. Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle East. Although Cairo itself is only about 1,000 years old, parts of the metropolis date back to the time of the Pharaohs. The Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza, for example, are visible evidence of the Ancient Egyptian civilization around the Nile river. The first Muslim settlement of Egypt was Al Fustat, now a part of old Cairo. In later years, Cairo was conquered and controlled by a host of invaders including the Mamluks, the Turks, and Napoleon Bonaparte of France. Although the conservation of agricultural land has long been a priority of Egyptian development policy, much of the critically needed arable land in Cairo is being lost to urban development half of which consists of illegal development and the remainder is planned new developments in the desert. Although a housing crisis has been broadcast by the international news media, it is estimated that Cairo may have a surplus of some 1 million housing units.Surface waters from the Nile River are the major source of bulk water supply in Cairo. However, its distribution system is inadequate. One of the largest sewerage projects in the world vastly improved the hydraulic capacity of the waste water system of Cairo, and has nearly eliminated the problem of sewerage flooding. However, the lowest income groups in informal settlements on the periphery remain unserved by existing water and waste water systems.
. The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms.There are two main floors in the museum, the ground floor and the first floor. On the ground floor there is an extensive collection of papyrus and coins used in the Ancient world. The numerous pieces of papyrus are generally small fragments, due to their decay over the past two millennia. Several languages are found on these pieces, including Greek, Latin, Arabic, and ancient Egyptian. The coins found on this floor are made of many different metals, including gold, silver, and bronze. The coins are not only Egyptian, but also Greek, Roman, and Islamic. This has helped historians research the history of Ancient Egyptian trade.
. The site we now know as Giza (or Gizah) was called Imentet ( the West ) or Kher Neter, ( the Necropolis ) in Ancient Egypt. The pyramids of Giza sit at the top of a limestone cliff which is part of the Middle Eocene Mokattam Formation. The site has not been fully excavated, and even now new tombs are recovered. The site consists of the three large pyramids (including the Great Pyramid), their temples, satellites and storerooms, the Great Sphinx, a worker village and a large number of mastabas constructed for wealthy nobles and private citizens.he pyramids of the third dynasty and the early fourth dynasty were built on layers of marl and slate. Although this made digging out underground chambers easier, the marl layers could not support the immense weight of stone above them. This may be one of the reasons that Khufu built his pyramid at Giza rather than Saqqara or Dashur. However, Giza had been a Necropolis for some time before Khufu chose to build there. The First Dynasty Pharaoh Djet has a tomb on the edge of the plateau and seals mentioning the Second Dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer were discovered in a tomb in the southern cemetery. In fact, Khufu had to clear away earlier tombs in order construct his pyramid complex.
Khan el Khalili
. No visit to Cairo is Complete without a stop at the Khan El Khalili bazaar, where you will be transported back in time to an old Arab souk.Shop owners calling you to their stalls, the scent of spices, the hustle and bustle of trade, and the many beautiful objects that can purchased will have you lost among alleys for hours.Put your haggling skills to the test when buying statuettes, spices, souvenirs, silver jewellery, t shirts, galabiyyas, belly dancing costumes, or anything for that matter.Khan el Khalili, once known as the Turkish bazaar during the Ottoman period, is now usually just called the 'Khan', and the names of it and the Muski market are often used interchangeably to mean either. Named for the great Caravansary.
Mosque of Muhammad Ali
. Muhammad Ali had a vision. He was concerned that the armies of the Ottomans were losing battles to the Europeans. He knew that the Europeans had superior military techniques and weaponry, and that this was the reason why large territories were being lost to European domination. Muhammad Ali was determined that this should not happen to Egypt.Muhammad Ali began to build a strong, well trained army. He brought in Europeans as advisors, Europeans who were private citizens, whose allegiance was to Muhammad Ali, not to their leaders at home. The Egyptian army became powerful, and became a threat to the Ottoman armies. At one point, the sultan at Constantinople became concerned about Egypt newfound power, and made threatening moves to quell the Egyptians. Muhammad Ali sent his son, Ibrahim Pasha, with the Egyptian army to teach the Ottomans a lesson. The Ottomans backed down when Ibrahim forces came within marching distance of Constantinople, and the Ottoman scouts reported that the Egyptians would have little trouble occupying the capitol.
