Nelson mandela

Biography
1. Nelson Mandela (1918 2013) was a South African political activist who spent over 20 years in prison for his opposition to the apartheid regime. He was released in 1990 and, in 1994, was later elected the first leader of a democratic South Africa. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (jointly with F.W. de Klerk) in 1993 for his work in helping to end racial segregation in South Africa. He is considered the father of a democratic South Africa and widely admired for his ability to bring together a nation, previously divided by apartheid. Nelson Mandela is one of the most admired political leaders of the Twentieth and Twenty First Century for his vision to forgive and forge a new rainbow nation. .....
Early life
2. Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in the tiny village of Mvezo, on the banks of the Mbashe River in Transkei, South Africa. Rolihlahla in the Xhosa language literally means pulling the branch of a tree, but more commonly translates as troublemaker.Nelson Mandelas father, who was destined to be a chief, served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years, but lost both his title and fortune over a dispute with the local colonial magistrate. Mandela was only an infant at the time, and his fathers loss of status forced his mother to move the family to Qunu, an even smaller village north of Mvezo. The village was nestled in a narrow grassy valley, there were no roads, only foot paths that linked the pastures where livestock grazed. The family lived in huts and ate a local harvest of maize, sorghum, pumpkin and beans, which was all they could afford. Water came from springs and streams and cooking was done outdoors. Mandela played the games of young boys, acting out male rightsofpassage scenarios with toys he made from the natural materials available, including tree branches and clay.

At the suggestion of one of his fathers friends, Mandela was baptized in the Methodist Church. He went on to become the first in his family to attend school. As was custom at the time, and probably due to the bias of the British educational system in South Africa, Mandelas teacher told him that his new first name would be Nelson.When Mandela was 9 years old, his father died of lung disease, causing his life to change dramatically. He was adopted by Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, the acting regent of the Thembu peoplea gesture done as a favor to Mandelas father, who, years earlier, had recommended Jongintaba be made chief. Mandela subsequently left the carefree life he knew in Qunu, fearing that he would never see his village again. He traveled by motorcar to Mqhekezweni, the provincial capital of Thembuland, to the chiefs royal residence. Though he had not forgotten his beloved village of Qunu, he quickly adapted to the new, more sophisticated surroundings of Mqhekezweni.

Mandela was given the same status and responsibilities as the regents two other children, his son and oldest child, Justice, and daughter Nomafu. Mandela took classes in a oneroom school next to the palace, studying English, Xhosa, history and geography. It was during this period that Mandela developed an interest in African history, from elder chiefs who came to the Great Palace on official business. He learned how the African people had lived in relative peace until the coming of the white people. According to the elders, the children of South Africa had previously lived as brothers, but white men had shattered this fellowship. While black men shared their land, air and water with whites, white men took all of these things for themselves.

When Mandela was 16, it was time for him to partake in the traditional African circumcision ritual to mark his entrance into manhood. The ceremony of circumcision was not just a surgical procedure, but an elaborate ritual in preparation for manhood. In African tradition, an uncircumcised man cannot inherit his fathers wealth, marry or officiate at tribal rituals. Mandela participated in the ceremony with 25 other boys. He welcomed the opportunity to partake in his peoples customs and felt ready to make the transition from boyhood to manhood. His mood shifted during the proceedings, however, when Chief Meligqili, the main speaker at the ceremony, spoke sadly of the young men, explaining that they were enslaved in their own country. Because their land was controlled by white men, they would never have the power to govern themselves, the chief said. He went on to lament that the promise of the young men would be squandered as they struggled to make a living and perform mindless chores for white men. Mandela would later say that while the chiefs words didnt make total sense to him at the time, they would eventually formulate his resolve for an independent South Africa.

From the time Mandela came under the guardianship of Regent Jongintaba, he was groomed to assume high office, not as a chief, but a counselor to one. As Thembu royalty, Mandela attended a Wesleyan mission school, the Clarkebury Boarding Institute and Wesleyan College, where, he would later state, he achieved academic success through plain hard work. He also excelled at track and boxing. Mandela was initially mocked as a country boy by his Wesleyan classmates, but eventually became friends with several students, including Mathona, his first female friend.In 1939, Mandela enrolled at the University College of Fort Hare, the only residential center of higher learning for blacks in South Africa at the time. Fort Hare was considered Africas equivalent of the University of Oxford or Harvard University, drawing scholars from all parts of subSahara Africa. In his first year at the university, Mandela took the required courses, but focused on Roman Dutch law to prepare for a career in civil service as an interpreter or clerkregarded as the best profession that a black man could obtain at the time.

In his second year at Fort Hare, Mandela was elected to the Student Representative Council. For some time, students had been dissatisfied with the food and lack of power held by the SRC. During this election, a majority of students voted to boycott unless their demands were met. Aligning with the student majority, Mandela resigned from his position. Seeing this as an act of insubordination, the universitys Dr. Kerr expelled Mandela for the rest of the year and gave him an ultimatum He could return to the school if he agreed to serve on the SRC. When Mandela returned home, the regent was furious, telling him unequivocally that he would have to recant his decision and go back to school in the fall. .....

Mandelas imprisonment
3. A few weeks after Mandela returned home, Regent Jongintaba announced that he had arranged a marriage for his adopted son. The regent wanted to make sure that Mandelas life was properly planned, and the arrangement was within his right, as tribal custom dictated. Shocked by the news, feeling trapped and believing that he had no other option than to follow this recent order, Mandela ran away from home. He settled in Johannesburg, where he worked a variety of jobs, including as a guard and a clerk, while completing his bachelors degree via correspondence courses. He then enrolled at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law.Mandela soon became actively involved in the antiapartheid movement, joining the African National Congress in 1942. Within the ANC, a small group of young Africans banded together, calling themselves the African National Congress Youth League. Their goal was to transform the ANC into a mass grassroots movement, deriving strength from millions of rural peasants and working people who had no voice under the current regime. Specifically, the group believed that the ANCs old tactics of polite petitioning were ineffective. In 1949, the ANC officially adopted the Youth Leagues methods of boycott, strike, civil disobedience and noncooperation, with policy goals of full citizenship, redistribution of land, trade union rights, and free and compulsory education for all children.

