Munshi premchand

Biography
1. Born July 31, 1880 Died October 8, 1936.Achievements Premchand brought realism to Hindi literature. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi and instead used the dialect of the common people.Premchand popularly known as Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi literature. His stories vividly portrayed the social scenario of those times.Premchands real name was Dhanpat Rai Srivastava. He was born on July 31, 1880 in Lamahi near Varanasi where his father Munshi Azaayab Lal was a clerk in the post office. Premchand lost his mother when he was just seven years old. His father married again. Premchand was very close to his elder sister. His early education was in a madarasa under a Maulavi, where he learnt Urdu. When he was studying in the ninth class he was married, much against his wishes. He was only fifteen years old at that time.

Premchand lost his father when he was sixteen years old. Premchand was left responsible for his stepmother and stepsiblings. He earned five rupees a month tutoring a lawyers child. Premchand passed his matriculation exam with great effort and took up a teaching position, with a monthly salary of eighteen rupees. While working, he studied privately and passed his Intermediate and B. A. examinations. Later, Premchand worked as the deputy sub inspector of schools in what was then the United Provinces.In 1910, he was hauled up by the District Magistrate in Jamirpur for his anthology of short stories Soz e Watan (Dirge of the Nation), which was labelled seditious. His book Soz e Watan was banned by the then British government, which burnt all of the copies. Initially Premchand wrote in Urdu under the name of Nawabrai. However, when his novel Soz e Watan was confiscated by the British, he started writing under the pseudonym Premchand.

Before Premchand, Hindi literature consisted mainly of fantasy or religious works. Premchand brought realism to Hindi literature. He wrote over 300 stories, a dozen novels and two plays. The stories have been compiled and published as Maansarovar. His famous creations are Panch Parameshvar, Idgah, Shatranj Ke Khiladi, Poos Ki Raat, Bade Ghar Ki Beti, Kafan, Udhar Ki Ghadi, Namak Ka Daroga, Gaban, Godaan, and Nirmala.Premchand was a great social reformer; he married a child widow named Shivarani Devi. She wrote a book on him, Premchand Gharmein after his death. In 1921 he answered Gandhijis call and resigned from his job. He worked to generate patriotism and nationalistic sentiments in the general populace. When the editor of the journal Maryaada was jailed in the freedom movement, Premchand worked for a time as the editor of that journal. Afterward, he worked as the principal in a school in the Kashi Vidyapeeth.The main characteristic of Premchands writings is his interesting storytelling and use of simple language. His novels describe the problems of rural and urban India. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi and instead used the dialect of the common people. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc.Premchands writings have been translated not only into all Indian languages, but also Russian, Chinese, and many other foreign languages. He died on October 8, 1936. .....

Munshi Premchand
2. Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in a village near Varanasi in India to Munshi Ajaib Lal, a clerk in the post office. His parents died when he was still very young. His mother died when he was no more than seven and his father passed away when Premchand was fifteen or sixteen, and still a student. After loosing his parents, Premchand became responsible for his step mother and his siblings born from her. Premchand was married to a girl in an arranged child marriage as then was the custom but the marriage proved to be painful for him and he left her in 1899. After that Premchand married a child widow Shivrani Devi in 1906.

After leaving his village in 1899, Premchand took up a job of a schoolmaster at a mission school in Chunar, another remote area. The salary was minimal and he was the only earning member in the family. With that negligible amount he had to support his wife, step mother, his siblings and himself. The condition became even worse when he was fired from the job and had to return to his village. After some efforts, he succeeded in getting a job of assistant master at a government school in Varanasi. He was transferred to a town near Allahabad, where he became the headmaster of a school in year 1902. After two years, he was sent to Kanpur as the deputy sub inspector of schools. .....

Early Career
3. It was in Allahabad, where he first started writing seriously. Premchand started his literary career as a freelancer in Urdu and wrote several short stories in the language. His first novella, Asrar e Maoabid was first published in Awaz e Khalq, an Urdu Weekly. Soon after, he became associated with an Urdu magazine Zamana, where he wrote columns on national and international events. He also wrote a collection of short stories in Urdu which became known as Soz e Vatan. It was then that his career as a writer began to take shape and he became a reputed part of the literary world of Kanpur. .....
Success as a Writer
4. His literary work in Urdu gained him a reputation of a journalist with social aim, rather than a mere entertainer. Premchand was born in the British India and the Indian Independence movement was at its peak when he started his writing career. His early writings were largely influenced by the nationwide movement in which he often expressed his support to the fight for freedom. In 1910, his collection of Soz e Watan was labeled as rebellious on account of its message which provoked Indians to fight for the nation. An agonized British government confiscated the book and all copies of Soz e Watan were burnt or destroyed. Premchand, who was writing under the name of Nawabrai at that time, began to use Premchand as his pen name. The prolific writer wrote more than 300 stories, novels and a number of plays.

The writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it only consisted of the fantasy stories, fairy tales and religious work. His creations are compiled and published as Maansarovar. In 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movement and Gandhios Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became the proprietor of the press. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdu journals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as a great writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid poverty and financial crisis. .....

Writing Style Notable Work
5. Aside from a novelist and author, Premchand was also a social reformer and a thinker. The remarkable characteristic of his writing was the reality with which he depicted his characters in the novels. Unlike other contemporary writers, he did not write fantasy fictions, or stories based upon a hero. His novels mainly consisted messages on social evils like, dowry, poverty, communalism, colonialism and corruption and Zamindari. He was the first writer of the twentieth century to bring reality in the literature.

Premchand authored over 300 short stories, novels and several number of essays, letters and plays. Many of his works have been translated into English and Russian and some have been adopted into films as well. His first novel Godaan is ranked amongst the finest novels of his era and remains so till this day. His other notable novels are Gaban, Kafan Poos ki Rat, Idgah, and Bade Ghar ki Beti. Other bestselling novels Shatranj Ke Khiladi and SevaSadan were adopted into film by Satyajit Ray. .....

Writing style
6. The main characteristic of Premchands writings is his interesting story telling and use of simple language. His novels describe the problems of the rural peasant classes. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi (as was the common practice among Hindi writers), and also Spanish language. .....
Literary works
7. Premchand has written about 300 short stories, several novels as well as many essays and letters. He has also written some plays. He also did some translations. Many of Premchands stories have been translated into English and Russian.Godaan (The Gift of a Cow), his last novel, is considered the finest Hindi novel of all times.The hero, Hori, a poor peasant, desperately longs for a cow, a symbol of wealth and prestige in rural India. Hori gets a cow but pays with his life for it. After his death, the village priests demand a cow from his widow to bring his soul to peace.In Kafan (Shroud), a poor man collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. .....
Films based on Premchands work
8. Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story about poor Dukhi, who gets exhausted to death while he hews wood for more or less nothing. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) tells the story of chess players who are so concentrated on a game that they forget their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis. .....
Adoption of the name Premchand
9. In 1909, Premchand was transferred to Mahoba, and later posted to Hamirpur as the Sub deputy Inspector of Schools.Around this time, Soz e Watan was noticed by the British Government officials, who banned it as a seditious work. The British collector of the Hamirpur District ordered a raid on Premchands house, where around five hundred copies of Soz e Watan were burnt.Subsequently, Dhanpat Rai had to change his pseudonym from Nawab Rai to Premchand.In 1914, Premchand started writing in Hindi (Hindi and Urdu are considered different registers of a single language Hindustani, with Hindi drawing much of its vocabulary from Sanskrit and Urdu being more influenced by Persian). By this time, he was already reputed as a fiction writer in Urdu. His first Hindi story Saut was published in the magazine Saraswati in December 1915, and his first short story collection Sapta Saroj was published in June 1917. .....
Gorakhpur
10. In August 1916, Premchand was transferred to Gorakhpur on a promotion. He became the Assistant Master at the Normal High School, Gorakhpur.At Gorakhpur, he developed a friendship with the bookseller Buddhi Lal, who allowed him to borrow novels for reading, in exchange for selling exam cram books at the school. Premchand was an enthusiastic reader of classics in other languages, and translated several of these works in Hindi. By 1919, Premchand had published four novellas, of about a hundred pages each. In 1919, Premchands first major novel Seva Sadan was published in Hindi. The novel was originally written in Urdu under the title Bazaar e Husn, but was published in Hindi first by a Calcutta based publisher, who offered Premchand INR 450 for his work. The Urdu Publisher of Lahore published the novel later in 1924, paying Premchand INR 250. The novel tells the story of an unhappy housewife, who first becomes a courtesan, and then manages an orphanage for the young daughters of the courtesans. It was well received by the critics, and helped Premchand gain wider recognition.In 1919, Premchand obtained a BA degree from Allahabad. By 1921, he had been promoted to Deputy Inspectors of Schools. On 8 February 1921, he attended a meeting in Gorakhpur, where Mahatma Gandhi asked people to resign from government jobs as part of the non cooperation movement. Premchand, although physically unwell and with two kids and a pregnant wife to support, thought about it for 5 days and decided, with the consent of his wife, to resign from his government job. .....
Back to Benares
11. After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided to focus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced severe financial difficulties and chronic ill health.In 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christened Saraswati Press. The year 1924 saw the publication of Premchands Rangabhumi, which has a blind beggar called Surdas as its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that in Rangabhumi, Premchand comes across as a superb social chronicler, and although the novel contains some structural flaws and too many authorial explanations, it shows a marked progress in Premchands writing style. According to Schulz, it was in Nirmala (1925) and Pratigya (1927) that Premchand found his way to a balanced, realistic level that surpasses his earlier works and manages to hold his readers in tutelage.