Al Azhar Park
. The park functions as a green lung because of its enormous potential, being located at the center of a historic location. It was clear that Cairo needed more green space. One study found that the amount of green space per inhabitant was roughly equivalent to the size of a footprint, one of the lowest proportions in the world.The park is the largest green space created in Cairo in over a century, reversing a trend in which unchecked development has virtually eradicated the city once famous parks. Located on the western side of the park are the old Fatimid city and its extension Darb Al Ahmar, with their wealth of mosques, madrasas and mausolea, signaled by a long line of minarets. To the south are the Sultan Hassan Mosque and its surroundings, as well as the Ayyubid Citadel. On the eastern side is the City of the Dead with its many social welfare complexes sponsored by the Mamluk Sultans and dignitaries, which became an area that developed into a dense neighborhood of its own. This area was indeed in great need of an open green space. The hilly topography of the site, formed by debris accumulated over centuries, now provides elevated view points dominating the city and offers a spectacular 360 panorama over the townscape of historic Cairo.
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
. The Ibn Tulun Mosque is a huge and historic mosque in Cairo built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun. The oldest mosque in Egypt and one of the largest in the world, it is also famed for its lovely architecture and unique minaret.This is one of the oldest and the largest mosques of modern capital of Egypt. Named after one of ancient governors of Egypt, Ahmad Ibn Tulun, the mosque was constructed in the 9th century BC. It has great historic importance and has recently gained a fame of becoming a shooting location for James Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me.
Mosque Madrassa of Sultan Hassan
. The Mosque and Madrasa of Sultan Hassan in Cairo is one of the largest Islamic religious buildings in the world.The Mosque of Sultan Hassan is one of the largest mosques in the world, measuring 150m in length and covering an area of 7,906 sq m. Its walls rise to 36m and its tallest minaret to 68m.Visitors enter the complex through a tall portal that is itself a work of art. A dark and relatively low ceilinged passageway leads to the brightly lit sahn, a standard cruciform plan open courtyard.The courtyard centers on a domed ablutions fountain, which was probably an Ottoman addition. Soaring on four sides of the courtyard are vaulted liwans (sitting rooms), accented by hanging lamp chains and red and black rims.
Pyramid of Djoser
. On the Pyramid, most of the outer casing is gone. In some places the core masonry has disappeared as well. It is obvious there were different stages of construction. The eastern side gives the best picture, but it can be seen from the northern and southern side as well.The original structure was an underground burial chamber. This chamber was rare in that it was square most mastabas were rectangular. The royal tomb is 28m underground with a vertical shaft leading to it. The entrance was sealed with a 3 ton piece of granite. The face of the mastaba was a fine Tura limestone. Apparently it was intended for this to be the finishing touches to the building. It was then enlarged all around with ten feet of additional limestone and then again with an extension on the eastern side. The extension was twenty five feet of limestone to make the mastaba rectangular. Again, it was enlarged and a two tiered structure was made. A series of corridors and a tomb chamber was dug. Some of the chambers are lined with blue tiles. Some scholars think this tomb was intended for a member of Djoser (Zoser) family, but not for him. The only other site that has similar tiling is in the South Tomb which is located in the Djoser (Zoser) complex as well.
. This very special part of Cairo is centered around El Hussein , that is how it is know to locals but to tourists it is thought of as Khan Khallili.It is easy to think of the area as just the old bazaar, but it is so much more, it just needs some investigation and loosing the fear of getting lost.When you are on a package tour you normally have very little time and may use it looking at T shirts and belly dancing costumes, but just a short distance away is an area so full of monuments it is amazing. Even with limited time, remember to look up, take note of the amazing buildings, archways etc., it is all too easy to loose yourself in the shop windows.Recommend getting good guide books Lonely Planet or DK Eye Witness Guide . From these you can easily find you way and see some really interesting mosques, bath houses, Islamic Houses etc.
. The Coptic Museum is one of the most interesting museums you can visit while you are in Cairo. it is located in between the old Cairo where you can visit the old hanging chruch and Saint Georgus Churuch.It was built in 1940 and since that time the High Council of Antiquities started to colect the Coptic heritage such as the niches, icons, the daily life tools, head dresses of the bobs and of course, textiles, metal tools and a lot of rare Coptic art items.The museum is well orgnized because it is just renovated it also has ramps for wheel chairs.Cameras are not allowed inside the building, but can be used in the garden.