For 20 years, Mandela directed peaceful, nonviolent acts of defiance against the South African government and its racist policies, including the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He founded the law firm Mandela and Tambo, partnering with Oliver Tambo, a brilliant student hed met while attending Fort Hare. The law firm provided free and lowcost legal counsel to unrepresented blacks.In 1956, Mandela and 150 others were arrested and charged with treason for their political advocacy (they were eventually acquitted). Meanwhile, the ANC was being challenged by Africanists, a new breed of black activists who believed that the pacifist method of the ANC was ineffective. Africanists soon broke away to form the PanAfricanist Congress, which negatively affected the ANC, by 1959, the movement had lost much of its militant support.

In 1961, Mandela, who was formerly committed to nonviolent protest, began to believe that armed struggle was the only way to achieve change. He subsequently cofounded Umkhonto we Sizwe, also known as MK, an armed offshoot of the ANC dedicated to sabotage and guerilla war tactics to end apartheid. In 1961, Mandela orchestrated a threeday national workers strike. He was arrested for leading the strike the following year, and was sentenced to five years in prison. In 1963, Mandela was brought to trial again. This time, he and 10 other ANC leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment for political offenses, including sabotage.Nelson Mandela was incarcerated on Robben Island for 18 of his 27 years in prison. During this time, he contracted tuberculosis and, as a black political prisoner, received the lowest level of treatment from prison workers. However, while incarcerated, Mandela was able to earn a Bachelor of Law degree through a University of London correspondence program.

A 1981 memoir by South African intelligence agent Gordon Winter described a plot by the South African government to arrange for Mandelas escape so as to shoot him during the recapture, the plot was foiled by British intelligence. Mandela continued to be such a potent symbol of black resistance that a coordinated international campaign for his release was launched, and this international groundswell of support exemplified the power and esteem that Mandela had in the global political community.In 1982, Mandela and other ANC leaders were moved to Pollsmoor Prison, allegedly to enable contact between them and the South African government. In 1985, President P.W. Botha offered Mandelas release in exchange for renouncing armed struggle, the prisoner flatly rejected the offer. With increasing local and international pressure for his release, the government participated in several talks with Mandela over the ensuing years, but no deal was made. It wasnt until Botha suffered a stroke and was replaced by Frederik Willem de Klerk that Mandelas release was finally announcedon February 11, 1990. De Klerk also unbanned the ANC, removed restrictions on political groups and suspended executions. .....

Prison release and presidency
4. Upon his release from prison, Nelson Mandela immediately urged foreign powers not to reduce their pressure on the South African government for constitutional reform. While he stated that he was committed to working toward peace, he declared that the ANCs armed struggle would continue until the black majority received the right to vote.In 1991, Mandela was elected president of the African National Congress, with lifelong friend and colleague Oliver Tambo serving as national chairperson. Mandela continued to negotiate with President F.W. de Klerk toward the countrys first multiracial elections. White South Africans were willing to share power, but many black South Africans wanted a complete transfer of power. The negotiations were often strained and news of violent eruptions, including the assassination of ANC leader Chris Hani, continued throughout the country. Mandela had to keep a delicate balance of political pressure and intense negotiations amid the demonstrations and armed resistance.

In 1993, Mandela and President de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work toward dismantling apartheid. And due in no small part to their work, negotiations between black and white South Africans prevailed On April 27, 1994, South Africa held its first democratic elections. Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as the countrys first black president on May 10, 1994, at the age of 77, with de Klerk as his first deputy.Also in 1994, Mandela published an autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, much of which he had secretly written while in prison. The following year, he was awarded the Order of Merit.From 1994 until June 1999, Mandela worked to bring about the transition from minority rule and apartheid to black majority rule. He used the nations enthusiasm for sports as a pivot point to promote reconciliation between whites and blacks, encouraging black South Africans to support the oncehated national rugby team. In 1995, South Africa came to the world stage by hosting the Rugby World Cup, which brought further recognition and prestige to the young republic.

Mandela also worked to protect South Africas economy from collapse during his presidency. Through his Reconstruction and Development Plan, the South African government funded the creation of jobs, housing and basic health care. In 1996, Mandela signed into law a new constitution for the nation, establishing a strong central government based on majority rule, and guaranteeing both the rights of minorities and the freedom of expression. .....

Retirement and later career
5. By the 1999 general election, Nelson Mandela had retired from active politics. He continued to maintain a busy schedule, however, raising money to build schools and clinics in South Africas rural heartland through his foundation, and serving as a mediator in Burundis civil war. He also published a number of books on his life and struggles, among them No Easy Walk to Freedom, Nelson Mandela The Struggle is my Life, and Nelson Mandelas Favorite African Folktales.Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer in 2001. In June 2004, at the age of 85, he announced his formal retirement from public life and returned to his native village of Qunu.On July 18, 2007, Mandela convened a group of world leaders, including Graca Machel (whom Mandela wed in 1998), Desmond Tutu, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus, to address some of the worlds toughest issues. Aiming to work both publicly and privately to find solutions to problems around the globe, the group was aptly named The Elders. The Elders impact has spanned Asia, the Middle East and Africa, and their actions have included promoting peace and womens equality, demanding an end to atrocities, and supporting initiatives to address humanitarian crises and promote democracy.In addition to advocating for peace and equality on both a national and global scale, in his later years, Mandela remained committed to the fight against AIDSa disease that killed Mandelas son, Makgatho, in 2005. .....
In recent years
6. Nelson Mandela made his last public appearance at the final match of the World Cup in South Africa in 2010. He remained largely out of the spotlight in his later years, choosing to spend much of his time in his childhood community of Qunu, south of Johannesburg. He did, however, visit with U.S. first lady Michelle Obama, wife of President Barack Obama, during her trip to South Africa in 2011.

After suffering a lung infection in January 2011, Mandela was briefly hospitalized in Johannesburg to undergo surgery for a stomach ailment in early 2012. He was released after a few days, later returning to Qunu. Mandela would be hospitalized many times over the next several yearsin December 2012, March 2013 and June 2013for further testing and medical treatment relating to his recurrent lung infection. Following his June 2013 hospital visit, Mandelas wife, Graca Machel, canceled a scheduled appearance in London to remain at her husbands his side, and his daughter, Zenani Dlamini, Argentinas South African ambassador, flew back to South Africa to be with her father. Jacob Zuma, South Africas president, issued a statement in response to public concern over Mandelas March 2013 health scare, asking for support in the form of prayer We appeal to the people of South Africa and the world to pray for our beloved Madiba and his family and to keep them in their thoughts, Zuma said. .....