Nirmala, a novel dealing with the dowry system in India, was first serialised in the magazine Chand between November 1925 and November 1926, before being published as a novel. Pratigya (The Vow) dealt with the subject of widow remarriage. In 1928, Premchands novel Gaban (Embezzlement), focusing on the middle class greed, was published. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literary political weekly magazine titled Hans, aimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilise against the British rule. The magazine, noted for its politically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premchand then took over and edited another magazine called Jagaran, which too ran at a loss.In 1931, Premchand moved to Kanpur as a teacher in the Marwari College, but had to leave because of difference with the college administration. He then returned to Benares, and became the editor of the Maryada magazine. In 1932, he published another novel titled Karmabhumi. He briefly served as the headmaster of the Kashi Vidyapeeth, a local school. After the schools closure, he became the editor of the Madhuri magazine in Lucknow. .....

Mumbai
12. Premchand arrived in Mumbai on 31 May 1934 to try his luck in the Hindi film industry. He had accepted a script writing job for the production house Ajanta Cinetone, hoping that the yearly salary of INR 8000 would help him overcome his financial troubles. He stayed in Dadar, and wrote the script for the film Mazdoor (The Labourer). The film, directed by Mohan Bhawnani, depicted the poor conditions on the labour class. Premchand himself did a cameo as the leader of labourers in the film. Some influential businessmen managed to get a stay on its release in Mumbai. The film was released in Lahore and Delhi, but was banned again after it inspired the mill workers to stand up against the owners. Ironically, the film inspired the workers of his own loss making press in Benares to launch a strike, after they were not paid their salaries. By 1934 35, Premchands Saraswati Press was under a heavy debt of INR 4000, and Premchand was forced to discontinue the publication of Jagaran. Meanwhile, Premchand was beginning to dislike the non literary commercial environment of the Mumbai film industry, and wanted to return to Benares. However, he had signed a one year contract with the production house. He ultimately left Mumbai on 4 April 1935, before the completion of one year. Himanshu Roy, the founder of Mumbai Talkies, tried to convince Premchand to stay back, but did not succeed. .....
Style and influences
13. Premchand is considered the first Hindi author whose writings prominently featured realism.His novels describe the problems of the poor and the urban middle class. His works depict a rationalistic outlook, which views religious values as something that allows the powerful hypocrites to exploit the weak. He used literature for the purpose of arousing public awareness about national and social issues and often wrote about topics related to corruption, child widowhood, prostitution, feudal system, poverty, colonialism and on the Indias freedom movement. Premchand started taking an interest in political affairs while at Kanpur during the late 1900s, and this is reflected in his early works, which have patriotic overtones. His political thoughts were initially influenced by the moderate Indian National Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale, but later, he moved towards the more extremist Bal Gangadhar Tilak. He considered the Minto Morley Reforms and the Montagu Chelmsford Reforms as inadequate, and supported greater political freedom. Several of his early works, such as A Little Trick and A Moral Victory, satirised the Indians who cooperated with the British Government. He did not specifically mention the British in his some of his stories, due to strong government censorship, but disguised his opposition in settings from the medieval era and the foreign history. He was also influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda. .....
Adaptations of Premchands works
14. Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story revolving around poor Dukhi, who dies of exhaustion while hewing wood for a paltry favour. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) revolved around the decadence of nawabi Lucknow, where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis.Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in the lead role. The novel is set in Varanasi, the holy city of Hindus. Sevasadan (House of Service) is an institute built for the daughters of courtesans.