The Hanging Church
. Known in Arabic as al Muallaqah ( The Suspended ), the Hanging Church is the most famous Coptic church in Cairo. The church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and is thus also known as Sitt Mariam or St. Mary Church.The Hanging Church is named for its location above a gatehouse of the Roman fortress in Old Cairo its nave is suspended over a passage. The church is approached by 29 steps early travelers to Cairo dubbed it the Staircase Church. Entrance to the Hanging Church is via a beautifully decorated gate on Shar'a Mari Girgis Street. This leads into an open courtyard, flanked by mosaics, from which there are 29 steps to the church. At the top of the stairs are three wooden doors decorated with geometric patterns, framed with decorative carvings in the stone wall.Inside, only the section to the right of the sanctuary, above the southern bastion, is considered original. Nevertheless, the Hanging Church remains one of the most impressive churches in the city, remarkable for its marble pulpit, inlaid screens, icons and murals. The timber roof of the nave recalls Noah Ark.
. Egypt, it always seems to have returned to this strategic location. In fact, double faced stone implements have been discovered in the gravel beds of the Abbasiya quarter in the northern part of Cairo, indicating that early human activity took place here. However, it is not until the Neolithic period, toward the end of the sixth millennium BC, that we find human settlements near the apex of the delta. Yet, by the time of Fort Babylon, human occupation on the east bank of the Nile in this area other than Babylon itself was confined to a bastion, Tendunyas (Arabic Umm Dunayn ), a cemetery, Heliopolis several kilometers to the north which was then only a small town, and a few monasteries such as that of Theodorus (Dayr Tadrus). The site history actually goes back to the beginning of Egypt history, but we must look to textual references in order to find these roots. When the Nubian ruler, Piye came to Egypt from Napata in the south, we are told that in 730 BC he completed his conquest of the country by taking Memphis like a cloudburst . He celebrated this victory by traveling to Heliopolis to make sacrifices to the ancient gods, and later by erecting a stela in the Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal. The stela tells us that, after proceeding eastward out of the ancient capital (Memphis), which simply means he crossed the Nile, his Majesty proceeded to Helopolis, passing that mountain of Kheraha on Sepa way, which leads to Kheraha . Sepa was a centipede god and Sepa way leads through the heart of modern Cairo.
Ben Ezra Synagogue
. The Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo is located behind the Hanging Church and was once a church itself.The synagogue was a place of pilgrimage for North African Jews and the site of major festival celebrations. The famous medieval rabbi Moses Maimonides worshipped at Ben Ezra synagogue when he lived in Cairo.Numerous restorations and renovations were made over the centuries, and the present building dates from 1892. It is a faithful reconstruction of the original, which had collapsed. During the reconstruction, a medieval Geniza (a hiding place for sacred books and worn out Torah scrolls) was discovered, revealing thousands of original documents from the Middle Ages.
Cairo Opera House
. This cultural venue, which is comprised of two opera halls and an open air theatre, is shared by both the Cairo Ballet Company and the Cairo Opera Company.It stands on the Gezira Island surrounded by other cultural centers Museum of Egyptian Modern Arts, Nile Gallery.
. Its nice to be up high in Cairo. It gives one a prospective view of this great city, with it is very modern and very ancient districts. Anyone who has stood atop the Citadel or from the upper floors of some of the taller hotels is aware of the grand views that Cairo offers.One of the best views is from the Cairo Tower, located on Gezira Island (Zemalak) just north of the Museum of Modern Art (which is also very much worth a visit), which provides a panoramic vision of Cairo. This 187 meter tall tower, in the form of a latticework tube that fans out slightly at the top, is said to imitate a lotus plant, and ranks only fourth among the worlds highest towers. It is made of granite, the same material often used by the ancient Egyptians, and is about 45 meters taller than the Great Pyramid at Giza.
