. Jerusalem located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.It is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam.Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
. The Western Wall, Wailing Wall or Kotel is located in the Old City of Jerusalem at the foot of the western side of the area known as the Noble Sanctuary or Al Haram ash Sharif (to Muslims) and the Temple Mount (to Jews).The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism and is the place to which Jews turn during prayer.Parts of the wall are remnants of the ancient wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple courtyard, and is arguably the most sacred site recognized by the Jewish faith outside of the Temple Mount itself.Just over half the wall, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, commonly believed to have been constructed around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, but recent excavations indicate that the works were not finished during Herod lifetime.The remaining layers were added from the Umayyad era onwards, especially during Ottoman rule.The Western Wall refers not only to the exposed section facing a large plaza in the Jewish Quarter, but also to the sections concealed behind structures running along the whole length of the Temple Mount, such as the Little Western Wall a 25 ft (8 m) section in the Muslim Quarter.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church within the Christian Quarter of the walled Old City of Jerusalem.It is a few steps away from the Muristan.The site is venerated as Calvary (Golgotha), where Jesus was crucified, and also contains the place where Jesus is said to have been buried.Within the church are the last four (or, by some definitions, five) Stations of the Cross along the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of Jesus Passion.The church has been an important Christian pilgrimage destination since at least the 4th century as the purported site of the resurrection of Jesus.
Tower of David
. The Tower of David, also known as the Jerusalem Citadel, is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem.The citadel that stands today dates to the Mamluk and Ottoman periods.It was built on the site of an earlier ancient fortification of the Hasmonean, Herodian, Christian and Arab Muslim eras, but was destroyed after the Mamluk conquest of Jerusalem.It contains important archaeological finds dating back over 2,000 years including a quarry dated to the First Temple period, and is a popular venue for benefit events, craft shows, concerts, and sound and light performances.
. Yad Vashem is Israel official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, established in 1953 through the Yad Vashem Law passed by the Knesset, Israel parliament.Yad Vashem is located on the western slope of Mount Herzl on the Mount of Remembrance in Jerusalem, 804 meters (2,638 ft) above sea level and adjacent to the Jerusalem Forest.The memorial consists of a 180 dunam (18.0 ha 44.5 acre) complex containing the Holocaust History Museum, memorial sites such as the Children Memorial and the Hall of Remembrance, The Museum of Holocaust Art, sculptures, outdoor commemorative sites such as the Valley of the Communities, a synagogue, a research institute with archives, a library, a publishing house, and an educational center named The International SchoolorInstitute for Holocaust Studies.
Mount of Olives
. The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to the Jerusalem Old City.It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes.The southern part of the Mount was the necropolis of the ancient Judean kingdom.The Mount has been used as a Jewish cemetery for over 3,000 years, and holds approximately 150,000 graves, making it central in the tradition of Jewish cemeteries.Several key events in the life of Jesus as related in the Gospels took place on the Mount of Olives, and in the Book of Acts it is described as the place from which Jesus ascended to heaven.Because of its association with both Jesus and Mary, the Mount has been a site of Christian worship since ancient times and is today a major site of Christian pilgrimage for Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christians.
. The Temple Mount, known in Hebrew as Har haBayit or as Har haMoria and in Arabic as the Haram al Sharif al haram al qudsi ash sharif), the Noble Sanctuary, is one of the most important religious sites in the Old City of Jerusalem.It has been used as a religious site for thousands of years.At least four religious traditions are known to have made use of the Temple Mount Judaism, Christianity, Roman religion, and Islam.The present site is dominated by three monumental structures from the early Umayyad period the al Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of the Chain.Herodian walls with additions dating back to the late Byzantine and early Islamic periods cut through the flanks of the Mount.It can be ascended via four gates, with guard posts of Israeli police in the vicinity of each.
. Gethsemane is a garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem most famous as the place where Jesus prayed and his disciples slept the night before Jesus crucifixion.
Dome of the Rock
. The Dome of the Rock is a shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.It was initially completed in 691 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al Malik during the Second Fitna.The Dome of the Rock is now one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture.It has been called Jerusalem most recognizable landmark.The octagonal plan of the structure may have been influenced by the Byzantine Chapel of St Mary (also known as Kathisma and al Qadismu) built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
. The Israel Museum was founded in 1965 as Israel national museum.It is situated on a hill in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, near the Bible Lands Museum, the Knesset, the Israeli Supreme Court, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Among the unique objects on display is a carved female figurine considered the oldest artwork in the world the interior of a 1736 synagogue from Suriname necklaces worn by Jewish brides in Yemen a mosaic Islamic prayer niche from 17th century Persia and a nail attesting to the practice of crucifixion in Jesus time.An urn shaped building on the grounds of the museum, the Shrine of the Book, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls and artifacts discovered at Masada.