The lead of the novel is a beautiful, intelligent and talented girl called Suman. She belongs to a high caste. She is married to a much older, tyrannical man. She realises that a loveless marriage is just like prostitution except that there is only one client. Bholi, a courtesan, lives opposite Suman. Suman realises that Bholi is outside purdah, while she is inside it. Suman leaves her husband and becomes a successful entertainer of gentlemen. But after a brief period of success, she ends up as a victim of a political drama played out by self righteous Hindu social reformers and moralists.The Actor Factor Theatre Company, a young Delhi based theatre group, staged Kafan in 2010 in New Delhi. It is an original stage adaptation of Premchands short story. Kafan is a dark comedy. In the play, puppetry is explored to depict the tussle between two classes and the plight of Budhia, who is caught in the crossfire. Bleakness of hope in the story and awfulness of the father son duo find a delicate balance. At times the situations break into morbid humour. In the end a wine house becomes the stage for Ghisu (father) and Madhavs (son) rebellious dance, defying not only the laws of the land but also that of the Gods. .....

Last days
15. After leaving Bombay, Premchand wanted to settle in Allahabad, where his sons Sripat Rai and Amrit Rai were studying. He also planned to publish Hans from there. However, owing to his financial situation and ill health, he had to hand over Hans to the Indian Literary Counsel and move to Benares.Premchand was elected as the first President of the Progressive Writers Association in Lucknow, in 1936. He died on 8 October 1936, after several days of sickness. In 1936, Premchand also published Kafan (Shroud), in which a poor man collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. Premchands last published story was Cricket Match, which appeared in Zamana in 1938 , after his death. .....
Later Life Death
16. Premchand believed that literature is a powerful medium to educate people and it showed in his writings. In his later life, he continued to write fictions with social purpose and social criticism. Now a revered author and thinker, he presided over conferences, literature seminars and received huge applause. He chaired the first All India conference of the Indian Progressive Writeros Association in year 1936. However, in his personal life he was still struggling to make both ends meet. He also suffered from health problem particularly .....
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Keep a Water Bottle With You. This is one of the very important things. If you are in exam and you are thirsty, then your mind will be distracted. I would suggest that dont take much water at a time. Just take small sips of water whenever you feel thirsty. Dont think that you wil .....
Healthy Blood
Nibble dark chocolate. Turn to dark chocolate when your sweet tooth asserts itself.Unlike milk chocolate, dark chocolate is rich in flavonoids that keep your arteries flexible, preventing the increase in pressure that come with stiffer blood vessels. Thats thought to be on .....
Tips to succeed in Presentation
Make it timely. Schedule presentations for a time when the audience can give you proper attention. Avoid end of day, just before lunch, and the day before a holiday. .....
Awesome Gifts For Christmas
Palladium Womens Tactical Leather WP Snow Boot. Palladium boots are gorgeous, and built tough. These are the perfect boots for a woman who wants to remain stylish, but still keep her feet warm and toasty. Not sold on this style? Check out more womens boots here. .....
Celebrities Who Swear By Yoga
Olivia Wilde. Yoga, for all the mystical powers the word exudes, is a preferred method of working out among many celebrities. Olivia Wilde is one among this lot and if this picture of hers is anything to go by, then there is no doubt that this form of physical and .....
The Crazy and Pick Up Trucks
Morris Minor pick up. The Morris Minor was another British car to get the pick up treatment, but the original version didn t look quite like this yellow peril. .....
Tips to succeed in IELTS Exam
How Much To Speak. There are two basic, unspoken rules when it comes to how much you should speak during the speaking section. The first is to speak as much as possible; the more and the greater variety of language you use, the better. You dont want to talk incessantly .....
100 Places to visit in India
Sela Pass. Sela Pass is one of the most beautiful places to visit in India. Connecting Tawang district to other parts of the country is the Sela Pass. This mountain pass is about 13,800 feet high and gives you some really scenic views of the surrounding views. .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Keeping a clear head Camomile soother. Camomile tea can sooth a stress headache. For a sinus headache try ginger tea. .....
Lal Bahadur Shastri