Museum of Islamic Art
. Located in the heart of the Arab world, the Museum of Islamic Art (MIA) will reopen soon after after eight years of renovation and reorganization of the collection. With a new display including approximately 1700 objects, the MIA is still one of the most important and largest collections on the subject in the world. Moved here in 1903 from its original home at the Fatimd Mosque of al Hakim, this building is of tremendous importance as it is the oldest building purposefully built to display Islamic art.The collection was accumulated from various sources excavations, purchases, gifts and important Islamic monuments in Cairo. Consequently, the museum owns an impressive ceramics, textiles, metalwork, carved wood and stone artifacts that illustrate the material culture of Egypt from the 7th 19th centuries, as well as the largest group of enameled and gilded Mamluk mosque lamps in the world. Previously arranged by material, the new scenario takes a chronological approach, beginning with the Umayyads, continuing with the Abbasid/Tulunid, Fatimid, Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods. The second half of the tour includes artifacts from Ottoman Turkey, Persia and al Andalus, as well as thematic sections, such as funerary art, epigraphy, calligraphy, carpets and textiles, geometry and astronomy and medicine.
Mosque of Amr ibn al As
. The Muslim army captured Alexandria, establishing control over Egypt, but word came from the Caliph Umar in Medina that they should establish a new capital closer to Medina. Heeding the omen of the dove, Amr Ibn Al Aas built a mosque at the site where his tent had stood and it became the center of the new Muslim capital of Egypt, Fustat.This mosque, founded in 642 AD and named after the general, was the first mosque on the continent of Africa.The mosque of Amr Ibn Al Aas was originally constructed using palm trunks, mud brick, and palm leaves for a roof so none of the original structure remains and it has been rebuilt many times since the 7th century. The first arcades of columns were erected in 827, giving it a permanent form that has since been expanded. Only a small number of these original architraves remain today and can be viewed along the mosque.
. Abdeen Palace is the most important and famous among royal palaces. It was erected during the reign of Mohamed Ali Family as the seat of rule since 1874
. Egyptians consider the Mokattam Mountain to be the only real mountain in Cairo, though many outsiders would consider it more of a hill. It is four or five hundred feet high and lays immediately to the east of the city. One can go through the famous Salah Salem and take a right and be at the beginning of the road going up to the Mokattam Mountain. It twists and turns around many curves, but is a very pleasant drive. Although the Mokattam Mountain is not listed in most of the travel guides, it is nevertheless a very interesting place to visit, and a great location to scope out Cairo.Historically, the Mokattam Mountains are first known to us for its quarries of limestone and other deposits that were worked from the Old Kingdom, when it was quarried for stone to build the Great Pyramids of Giza, through the Pharaonic Period, and into the archaic Islamic Period. However, it should be noted that the mountain specifically is only a part of the Mokattam formation, and so often when this name is used regarding quarries, it does not refer to the mountain itself.The only other real historical aspect of the Mokattam Mountain is an early Christian legend, upon which a grand monastery was built. Tradition holds that a now famous saint by the name of Simon the Tanner who lived during the tenth century once miraculously moved the mountain.
. Al Aqmar Mosque is an open enclosure mosque, but is much smaller than that of al Hakim and rectangular in plan. It has several important architectural features. This site was a little to the North of the Fatimid Western Palace and originally occupied by the Coptic Deir al Haykal.his small, but unique mosque along Al Muizz Street is one of the oldest buildings in Islamic Cairo. The builders of Al Qahira, the walled city that today forms the core of Islamic Cairo, were the Fatimids, who ruled Egypt from 969 until 1171. Originating from present day Tunisia, they conquered Egypt and installed their Shi
. This early 20th century palace, built for Prince Muhammad Ali Tawfiq, houses the prince
. The mausoleum central, domed plan is connected to the madrasa by a long entrance passage, and the plan of both spaces is shifted to accommodate the qibla orientation.The mausoleum, which is separated from the madrasa by this long corridor, is accessible via a small courtyard surrounded by an arcade with shallow domes. The octagonal structure was roofed by a dome which was destroyed in the 18th century. The current concrete dome, which is a replica of that covering the Mausoleum of al Ashraf Khalil ibn Qalawun (1288), was built by Max Herz Bey in 1903. The octagonal base is transformed into a circle by means of wooden muqarnas.The elaborate interior decoration includes marble revetment, carved, painted, and gilded wood, carved marble, and stucco.