Personal life
7. Mandela was married three times, beginning with Evelyn Ntoko Mase (m. 19441957). The couple had four children together Madiba Thembekile, Makgatho (d. 2005), Makaziwe and Maki. Mandela wed Winnie Madikizela in 1958, the couple had two daughters together, Zenani and Zindziswa, before splitting in 1996. Two years later, Mandela married Graca Machel, with whom he remained until his death in 2013. .....
Closing remark at the 1964 trial
8. During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. .....
President
9. Becoming president at 75, Mandela was aware that his powers were circumscribed.For the first two years, he maintained the government of national unity with his former enemy De Klerk as one deputy president, and in many fields he regarded himself as head of state, rather than head of government, leaving most appointments and practical decisions to his other deputy, Thabo Mbeki.When De Klerk left the coalition, Mbeki was more clearly emerging as head of government, and Mandela retreated further, sometimes leaving Mbeki to preside over the cabinet.

His relations with Mbeki were sometimes strained he had been chosen as deputy not by Mandela, but by the ANC and its allies. Mandela worried privately that Mbeki was too suspicious of his colleagues, too dependent on a few cronies, and sometimes implied that he would have preferred Cyril Ramaphosa, who had left politics for business. But Mbeki was in many ways wellsuited to running the government, under an increasingly detached President he made many of the key appointments, he masterminded economic policy, and he remained a skilful negotiator and conciliator particularly with Buthelezi, the troublesome Zulu minister for home affairs.The sharing of power was often uneasy and confusing Mandela often intervened, particularly in foreign affairs, without informing his colleagues, and his own office was sometimes muddled. He had made the inspired choice of Professor Jakes Gerwel as cabinet secretary, but Mandela did not always give a clear lead, and was criticised, particularly by business leaders, for not grappling with urgent issues including tackling corruption and crime.

Both Mandela and Mbeki were limited by the constraints of the ANC the cabinet had to represent different strands of the party, including some ministers who had obvious shortcomings, particularly in education, health and home affairs. But the ministers who were in the most critical departments of economic policy and justice achieved remarkable stability and trust, gaining the admiration of foreign governments.Mandelas overriding objective was to set a basis of reconciliation with the white population including his former enemies, which he achieved with the help of dramatic personal gestures, including visiting the widow of Dr Verwoerd and his former prosecutor Percy Yutar, and congratulating the leader of the Springbok rugby team. .....

Retirement
10. When Mandela relinquished the Presidency in 1999, to be succeeded by President Mbeki, the manner of his retirement was in itself a tribute to his achievement. Five years earlier most South Africans had doubted whether elections could be held at all, in the face of violent threats and bombs. Now they took for granted that their country was a working multiracial democracy.For the first time since Mandela had left prison nine years before, he was now a private individual without any political position. For a short time he appeared content with a quiet life with his wife Graa and his growing family of grandchildren and greatgrandchildren, moving between Johannesburg, Cape Town, Qunu and Mozambique.But he soon forgot about the quiet life, and he became more, not less, impatient an old man in a hurry. I have retired, he said at 84, but if theres anything that would kill me it is to wake up in the morning not knowing what to do. He needs to be very busy, his wife Graa confirmed.He is quite clear that if he slows down he will feel depressed. Hell feel he is not needed any more.

He established a Mandela Foundation that provided his base. His loyal Afrikaner secretary Zelda le Grange organised his endless meetings, travels and phone calls to the worlds leaders. He kept flying across the world, particularly to Britain, America and the Middle East, often in a private plane provided by one of his rich friends. He embarked on the second volume of his memoirs, covering his presidential years, determined to write them himself, without being ghosted. He conducted his research with very personal methods, ringing up old friends and even former enemies, like exPresident De Klerk, to ask for their recollections of crucial meetings.But he still enjoyed meeting sports heroes and film stars such as Whoopi Goldberg or Whitney Houston, whom he welcomed with outrageous flattery (Im only here to shine her shoes).He sometimes seemed to be reliving his own youth in Johannesburg in the Fifties, when he was not only a politician, but a township hero, ladies man, dancer and boxer, and loved talking about the old black musicians, writers and sportsmen.He was lonelier in politics, at least 30 years older than most of the politicians in South Africa, and his contemporaries were dying. He often looked his age, and away from the cameras and with his staff he could be irritable. But he retained his powerful will to live. In 2001 he was diagnosed with cancer of the prostate, but after intensive treatment appeared fully recovered. If cancer gets the upper hand I will nevertheless be the winner, he said. In heaven, I will be looking for the nearest branch of the ANC. .....

Mbeki
11. Mandela had warned that after he retired he would feel free to criticise the leadership as an ordinary member of the ANC. But he knew that he was no ordinary member. He was careful not to upstage or embarrass Mbeki he largely avoided commenting on domestic affairs and talked mainly about the need for reconciliation and peacemaking. But his relations inevitably became trickier.At public occasions, Mandela inevitably overshadowed his successor and often won more applause. Some of his public statements went against Mbekis policies, while in private he became more critical. I dont want to be a praise singer, he explained after one closed ANC conference.I want to be objective, and I did indicate his weaknesses, which was unpalatable to many members.Mbeki in turn became more obviously resentful of Mandelas prominence.He sometimes omitted Mandela from state occasions, and was often slow to return his phone calls.Mbekis handling of Aids provoked the most obvious tensions, as he delayed facing and publicising the problem while Mandela was impatient for bolder action, to make up for his own past neglect.He was determined to break through the taboo. In August 2002, he publicly embraced a militant Aids activist Zachie Achmat who was HIV positive a powerful image that was reproduced round the world. And Mandela disclosed that three members of his own family had died of Aids. There is no shame, he said, to disclose a terminal disease from which you are suffering. .....
Foreign affairs
12. Mandela still travelled tirelessly, making up for his lost years and relishing foreign friendships and grand occasions. In London, he often called on the Queen, with whom he enjoyed a personal friendship he broke with protocol by writing to her as Dear Elizabeth. He was the only foreigner to be awarded the Order of Merit.He could still play a personal role abroad in encouraging peaceful settlements and negotiations. He preferred working behind the scenes. In dealing with Zimbabwes President Robert Mugabe, who he believed to be a brilliant politician who should never be underestimated. Mandela feared that overt South African intervention would be counterproductive, provoking a civil war in Zimbabwe that would bring force millions of people from their homes. But Mandela later became much more outspoken than Mbeki about Mugabes tyranny.Mandela had more success in Libya, where he enjoyed the unique trust of President Muammar Gaddafi. He and his representative Jakes Gerwel persuaded Gaddafi to release the suspects in the Lockerbie airline crash, to be tried in the Netherlands, in return for relaxing sanctions. And Gaddafis trust in Mandela and Gerwel prepared the way for the later reconciliation between Libya and the American and British governments.

