Lucien Wercollier Cloister, where many works from the sculptor private collection are permanently displayed.
. Fort Thungen is a historic fortification in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It is sited in Drai Eechelen Park, in the Kirchberg quarter, in the north east of the city.It is also colloquially known as Three Acorns (Luxembourgish Drai Eechelen, French Trois glands, German Drei Eicheln) in reference to the acorns that sit atop each of the three towers.Most of the original fortress was demolished after the 1867 Treaty of London, which demanded the demolition of Luxembourg City numerous fortifications.The three towers and the foundations of the rest of the fort were all that remained.During the 1990s, the site was reconstructed in its entirety, in parallel with the development of the site for the construction of the Mudam, Luxembourg museum of modern art.After being fully restored, the building was reopened in 2012 as Musee Drai Eechelen.
. Am Tunnel is a contemporary art gallery, situated in a tunnel in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.The gallery is located in part of the underground casemates of the city ancient fortress, under the Bourbon plateau, in the northern part of Gare quarter.It is connected to the former headquarters of Banque et Caisse d epargne de letat (BCEE), the third largest bank based in Luxembourg.In 1987, BCEE launched a plan to extend the former casemate, so that it would connect the bank four buildings that lie on the plateau.The possible usage of the tunnel itself was debated, and the idea was formed to turn the tunnel into a gallery.Construction began in 1992, and the gallery was opened in 1993.It is primarily dedicated to hosting works by more than a hundred Luxembourgian artists, particularly the photographer Edward Steichen, to whom a permanent collection is dedicated.However, the gallery also hosts retrospectives of other artists.
Monument of the Millennium
. The Monument of the Millennium is an archaeological site and reconstruction in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.The site was designated in 1963, on the millennial anniversary of the foundation of Luxembourg City by Siegfried.The original plan, hatched by the communal and national governments, was to establish a lasting monument on the Bock, the promontory on which Siegfried original Luxembourg Castle was built.However, during construction, the foundations of the stronghold were uncovered, prompting the government to abandon its original plans, and restore the remains.
Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge
. The Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge (Luxembourgish Groussherzogin Charlotte Breck, French Pont Grande Duchesse Charlotte, German Grobherzogin Charlotte Brucke) is a road bridge in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg.It carries the N51 across the Alzette, connecting the Avenue John Fitzgerald Kennedy, in Kirchberg, to Boulevard Robert Schuman, in Limpertsberg.The bridge is also known as the Red Bridge (Luxembourgish Rout Breck, German Rote Brucke, French Pont Rouge) on account of its distinctive red paintwork.
The Moselle valley
. Stretching 42 km (26 mi) from Schengen in the south to Wasserbillig in the north, the rounded hills of the Moselle valley are lined by vineyards.The river passes a number of quaint little riverside towns and villages with narrow streets, wine cooperatives and annual wine festivals.From south to north, the river flows past Schengen, famous for the EU agreement facilitating cross border travel, Remerschen, Schwebsange, Bech Kleinmacher, Wellenstein and Remich which has been attracting wine enthusiasts since Roman times and is still a busy venue for tourists with promenades, gardens, river excursions and wine cellars.After Stadtbredimus on the river front and Greiveldange up in the hills, the Moselle then passes the charming villages of Ehnen with its Wine Museum, Wormeldange, Ahn and Machtum where some of Luxembourg finest restaurants are to be found.Then comes the small town of Grevenmacher before the Moselle meets the Sauer at the busy border town of Wasserbillig.
. An impossibly picturesque little neighborhood, the Grund is deep down in the gorge, and some of the stone houses are built directly into the rock faces.Highlights include a fifteenth century bridge, ancient stone fortifications, terraced gardens and vineyards, a satisfying assortment of pubs and restaurants, a miniature golf course and a miniature train (for miniature passengers),and acres upon acres of parkland.
The rock and casemates
. The massive rock outcropping called Le Bock that forms the east side of the haute ville is a UNESCO World Heritage site.First fortified during the Roman Empire, it is excavated with a vast network of tour able tunnels (casemates) in which the populace could hide during wars and sieges.
Le Chemin de la corniche
. This pedestrian walkway was built on the ramparts along the east side of the fortress city.La Corniche is nicknamed Europes most beautiful balcony.