Bayt Al Suhaymi
. Not that the Bayt Al Suhaymi is unique, but this house does provide an interesting perspective of history in general, a concept which might be brought out here more easily than in other places. The concept is two fold. First, ancient arts and wisdom are lost due to modern invention and progressions, and second, that the ancient world, because of this, was a much more pleasant place to live than many believe (at least for those with some wealth). Bayt Al Suhaymi is a case in point.Other than the segregation between the men (salamlik) and women (haramlik) quarters, most of the spaces within the house are not designed around functionality, as houses are today, but around climatic considerations. During the heat of the day, shaded courtyards, balconies and roofs became the living areas, while in the cool of the night, the family would move indoors. We build houses today with low ceilings, and insulation from the exterior environs so that our refrigerated air conditioning may provide maximum benefits. But most of our modern houses would have been miserable dwellings in the distant past. While these people lacked our modern air conditioning, they developed other means, which are mostly lost to us, to make themselves comfortable. Within Bayt Al Suhaymi we find high ceilings which allowed the warmer air to rise and then to be swept away by the north facing maq'ad (wind scoops) in the upper walls which caught the prevailing breezes and circulated the cool air throughout the house. We find thick walls, cool marble floors and fountains, all of which kept the hot air from the Cairo summers at bay.
. Bab Zuwayla, sometimes called al Mitwalli after El Kutb al Mitwalli by some local inhabitants, defines the southern limits of the Fatimid City, though the city quickly moved beyond this gate. It is named after the al Zawila, a Berber tribe whose Fatimid soldiers were quartered nearby. Bab al Mitwalli is a name dating to Ottoman times since the wali of the janissaries or commander of the police force charged with maintaining public order, had his residence and headquarters near here. However, that same name is also that of a Islamic saint named Mitwalli al Butb, who had lived by the gate and worked miracles. The gate became a venue for those in need of the saint intercession. His spirit is supposed to live behind the west side of it, where he is said to sometimes flash a light to let one know he is there.The two minarets that spring from the towers belong to the Mosque of al Mu'ayyad, which is located just inside the gate. They were placed atop the gate some 400 years after it was built, and make it seem far mightier than the Northern Gates. These minarets sit on semi circular towers that are solid stone for two thirds of their height. The inner flanks of the towers near the entrance are decorated with lobed arches.
. The Grand Street of Historic Islamic Cairo, the heart of the once capital of the Fatimid Empire as old as Cairo, it saw its fair share of kings and vagabonds. Walking through it amidst the ancient villas and the architectural marvels left behind by four dynasties, is like being transported into the world of the Prince of Persia without all of the sand demons.Taking a turn into one of the little alleys that spring out throughout the length of the street on a quiet day, stop for a moment and close your eyes, you can almost feel the ghosts of all the people who walked through here over the ages. There are shadows here. The time of the Fatimid also gave rise to their cousins, the Assassins. They lurked in the shadows.But there is light here too, the whole length of the street is full of Masajid (Mosques), Madrasas (Schools), Bimaristans (Hospitals), Baths, and Sabeel/Kuttabs. Knowledge was available for all, and trade flourished here. It still does. Going inside one of the Kuttabs you can almost hear the walls still echoing the thousands of children who came to learn Quran.
. The Zoo at Giza is one of the most beautiful in the world and the the most densely inhabited by the various animal and plant species. Its area is about 80 feddans. It is located near the west bank of the Nile. Its northern tip overlooks Cairo University. It is not far from down town Cairo and is linked to it by numerous buses. The Zoo is under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt.The Zoo is considered a huge exhibition of African wild life. It is a habitat for many species of animals and birds which are now extinct in Egypt. They are to be restored to their original environments from which they were extinct. Among these are mountain goats and rams, Egyptian gazelles and heron.The zoo is comprised of five hilly areas the greatest called the Citadel Hill which was constructed in 1867. It is decorated with various statues of the extinct Fayoum rhinoceros, crocodiles and strange birds. Its plateau is covered with a small park that could be reached by means of a spiral path.