Mandela became more critical of American and British foreign policies, particularly after the Kosovo war, worried that they wanted to be the policemen of the world and Washington was undermining the fragile basis of international law. Theyre introducing chaos in to international affairs, he said.He was much more worried about American domination after 11 September 2001. When he talked with President George W Bush soon afterwards in Washington, he said Osama bin Laden should be held responsible, captured and tried. But his Muslim friends soon persuaded him to modify his support, and he explained that US policy could be seen as undermining some of the basic tenets of the rule of law. He warned that the war against terrorism must not itself adopt the weapons of terrorism. And he was increasingly opposed to Israeli policies towards Palestinians like many of his Jewish colleagues in the ANC. .....

The myth and the man
13. Mandela was still a fairytale figure to millions of people around the world the prisoner who became president, who caught the imagination of crowds and children. The name Mandela was attached to streets, squares, scholarships and buildings across the world including an elegant new bridge across central Johannesburg that celebrated his 85th birthday.The less heroic other world leaders, the more Mandela appeared as a solitary hero left over from an age of giants. And as an individual freed from the compromises of power, his icon shone still brighter.But the myth was still connected to a statesman who could play a role in a dangerous and divided world. His long career had given him a deep personal experience of both power and powerlessness. He could speak for the huge populations in the developing world who were ignored by the richer countries, while he retained his moral authority in the West, even in America, as the champion of reconciliation and a multiracial society. .....
Defiance campaign and transvaal anc presidency 1950 1954
14. Mandela took Xumas place on the ANC National Executive in March 1950. That month, the Defend Free Speech Convention was held in Johannesburg, bringing together African, Indian and communist activists to call an antiapartheid general strike. Mandela opposed the strike because it was not ANCled, but a majority of black workers took part, resulting in increased police repression and the introduction of the Suppression of Communism Act, 1950, affecting the actions of all protest groups. In 1950, Mandela was elected national president of the ANCYL, at the ANC national conference of December 1951, he continued arguing against a racially united front, but was outvoted. Thenceforth, he altered his entire perspective, embracing such an approach, influenced by friends like Moses Kotane and by the Soviet Unions support for wars of independence, Mandelas mistrust of communism also broke down. He became influenced by the texts of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong, and embraced dialectical materialism. In April 1952, Mandela began work at the H.M. Basner law firm, though his increasing commitment to work and activism meant he spent less time with his family.

In 1952, the ANC began preparation for a joint Defiance Campaign against apartheid with Indian and communist groups, founding a National Voluntary Board to recruit volunteers. Deciding on a path of nonviolent resistance influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, some considered it the ethical option, but Mandela instead considered it pragmatic. At a Durban rally on 22 June, Mandela addressed an assembled crowd of 10,000, initiating the campaign protests, for which he was arrested and briefly interned in Marshall Square prison. With further protests, the ANCs membership grew from 20,000 to 100,000, the government responded with mass arrests, introducing the Public Safety Act, 1953 to permit martial law. In May, authorities banned Transvaal ANC President J. B. Marks from making public appearances, unable to maintain his position, he recommended Mandela as his successor. Although the ultraAfricanist Bafabegiya group opposed his candidacy, Mandela was elected regional president in October. .....

Arrest and rivonia trial 1962 1964
15. On 5 August 1962, police captured Mandela along with Cecil Williams near Howick.A large number of groups have been accused of having tipped off the police about Mandelas whereabouts including Mandelas host in Durban GR Naidoo, white members of the South African Communist Party, and the CIA, but Mandela considered none of these connections to be credible and instead attributes his arrest to his own carelessness in concealing his movements. Of the CIA link in particular, Mandelas official biographer Anthony Sampson believes that the claim cannot be substantiated.Jailed in Johannesburgs Marshall Square prison, he was charged with inciting workers strikes and leaving the country without permission. Representing himself with Slovo as legal advisor, Mandela intended to use the trial to showcase the ANCs moral opposition to racism while supporters demonstrated outside the court. Moved to Pretoria, where Winnie could visit him, in his cell he began correspondence studies for a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree from the University of London. His hearing began on 15 October, but he disrupted proceedings by wearing a traditional kaross, refusing to call any witnesses, and turning his plea of mitigation into a political speech. Found guilty, he was sentenced to five years imprisonment, as he left the courtroom, supporters sang Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika.I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal for which I hope to live for and to see realised. But, My Lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. Rivonia Trial Speech, 1964.

On 11 July 1963, police raided Liliesleaf Farm, arresting those they found there and uncovering paperwork documenting MKs activities, some of which mentioned Mandela. The Rivonia Trial began at Pretoria Supreme Court on 9 October, with Mandela and his comrades charged with four counts of sabotage and conspiracy to violently overthrow the government. Their chief prosecutor was Percy Yutar, who called for them to receive the death penalty.Judge Quartus de Wet soon threw out the prosecutions case for insufficient evidence, but Yutar reformulated the charges, presenting his new case from December until February 1964, calling 173 witnesses and bringing thousands of documents and photographs to the trial.

With the exception of James Kantor, who was innocent of all charges, Mandela and the accused admitted sabotage but denied that they had ever agreed to initiate guerilla war against the government. They used the trial to highlight their political cause. At the opening of the defences proceedings, Mandela gave a threehour speech. That speech which was inspired by Castros History Will Absolve Me speech was widely reported in the press despite official censorship, and has been hailed as one of his greatest speeches. The trial gained international attention, with global calls for the release of the accused from such institutions as the United Nations and World Peace Council. The University of London Union voted Mandela to its presidency, and nightly vigils for him were held in St. Pauls Cathedral, London. The South African government generally deemed Mandela and his codefendants violent communist saboteurs, and on 12 June 1964, justice Quartus de Wet found Mandela and two of his coaccused guilty on all four charges, sentencing them to life imprisonment rather than death. .....