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo opened in September 1940 as a small animal corner on Rabbi Kook Street in central Jerusalem. The zoo was founded by Aharon Shulov, a professor of zoology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus.Among Shulov goals were to provide a research facility for his students to gather animals, reptiles and birds mentioned in the Bible and, as he wrote in 1951, to break down the invisible wall between the intellectuals on Mount Scopus and the general public.
The Garden Tomb
. The Garden Tomb is a rock cut tomb in Jerusalem which was unearthed in 1867 and has subsequently been considered by some Christians to be the site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus.The Garden Tomb is adjacent to a rocky escarpment which since the mid nineteenth century has been proposed by some scholars to be Golgotha (it is also known as Skull Hill, Gordon Calvary, and Conder Calvary).In contradistinction to this modern identification the traditional site where the death and resurrection of Christ are believed to have occurred has been the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at least since the fourth century.Since 1894 the Garden Tomb and its surrounding gardens have been maintained as a place of Christian worship and reflection by a Christian non denominational charitable trust based in the United Kingdom named The Garden Tomb (Jerusalem) Association.
Al Aqsa Mosque
. The mosque was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun caliph Umar, but was rebuilt and expanded by the Umayyad caliph Abd al Malik and finished by his son al Walid in 705 CE.After an earthquake in 746, the mosque was completely destroyed and rebuilt by the Abbasid caliph al Mansur in 754, and again rebuilt by his successor al Mahdi in 780.Another earthquake destroyed most of al Aqsa in 1033, but two years later the Fatimid caliph Ali az Zahir built another mosque which has stood to the present day.During the periodic renovations undertaken, the various ruling dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate constructed additions to the mosque and its precincts, such as its dome, facade, its minbar, minarets and the interior structure.When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, they used the mosque as a palace and church, but its function as a mosque was restored after its recapture by Saladin in 1187.More renovations, repairs and additions were undertaken in the later centuries by the Ayyubids, Mamluks, Ottomans, the Supreme Muslim Council, and Jordan.Today, the Old City is under Israeli control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the JordanianorPalestinian led Islamic waqf.
Bible Lands Museum
. The Bible Lands Museum is a museum in Jerusalem, Israel, that explores the culture of the peoples mentioned in the Bible, among them the ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Arameans, Hittites, Elamites, Phoenicians and Persians.The aim of the museum is to put these peoples into historical context.The museum is located on Museum Row in Givat Ram, between the Israel Museum, The National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel, and the Bloomfield Museum of Science.
Church of All Nations
. The Church of All Nations, also known as the Church or Basilica of the Agony, is a Roman Catholic church located on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, next to the Garden of Gethsemane.It enshrines a section of bedrock where Jesus is said to have prayed before his arrest.
Church of the Nativity
. The Church of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem, Palestine.The church was originally commissioned in 327 AD by Constantine and his mother Helena over the site that is still traditionally considered to be located over the cave that marks the birthplace of Jesus.The Church of the Nativity site original basilica was completed in 339 AD and destroyed by fire during the Samaritan Revolts in the sixth century AD.A new basilica was built 565 AD by Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor, restoring the architectural tone of the original.The site of the Church of the Nativity has had numerous additions since this second construction, including its prominent bell towers.Due to its cultural and geographical history, the site holds a prominent religious significance to those of both the Christian and Muslim faiths.
. The Hurva Synagogue, translit Beit ha Knesset ha Hurba, lit.The Ruin Synagogue), also known as Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he Hasid (Ruin of Rabbi Judah the Pious), is a historic synagogue located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.The synagogue was founded in the early 18th century by followers of Judah he Hasid, but it was destroyed by Muslims a few years later in 1721.The plot lay in ruins for over 140 years and became known as the Ruin, or Hurva.In 1864, the Perushim rebuilt the synagogue, and although officially named the Beis Yaakov Synagogue, it retained its name as the Hurva.It became Jerusalem main Ashkenazic synagogue, until it too was deliberately destroyed after the withdrawal of the Israeli forces by the Arab Legion during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War.