Bab al Nasr
. By the time of the powerful Fatimid vizier Badr al Jamali, who ruled Egypt from 1074 to 1094, Cairo had outgrown the sun dried brick wall of Jawhar. This, coupled with the attempts of the Turkoman Atsiz to take Cairo, among other threats from the East, spurred al Jamali to rebuild the walls of the city, including three new gates. The Gate (Bab) of al Futuh, along with the Bab al Nasr was built in 1087, and the Bab Zuwayla was built in 1092. An Armenian himself, al Jamali is reported to have employed Armenians from northern Mesopotamia as well as Syrians in a vast building campaign which he embarked on shortly after he assumed power. This work marks the beginning of a newly cultivated taste for stone in Cairo. The Bab al Futuh and Bab Zuwayla mark the northern and southern limits respectively of the Fatimid city and function as termini for al muiz Street, the major Fatimid north south spine.
Khedivial Opera House
. he Burning of the Cairo Opera, a new documentary from veteran director of photography Kamal Abdel Aziz, recalls the shock around Egypt and the world when, in October 1971, the Old Opera in downtown Cairo suddenly burned to the ground.Produced by Abdel Aziz company, Cadrage, The Burning of the Cairo Opera is his writing and directorial debut, and also signifies a departure from his typical focus. Abdel Aziz made a name for himself in the 1990s working on mainstream films with acclaimed Egyptian filmmakers such as Mohamed Khan, Dawood Abdel Sayed, Aly Abdel Khaled and Inas El Degeidhy. For the 40 minute documentary, which premiered last Saturday in a special screening at the High Cultural Council, he spent three years researching, shooting and editing. An academic audience from across different disciplines and practices as well as filmmakers, enthusiasts and critics watched the film, which Abdel Aziz screened that night twice in a row.
. The Palace of Amir Bashtak was built by Amir Bashtak al Nasiri, has unusual windows screened with mashrabiya. But the second floor chamber, with its pointed arches, stained glass windows and gilt and painted wood paneling distinguish it as one of the most beautiful private chambers of the period.
. Established by the Egyptian artist Moataz Nasr in November 2008, Darb was created with the aim of fulfilling three purposes to provide a supportive environment for young Egyptian artists to exhibit their works freely, to provide a space for the exhibitions of international artists, and to integrate the gallery within the community through workshops, lectures and public programs.Darb 1718 houses two art exhibition spaces, theater, dance and concert stages, outdoor cinema for independent film screenings, gardens and rooftops in addition to an artist residency to accommodate international artists and curators. The center provides workshops (from a few days to 10 15 weeks), programs and initiatives to educate and mentor emerging artists and offers them a space to exhibit their work alongside established artists.
Museum of Islamic Ceramics
. The Museum of Islamic Ceramics came into existence after the Gezira Art Center underwent a major overhaul and facelift. It was recommended that the Center with its new facilities and design should include a museum featuring masterpieces of Islamic ceramics from throughout the centuries. The suggestion was consolidated by the fact that ceramic art has a long history in Egyptian civilisation, from prehistoric times to the present.The idea was conceived after the Ministry of Culture conducted a project to move works of art on temporary display at the palace of Prince Amru Ibrahim in the fashionable residential area of Zamalek to their original seat in the Museum of Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil and his Wife in Giza. The palace architectural design is a blend of Turkish, Moroccan and Andalusian architectural features. It also bears impressions of the European classic school that was popular early in the 20th century and was applied to the architectural design of palaces built during the rule of the family of Mohammed Ali Pasha.
Al Azhar Park
. Al Azhar Park is a public park located in Cairo, Egypt.Among several honors, this park is listed as one of the world sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces (PPS). The park was created by the Historic Cities Support Programme (HCSP) of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), an entity of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN).The park, developed at a cost in excess of USD doller30 million, was a gift to Cairo from Aga Khan IV a descendant of the Fatimid Imam Caliphs who founded the city of Cairo in the year 969.The designers insisted on integrating traditional Islamic landscape traditions in both their design and choice of greenery, thus allowing the past flow of the city to come back to life.Tradition and historical legacy were preserved This legacy can be seen in a variety of styles from different periods and different regions.It is reflected in the bustan like orchard spaces, the shaded sitting areas (takhtaboush) and the Fatimid archways used in the construction of Park buildings, among other elements.Persian and Timurid elements are also reflected in the water channels and fountains.