Influence and legacy
16. By the time of his death, Mandela had come to be widely considered the father of the nation within South Africa, and the founding father of democracy, being seen as the national liberator, the saviour, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one. Mandelas biographer Anthony Sampson commented that even during his life, a myth had developed around him that turned him into a secular saint and which was so powerful that it blurs the realities. Within a decade after the end of his Presidency, Mandelas era was being widely thought of as a golden age of hope and harmony. Across the world, Mandela earned international acclaim for his activism in overcoming apartheid and fostering racial reconciliation, coming to be viewed as a moral authority with a great concern for truth.

Throughout his life, Mandela had also faced criticism. Margaret Thatcher attracted international attention for describing the ANC as a typical terrorist organisation in 1987, although she later called on Botha to release Mandela. On his death, various Twitter users repeated the denunciations that he was a communist and a terrorist, while various antiabortion activists across the world took the opportunity to condemn him for supporting the 1996 Choice of Termination of Pregnancy Act.Mandela has also been criticised for his friendship with political leaders such as Fidel Castro, Muammar Gaddafi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and Suharto deemed dictators by critics as well as his refusal to condemn their human rights violations. .....

Tributes by musicians
17. Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from The Special AKA who recorded the song Free Nelson Mandela in 1983, which Elvis Costello also recorded and had a hit with. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song I Just Called to Say I Love You to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.In 1985, Youssou NDours album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artists first US release. Other artists who released songs or videos honouring Mandela include Johnny Clegg. .....
Cinema and television
18. Mandela has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions. He was portrayed by Danny Glover in the 1987 HBO telefilm Mandela. The 1997 film Mandela and de Klerk starred Sidney Poitier as Mandela, and Dennis Haysbert played him in Goodbye Bafana (2007). In the 2009 BBC telefilm Mrs Mandela, Mandela was portrayed by David Harewood,and Morgan Freeman portrayed him in Invictus (2009). Terrence Howard portrayed him in the 2011 film Winnie Mandela. He is portrayed by Idris Elba in the 2013 film Mandela Long Walk to Freedom. .....
Childhood and education
19. Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, into a royal family of the Xhosaspeaking Thembu tribe in the South African village of Mvezo, where his father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (c. 18801928), served as chief. His mother, Nosekeni Fanny, was the third of Mphakanyiswas four wives, who together bore him nine daughters and four sons. After the death of his father in 1927, 9yearold Mandelathen known by his birth name, Rolihlahlawas adopted by Jongintaba Dalindyebo, a highranking Thembu regent who began grooming his young ward for a role within the tribal leadership.The first in his family to receive a formal education, Mandela completed his primary studies at a local missionary school. There, a teacher dubbed him Nelson as part of a common practice of giving African students English names. He went on to attend the Clarkebury Boarding Institute and Healdtown, a Methodist secondary school, where he excelled in boxing and track as well as academics. In 1939 Mandela entered the elite University of Fort Hare, the only Westernstyle higher learning institute for South African blacks at the time. The following year, he and several other students, including his friend and future business partner Oliver Tambo (19171993), were sent home for participating in a boycott against university policies.

After learning that his guardian had arranged a marriage for him, Mandela fled to Johannesburg and worked first as a night watchman and then as a law clerk while completing his bachelors degree by correspondence. He studied law at the University of Witwatersrand, where he became involved in the movement against racial discrimination and forged key relationships with black and white activists. In 1944, Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC) and worked with fellow party members, including Oliver Tambo, to establish its youth league, the ANCYL. That same year, he met and married his first wife, Evelyn Ntoko Mase (19222004), with whom he had four children before their divorce in 1957. .....

Nelson mandela and the african national congress
20. Nelson Mandelas commitment to politics and the ANC grew stronger after the 1948 election victory of the Afrikanerdominated National Party, which introduced a formal system of racial classification and segregationapartheidthat restricted nonwhites basic rights and barred them from government while maintaining white minority rule. The following year, the ANC adopted the ANCYLs plan to achieve full citizenship for all South Africans through boycotts, strikes, civil disobedience and other nonviolent methods. Mandela helped lead the ANCs 1952 Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws, traveling across the country to organize protests against discriminatory policies, and promoted the manifesto known as the Freedom Charter, ratified by the Congress of the People in 1955. Also in 1952, Mandela and Tambo opened South Africas first black law firm, which offered free or lowcost legal counsel to those affected by apartheid legislation.

On December 5, 1956, Mandela and 155 other activists were arrested and went on trial for treason. All of the defendants were acquitted in 1961, but in the meantime tensions within the ANC escalated, with a militant faction splitting off in 1959 to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). The next year, police opened fire on peaceful black protesters in the township of Sharpeville, killing 69 people, as panic, anger and riots swept the country in the massacres aftermath, the apartheid government banned both the ANC and the PAC. Forced to go underground and wear disguises to evade detection, Mandela decided that the time had come for a more radical approach than passive resistance. .....

Nelson mandelas years behind bars
21. Nelson Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison, a former leper colony off the coast of Cape Town, where he was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and compelled to do hard labor in a lime quarry. As a black political prisoner, he received scantier rations and fewer privileges than other inmates. He was only allowed to see his wife, Winnie MadikizelaMandela (1936), who he had married in 1958 and was the mother of his two young daughters, once every six months. Mandela and his fellow prisoners were routinely subjected to inhumane punishments for the slightest of offenses, among other atrocities, there were reports of guards burying inmates in the ground up to their necks and urinating on them.

These restrictions and conditions notwithstanding, while in confinement Mandela earned a bachelor of law degree from the University of London and served as a mentor to his fellow prisoners, encouraging them to seek better treatment through nonviolent resistance. He also smuggled out political statements and a draft of his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, published five years after his release.Despite his forced retreat from the spotlight, Mandela remained the symbolic leader of the antiapartheid movement. In 1980 Oliver Tambo introduced a Free Nelson Mandela campaign that made the jailed leader a household name and fueled the growing international outcry against South Africas racist regime. As pressure mounted, the government offered Mandela his freedom in exchange for various political compromises, including the renouncement of violence and recognition of the independent Transkei Bantustan, but he categorically rejected these deals.In 1982 Mandela was moved to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland, and in 1988 he was placed under house arrest on the grounds of a minimumsecurity correctional facility. The following year, newly elected president F. W. de Klerk (1936) lifted the ban on the ANC and called for a nonracist South Africa, breaking with the conservatives in his party. On February 11, 1990, he ordered Mandelas release. .....