. Mount Herzl is the site of Israel national cemetery and other memorial and educational facilities, found on the west side of Jerusalem beside Jerusalem Forest.It is named for Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern political Zionism.Herzl tomb lies at the top of the hill.Yad Vashem, which commemorates the Holocaust, lies to the west of Mt.Herzl.Israel war dead are also buried there.Mount Herzl is 834 meters above sea level.Every plot section in Mount Herzl has a broad plaza for memorial services.Most state memorial ceremonies for those killed at war are conducted in the National Military and Police cemetery.
. Abbey of the Dormition is an abbey and the name of a Benedictine community in Jerusalem on Mt.Zion just outside the walls of the Old City near the Zion Gate.Between 1998 and 2006 the community was known as the Abbey of Hagia Maria Sion, in reference to the Basilica of Hagia Sion that stood on this spot during the Byzantine period, but it resumed the original name during the 2006 celebrations of the monastery centenary.Hagia Maria Sion is now the name of the foundation supporting the abbey buildings, community and academic work.
Walls of Jerusalem
. The Walls of Jerusalem surround the old city of Jerusalem (approx.1 km2).The walls were built between 1535 and 1538, when Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire, by the order of Suleiman I.The length of the walls is 4,018 meters (2.4966 mi), their average height is 12 meters (39.37 feet) and the average thickness is 2.5 meters (8.2 feet).The walls contain 34 watchtowers and 8 gates.In 1981, The Jerusalem walls were added, along with the Old City of Jerusalem, to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List.The walls of Jerusalem, which were built originally to protect the borders of the city against intrusions, mainly serve as an attraction for tourists since they ceased to serve as a means of protection for the city.
Tomb of Absalom
. Tomb of Absalom, also called Absalom Pillar, is an ancient monumental rock cut tomb with a conical roof located in the Kidron Valley in Jerusalem.Although traditionally ascribed to Absalom, the rebellious son of King David of Israel (circa 1000 BCE), recent scholarship has attributed it to the 1st century CE.
. The Burnt House is an excavated house from the Second Temple period situated six metres below current street level in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
. Herodium or Herodion is a truncated cone shaped hill, located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south of Jerusalem and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southeast of Bethlehem, in the Judean desert (the West Bank).Herod the Great built a fortress, a palace, and a small town in Herodium, between 23 and 15 BCE, and is believed to have been buried there.Herodium is 758 meters (2,487 ft) above sea level,the highest peak in the Judean desert.
City of David National Park
. City of David National Park, also called Jerusalem Walls National Park, is an Israeli national park located near the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem.The national park was designed originally to surround the old city from all sides, to separate between the old city and the new constructions surrounding it while at the same time connecting between them, while preventing construction near the walls.The National park connects to the site of the City of David on the southern part and the Emek Tzurim National Park on the Northern eastern part.
L A Mayer Institute for Islamic Art
. The L.A.Mayer Institute for Islamic Art is a museum in Jerusalem, Israel, established in 1974.It is located in Katamon, down the road from the Jerusalem Theater.The museum houses Islamic pottery, textiles, jewelry, ceremonial objects and other Islamic cultural artifacts.It is not to be confused with the Islamic Museum, Jerusalem.
Four Sephardic Synagogues
. The Four Sephardic Synagogues are located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.They form a complex which comprises four adjoining synagogues which were built at different periods to accommodate the religious needs of the Sephardic community, each congregation practising a different rite.With the closing of the Ramban Synagogue at the command of the Ottoman sultan in 1589, there ceased to be a Jewish house of prayer in Jerusalem and the Jews, many of whom were descendants of immigrants who had arrived after the expulsion from Spain in 1492, were forced to pray privately in their own homes.At the beginning of the 17th century a new synagogue, the Yochanan ben Zakai Synagogue, was inaugurated.
Tomb of the Virgin Mary
. Church of the Sepulchre of Saint Mary, also Tomb of the Virgin Mary, is a Christian tomb in the Kidron Valley at the foot of Mount of Olives, in Jerusalem believed by Eastern Christians to be the burial place of Mary, the mother of Jesus .
. The Southern Wall is a wall at the southern end of the Temple Mount and the former southern side of the Second Temple (also called Herod Temple) in Jerusalem.It was built during King Herod expansion of the Temple Mount platform southward on to the Ophel.