Ilot gastrono mique
. The beautiful old building called am Turchen (the Turret) now houses Ilot Gastronomique (rue de lEau), a vertical mall housing half a dozen restaurants, ranging from good to great.The national motto, on the wall facing rue de la Loge, translates as We want to remain what we are.
The grand duke palace
. The monarch spends most of his nights in his country castle, but The Grand Dukes Palace is his official home, smack dab in the middle of town and open for tours in summertime.
ST Michaels chruch
. A church on this site (rue Sigefroi) was consecrated in 987.That building was destroyed by bombardment (Luxembourg was often bombarded) in 1684, then beautifully rebuilt in the Gothic style.
. On Wednesdays and Sundays at Place Guillaume II, the large plaza in the middle of town, vendors offer mostly local produce and a charming slice of everyday Luxembourg life.
Esch sur Sure
. This breathtakingly beautiful hamlet of Esch sur Sure (31 miles northeast of the city) is perched on a steep hill overlooking a sharp river bend.Dominated by a fifteenth century watchtower and capped by castle ruins, the town sits in the heart of the hilly north country called the Oesling, a region dotted with pastures, farms, and thick forests crisscrossed by deep cuts of meandering rivers.
. A tour through Vianden Castles rooms, terraces, and grounds offers not only a glimpse into a millennium worth of history (with a particularly strong collection of weapons), but also striking views of the town and countryside.
The grand he dukes official birthday celebration in luxembour
. The monarch birthday on June 23 is the single biggest celebration of the year, and the best day to be in Luxembourg.It also two days after the longest daylight of the year, so the fireworks that begin with nightfall are, essentially, a midnight interruption to a very long, very jubilant party.Chris Pavone was a New York City book editor for fifteen years, then moved to Luxembourg, where he started researching and writing The Expats, an espionage thriller set in the world only grand duchy.He now lives again in Greenwich Village and on Long Island, with wife and children.The Expats is his first novel.
The old town
. Within walking distance of each other, places of interest in the old town include the fortifications and the underground defences known as the casemates, the Grand Ducal Palace, the neogothic Cathedral of Notre Dame, Place Guillaume II with the City Hall, the Place dArmes with its pavement restaurants and cafes, the Gelle Fra or Golden Lady crowning the obelisk in memory of those who died for their country during the First World War and the nearby Adolphe Bridge towering over the valley.There are also two particularly interesting museums in the old town.The Luxembourg City History Museum traces the history of the city from its foundations (in the lower floors) to the present (at the top) while the National Museum of History and Art showcases Celtic and Roman findings including the well preserved Vichten Mosaic depicting the Roman muses.
. The Kirchberg Plateau which covers the area between the city and the airport began to develop in the 1970s with office buildings for the European Institutions.Over the years, it has become the focus of Luxembourg financial interests with an impressive array of banks and business centres.There have also been cultural developments such as the impressive Museum of Modern Art and the Philharmonie concert hall as well as sports and entertainment facilities.
. With a population of some 4,000, Echternach near the German border is the oldest town in Luxembourg.It was founded in 698 by St.Willibrord, an English monk who was the abbot of the monastery until his death in 739.In his honour, for the past 500 years the dancing procession has taken place every Whit Tuesday, attracting pilgrims from near and far.The Romanesque basilica with symmetrical towers still houses his tomb in its crypt.The town of Echternach grew up around the abbey walls and was granted a city charter in 1236.The abbey was rebuilt in a handsome Baroque range in 1737.Echternach is also the site of a large Roman villa which was discovered in 1975 and is open to visitors.The picturesque town, still surrounded by its medieval walls, hosts the International Music Festival in May and June each year.It is an ideal starting point for walks into the Mullertal or for cycle trips along the River Sure. Echternach also has an interesting Prehistory Museum.
Upper Sure National Park
. Splash out on some water sports located within the Upper Sure National Park (an area of outstanding beauty) is the country drinking water reservoir, where a barrage dam (the Staudamm) has created a beautiful lake.Upper Sure National Park is located in the far northwest of the Oesling area of Luxembourg, and is primarily an area of conservation and a specially protected area for wild birds.The objectives of the park are threefold.