Death and legacy
22. On December 5, 2013, at the age of 95, Nelson Mandela died at his home in Johannesburg, South Africa. Zuma released a statement later that day, in which he spoke to Mandelas legacy Wherever we are in the country, wherever we are in the world, let us reaffirm his vision of a society in which none is exploited, oppressed or dispossessed by another, he said. For decades to come, Nelson Mandela will continue to be a source of inspiration for civil rights activists worldwide.

In 2009, Mandelas birthday (July 18) was declared Mandela Day, an international day to promote global peace and celebrate the South African leaders legacy. According to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, the annual event is meant to encourage citizens worldwide to give back the way that Mandela has throughout his lifetime. A statement on the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memorys website reads Mr. Mandela gave 67 years of his life fighting for the rights of humanity. All we are asking is that everyone gives 67 minutes of their time, whether its supporting your chosen charity or serving your local community. .....

Benefits of Iceberg lettuce
Lettuce Sauce. If youre up for a bit of lettuce advocacy, stick it to the man with Lettuce Sauce. Why should lettuce always be relegated to the bottom of the plate? Help it rise to the top by making it into a dressing for cold poached fish or chicken. In addition t .....
Healthy Back
Reaching and Bending. When reaching for something above shoulder level, stand on a stool. Straining to reach such objects may not only hurt your mid back and neck, but it can also bring on shoulder problems.Do NOT bend over at the waist to pick up items from the floor or .....
Ranking The Best Fighters In The World
Librado Andrade. Super Middleweight 28 2 0 (21) Last Year s Ranking: 83 Status Report: You could make the argument that this is an unfairly low rating for a guy who s hell to fight for anyone who can t jump around like a meth addict for 12 rounds, but let s remember .....
Amazing Animals
Points of Light. Here s a marine mystery for you: What is this glowing creature emerging from the depths? If you recognized it as the underside of a jellyfish, congrats! This photograph was captured near the wreckage of the Shinkoku Maru, a World War II era Japanese .....
Healthy Lips
Avoid eating salty foods that leave a buildup on your lips. Salt draws moisture out of things, which is why people use it to dry and preserve meat. Eating Cheetos, for example, will leave a salty orange powder around your mouth, causing your lips to dry out. .....
Astounding Facts about the human body
Astounding Facts 60. ?The tiniest muscle, the stapedius of the middle ear , is just one fifth of an inch long. .....
Benefits of Rambutan fruits
Appearance. Rambutan fruit is naturally red in color but they sometimes seem like yellow or orange. 'Rambut' is a malay word which means hair, hence it got its name because of the Thorn like appearance. The shape of Rambutan fruit is round or oval and it is upto .....
Home Design Ideas
Clear out. I like to do this myself at least once a year. Take every last loose piece on every surface photos, vases, candlesticks, books, magazines whatever is cluttering up your vision and chances are you no longer even see. Put them on a counter in the kitch .....
Weird Fish
Dana Octopus Squid. This weird sea creature mesmerizes its prey by flashing it but not in the whats under that trench coat kind of way. In an actual, literal light gets in youreyes kind of way. By emitting flashes of light used to blind their prey, the Dana Octopus Squi .....
Home Design Ideas
Bring flowers. Have a party where every guest is asked to bring a plant of one color say, purple for an instant garden with a little story of friendship behind each plant. .....
Tips to succeed in online Learning
Speak up if you are having problems. Technical difficulties are not an excuse for late or missed assignments. If you are having technical difficulties, or problems understanding something about the course, you MUST speak up otherwise there is no way that anyone will know that something .....
How to Care for Your Nails
Dont cut or manipulate cuticles. The cuticle is the natural barrier to fungus and bacteria and once you breach that, protection is lost, she says. This will not only make cuticles look worse red, swollen, and ragged but may also land you a nasty infection that harms the na .....
Benefits of Gooseberry
Blood Purifier. Amla juice acts as a blood purifier by flushing out toxins from the body. Regular intake of this juice purifies your blood as well as helps increase hemoglobin and red blood cell counts. The advantages obtained from the constant diet of gooseberries .....
Healthy Ear
The Facts on Earwax. You might wonder about earwax and whether it needs to be cleaned out. Actually, even though earwax seems yucky, it serves a purpose. Your ear canal makes earwax to protect the ear. After it is produced, it slowly makes its way to the opening of the e .....
Fantastic Pieces Of Origami
Wise Owl. Look at this guy. He is comfortably perched on his err perch. Why are owls wise? If I m being perfectly honest, this particular owl doesn t seem that wise to me. I don t know what it is that detracts from his knowledge. I mean, he is made from paper. .....
Economy of India
Gems and jewelry. India is one of the world s largest diamonds and gem polishing and jewelry manufacturing center; it is also one of the two largest consumers of gold. After crude oil and petroleum products, the export and import of gold, precious metals, precious sto .....
Benefits of Guava
Thyroid Health. Guavas are a good source for copper, which is an important part of regulating thyroid metabolism by helping to control hormone production and absorption. The thyroid gland is one of the most important glands in the body for regulating hormones and or .....
Rainy Day Ideas
Dress up with Masks. This would be great for the kids to actually make their own masks and then be able to play with them. .....
Gorgeous Castles Around The World
Kronborg Castle Denmark. One of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe, Kronborg was built in the 1420s. It has been immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares Hamlet. .....
Makeover Tips For Eyes
Do you need eye cream. Theres a reason why eyes get special treatment! Skin beneath the eyes lacks a fatty layer and has fewer oil glands and support than in the rest of the face. After cleansing, apply product with a gentle patting motion using the pad of your fourth fing .....
Dams in India
Almatti Dam. The Almatti Dam is a dam project on the Krishna River in North Karnataka, India which was completed in July 2005. The target annual electric output of the dam is 560 MU (or GWh). The Almatti Dam is the main reservoir of the Upper Krishna Irrigation P .....
Tips to succeed in Business
Get Organized. To be successful in business you need to be organized. Organization will help you complete tasks and stay on top of things to be done. A good way to do this is to create a to do list each day as you complete each item, check it off your list. This .....
Xmas For Kids
Christmas Camp Out. One evening, roll out sleeping bags in the living room, and hold a family camp out underneath the Christmas tree. Dont forget the hot chocolate and carols around the fireplace. .....
Best Peacock Mehndi Designs
Designs 5. A pair of peacocks adorns the hands of the bride in this fabulous design. We see the use of black mehndi in this design and the bangle deign on the wrist and hand also makes it quite unique. .....
Benefits of Carrots
Raw Carrots vs Cooked Carrot Nutritional Value. Raw carrots contain vitamin C; while the cooked ones have less; but ounce for ounce, cooking actually releases carotenes, believed to be the active agents in shielding tissue against carcinogenic attacks. You get two to five times more carotene from .....
Unique Potato Chips Flavors
Slovakia Niva flavored. Slovakia Chips, a major snack food producer in Slovakia, has recently come up with Niva flavored potato chips.For those who would like to try it, we should add that Niva is something like very smelly and pungent Blue cheese. .....
Tie Knots
Double Tie Knot. This type of knot is very similar to Simple Tie Knot, apart from the fact that it just has one more layover. At the beginning the wide end is turned twice over the narrow end. Thicker finished knot ties are ideal for use with most shirts. .....
Most Photogenic and breathtaking places in the world
Taj Mahal Agra India. The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra Uttar Pradesh India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the u .....
The Best Looking Cars
SEAT Leon hatchback. It might be the sister car to the Volkswagen Golf, but its the SEAT Leon which wins on looks. It features SEATs pointy front end design with relatively narrow glass to make it look sporty. Its fairly wide, too, which gives it a bit of an aggressive f .....
What to Eat in Meghalaya
Laddu. Laddu or Laddoo is a ballshaped sweet popular in Indian Subcontinent as well as regions with immigrants from the Subcontinent such as Hijaz. Laddu is made of flour and sugar with other ingredients that vary by recipe. It is often served at festive or .....
Benefits of Lime
How to Store Peel. Store the lime peels in freezer bags or air tight containers in deep freezer to avoid turning it hard due to loss of moisture. The dried or powdered ones can be packed in plastic air tight containers and stored in a cool dry place.Adding lime juice t .....
Precautions while using Shampoo
You can buy salon shampoo brands in a drugstore. Though in the past you may have heard you shouldnt buy salon brand hair products at the drugstore or big box store because they might be diluted or low quality, that isnt necessarily the case anymore. With the economy as it is, companies are finding .....
Tips to success in Online Business
Network Network Network. Go out and meet new people. Clearly state your expertise and and ask the same from your peers. Let them know why youre doing business and how. Join professional organizations and attend to informal meetings. There is no such thing as an upper limit t .....
Pet Care
Drying. Health Tips : While towel drying the legs and beard, don't rub but squeeze out the excess water to help prevent tangling the furnishings. You can also use a drier. Brush the beard and eyebrows down. Brush the legs up, starting with the pin brush and .....
Benefits of Tamarillo fruits
This Dutch eggplant juice from Indonesia. Take 100 grams each of dutch eggplant, red wind and plain yogurt each. Add condensed milk or honey as per flavor. Blend all ingredient into blender and puree. Pour in serving glass. Add more red wine or honey a per taste. The red fruit contain the mo .....
Ranking All NFL Teams From Least To Most Valuable
Minnesota Vikings. The Minnesota Vikings will move into the team s brand new stadium in 2016, but that is not on the minds of fans and analysts who cover the Vikings at the moment. Running back Adrian Peterson, who missed all of the 2014 NFL regular season after his co .....
Simple Science
Reflected Light. Color: Opaque Objects. Most objects are visible to us because of the light diffusely reflected from them. A white object, such as a sheet of paper, a whitewashed fence, or a table cloth, absorbs little of the light which falls upon it, but reflects n .....
New Year Wishes
Wishes for english for whatsapp. I wish you Happy New Year from the bottom of my heart. May God give you the happiness and strength to overcome your past year failures. .....
Ways to Reduce Your Impact
Green Cleaning. Most modern synthetic cleaning products are based on age old formulas using natural ingredients that were passed down through the generations because the chemistry was right. Going back to the original naturally derived ingredients is a way to make c .....
Beauty Skin Care Tips
TRY COCONUT. As an alternative to the usual glass of water, try coconut water. Its a huge trend in Hollywood right now and helps to naturally keep you hydrated, says Beverly Hillsbased dermatologist Dr. Susan Evans. .....
How to Maintain Good Hygiene
Foot Care. Athletes foot is caused by a fungus which thrives in warm, damp places. Wearing shoes without socks increases your chance of contracting this fungus. Athletes who do not change their wet socks after they are done with sports also run the risk of pick .....
Healthy Head
Engage family and friends. Developing and maintaining a social network of relationships is important from a health perspective. Our friends and family help us stay active and involved in the fabric of society. They can provide us with emotional support and can nurture trust. O .....
What to Eat in West Bengal
Jhal. Literally, hot. A great favourite in West Bengali households, this is made with fish or shrimp or crab, first lightly fried and then cooked in a light sauce of ground red chilli or ground mustard and a flavouring of pachpouron or kalo jira. Being dr .....
Lata Mangeshkar
Childhood. Lata Mangeshkar was born on September 28, 1929 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh into a Maharashtrian Brahmin household. Her father was Dinanath Mangeshkar and her mother was named Shudhmati.Lata was the oldest of several children. She had a younger brothe .....
Rules to play Lacrosse
Cradle and shoot with both hands. Nothing impresses a coach more than being ambidextrous! Learning to use both hands requires patience, because it will not happen overnight. Using your off hand in games will seriously improve your play.A good way to learn your off hand skills is to l .....
Famous Markets Of India
36 Chowringhee Lane. Hopping on the Roads of Shopping Markets of India is nothing less than going on an adventure. Streets of the Indian Markets are the busiest of all rendering every adventure which you did not expect. Buzzing with people, it has all which can be rend .....
Fashion Designers of all time
Valentino. Valentino started his brilliant and admirable carrear in the world of fashion on 1950 when he moved to Paris to study desing. His classically elegant and feminine designs made women look utterly glamorous. The Italian maestro worked at houses Dessus .....
Christmas SMS
Christmas SMS 85. May all the sweet magic Of Christmas conspire To gladden your hearts And fill every desire .....
Most Dangerous Sports
Mountain Climbing. It is not too hard to comprehend that mountain climbing essentially involves the risky activity of climbing up and down the highest of natural rocks, i.e. mountains. Every element of this activity is risky. The climber can receive different physical .....
Benefits of Bitter Gourd
Antioxidant. Antioxidants help protect us, its a cell which prevents damage taken from free radicals. Free radicals can come from natural environmental toxins which are common. There are also those from pollution and smoking, and some byproduct from normal metabo .....
Days Of Christmas Health And Fitness
Health Magazine Subscription Gift Giving. Stay abreast on health all year round with the gift of a healthy magazine subscription for yourself or for family and friends. .....
Mind Blowing Beauty Tricks
DIY gel nails. Save your hardearned cash and paint your own gel nails at home. .....
RavindraNath Tagore
Last years. Even during the last decade of life, Tagore remained publicly active. He criticized Mohandas Gandhi, the Indian leader, for Gandhis comments about an earthquake on January 15 1934 in Bihar. Gandhi had commented that the earthquake had happened on acc .....
Benefits of Rosemary
Health Benefits. The wonderful smell of rosemary is often associated with good food and great times. But it could just as easily be associated with good health. Rosemary contains substances that are useful for stimulating the immune system, increasing circulation, an .....
Rules to play Horseshoes
Multiple courts. a. Side by side To eliminate distraction and safely separate activity, stakes of courts adjacent to each other shall be a minimum of 10 feet apart. A greater distance (at least 12 feet) is preferable.b. Back to back A minimum of 16 feet and a pro .....
Rules to play Figure Skating
Toe picks. Teeth cut into the toe of the blade are used for pushing off in jumps and as the pivot point during spins. .....
How to Remove Dark Circles Tips
Accept what you cant change. There are some causes to undereye circles you cant do much to reverse, unfortunately. These include: Pigmentation irregularities. These can cause darker circles under the eyes. Sun exposure. This can increase melanin production. Thinning from age. Ag .....
Coffee Shops Around The World
Kaffeine in London. Kaffeines coffee flight will take you on a mouth trip that is out of this world. Dont drink any coffee before visiting because the flight includes a single shot of espresso, a single shot of cappuccino, and a cold brew cascara refresher. Kaffeines ba .....
Benefits of Cumin
Surgery. Cumin might lower blood sugar levels. Some experts worry that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using cumin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. .....
Benefits of Honeydew
Hydration. Honeydew contains a substantial amount of useful minerals, such as potassium, that aid in sustaining water level in the body. It is made up of approximately 90 percent water, therefore, is a good source for quenching thirst and hydration at cellular .....
Forever Young Naturally Eating
Green Essentials Instant faucet cleaner. To make stainless-steel features sparkle, wipe over with a paste made from half and half bicarbonate of soda and water. Wipe with a cloth. .....
Benefits of Tamarind
Twigs and barks. Tamarind twigs are sometimes used as chewsticks and the bark of the tree as a masticatory, alone or in place of lime with betelnut. The bark contains up to 7% tannin and is often employed in tanning hides and in dyeing, and is burned to make an ink .....
Benefits of Collard
Very low in calories. Wonderfully nutritious collard leaves are very low in calories (provide only 30 calories per 100 g) and contain no cholesterol. However, its green leaves contain a very good amount of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber that helps control LDL cholest .....
Astrology
Love Compatibility between Leo and Sagittarius. Leo and Sagittarius - Love Compatibility Profile : When Leo and Sagittarius join together in a love match, the result is often fireworks! Both Signs are extremely dynamic and enjoy life to the fullest. This couple is full of life and fun to be around .....
SuperFood
Hemp Seed Butter. Nutritional hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, but from a different variety bred to have virtually none of the psychoactive chemical THC. Instead, nutritional hemp is bred to emphasize its array of essential fatty acids, especially the om .....
Ajanta Caves
History. Like the other ancient Buddhist monasteries, Ajanta had a large emphasis on teaching, and was divided into several different caves for living, education and worship, under a central direction. Monks were probably assigned to specific caves for living .....
Natural Beauty Tips
Makeup remover. For removing make up apply vegetable oil on face. It acts as a great make up remover. .....
Important Tips for Hiring the Best Employees
Flexible Schedule. A flexible schedule allows an employee to work hours that differ from the normal company start and stop time. Particularly in an environment for exempt employees, those hours are generally 8 a.m. 5 p.m. or 9 a.m. 6 p.m. and total a 40 hour work week. .....
Benefits of Pumpkins
Anti inflammatory effect. Pumpkin seeds have anti inflammatory properties that are very useful against the arthritis and joint inflammation. Pumpkin fruit is one of the widely grown vegetables that is incredibly rich in vital antioxidants, and vitamins. While this humble back .....
Top Players in MLB History
Willie Mays. The Say Hey Kid is the second greatest player to have ever set foot on a baseball field. No other MLB player has ever been as dominant in all facets of the game as Willie Mays. As a hitter, Mays hit .302 for his career, with 3,283 hits, 660 home runs .....
The Highest Speed Cars in the world
SSC Tuatara. The SSC Tuatara is a future supercar to be produced by SSC North America.According to the manufacturer, the Tuatara will use an SSC designed billet aluminum twincharged 6.9Litre V8 engine block that will redline at 9,200 rpm and deliver 1,350 hp (1,0 .....
Rules to play Ildado
The La Partage rule. A bet on one number only, called a straight up bet, pays 35 to 1. You collect 36. With no House advantage you should collect 37 38 in the USA on double zero roulette wheels. A two number bet, called split bet, pays 17 to 1. A three number bet, call .....
Benefits of Mint Leaf
On the other hand. At work or at home mint rubbing is an excellent choice for spending quality time and for leaving worries and problems behind. Mint rubbing belongs to a larger group of time management techniques that includes gas burning, pulling the cats tail, cutti .....
Weird Animals
Yellow cheeked Gibbon. The yellow-cheeked gibbon is a gibbon native to Southern Asia. .....
Ridiculously Cool Concept Yachts
The Seagull. By way of some clever design by Novague Studio this yachts solar paneled wings were created to resemble those of a seagull, hence the name. The coolest part though? They actually flap in order to position themselves for maximum light absorption. .....
Unreal Travel Destinations in Europe
Bled Island. Set in the middle of a lake in Slovenia is Bled Island. Its the only natural island in the entire country. .....
Reasons To Love The Monsoon
Soak up some culture. If youre usually a beach bum, a rainy day might be just what you need to force you to get off the lounge chair and exchange the rays for a little culture. Zanzibars live music, museums and architecture deserve as much love as its fabulous coastline. .....
Celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi Clothing And Apparels Gifts. Ganesh Chaturthi is one of the most important festivals of India and is celebrated with great fervour and joy all over the country, but in Maharashtra with utmost devotion and enthusiasm. At this time, every nook and corner of it comes alive with fes .....
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