His Contribution in the Foreign Policies. He had paid great involvement in the foreign policies to enhance the country defense budget by increasing the closer relationship with the Soviet Union after the disastrous condition of the country of Sino Indian War in 1962. He had decided to increa .....
Handmade Valentines Day Cards
Thermocol decor card. Colour the thermocol and Allow it to dry,Then take a paper cup , cut it half and fix it to the thermocol using pins. Along its corners.Then paint the paper cup Arrange the flowers in the cup, and decorate the cup and the thermocol. .....
Washington
National Portrait Gallery. The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856. The gallery moved in 1896 to .....
Healthy Neck
Move It. Research is showing that exercise is an effective way to treat neck pain. According to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, women with chronic neck pain who performed strength and endurance exercises using resistance bands and .....
Flowers
Hemerocallis Fulva. According to Linnaeus, this species is a native of China. It has long been inured to our climate, and few plants thrive better in any soil or situation, but a moist soil suits it best, its leaves on their first emerging from the ground, and for a con .....
Most Beautiful Valleys In The World
The Indus Valley. Originating from Mansorovar Lake, at the Tibetan Plateau, 93 percent of the Indus River flows through Pakistan, while .....
Biggest things in the World
Largest Slip N Slide. It s the world swidest slipandslide, in a man made reservoir in Hawaii. Holy moly, this looks like the best way. .....
Top Most Powerful Armies In The World
North Korea. There are very few countries that have stayed at war for as long as North Korea. The war originally broke out between two main groups in Korea, one based you guessed it in the North, and supporting the Communist Party that reigned supreme in the .....
Best Cricketer
Kapil Dev. Kapil Dev Ramlal Nikhanj better known as Kapil Dev, is a former Indian cricketer. He captained the Indian cricket team which won the 1983 Cricket World Cup. Named by Wisden as the Indian Cricketer of the Century in 2002, Kapil Dev was one of the grea .....
Benefits of Dill Seeds
Free Radical Protection. Fruits and vegetables with bright colors contain properties that protect the body from free radicals. Dill is green in color and it can activate processes in the body which seek out and eliminate free radicals. This free radical elimination is effec .....
Benefits of Passion fruits
Passion fruit is very good Consumed People Moderate Diet. The fruit is a must eat, and passion fruit is very good to eat. This is because the passion fruit has low calories, only 97 calories per 100 g! Passion fruit is also low in sodium and fat. Passion fruit also contains carbohydrates and natural sugars .....
Rules to play Paragliding
Hermal in the Same Direction. When entering a thermal, turn in the same direction as other pilots already in the thermal. All pilots in a thermal should be circling in the same direction. It is easy to watch other gliders circling in the same direction, but dangerous if there are .....
Gifts Your Favorite Coffee
Breathable caffeine. If you are in need of a caffeine boost but there s no coffee to be had, or you don t have time to make it, AeroShot Energy could be the way to go. Each AeroShot delivers a unique blend of 100 mg of caffeine and B vitamins. .....
Weird Fish
Payara. You know you?re a weird-looking fish if a popular nickname for you is ?vampirefish.? The two long fangs on its lower jaw make it look like one of those fish found in the deepest, darkest parts of the ocean, but they are actually native to the Amazon .....
Benefits of Hair Straightening
Hair Spray. Can help keep hair straight, especially in humid regions. When you wash your straightened hair, use only straightening shampoo and conditioner. Use leave in or thermal products so that your hair is pampered more than usual. Holding the iron in one pl .....
Benefits of Cumin
Stimulant. It particularly stimulates the digestive and excretory system and keeps them in order. Cumin is a good source of Iron, Manganese, and other vitamins and minerals. Some research shows that cumin can stimulate the production of pancreatic enzymes and h .....
Most Powerful Cars on the Market
SRT Viper. As part of the famous Dodge Viper line of vehicles, SRT Viper is a powerful machine with 640 horsepower and the top speed of 206 miles per hour. You can buy it for $459,000; however, there is a limited edition package called the Time Attack package t .....
Extremely Beautiful Minerals And Stones
Extremely Beautiful Minerals And Stones 4. Ocean Inside An Opal .....
Rainy Day Ideas
Spring Window Painting. Create some beautiful and simple artwork to brighten up the windows. .....
Benefits of Star Apple
Source of beta carotenes. Star fruit are a source of beta carotenes which when converted into retinol or Vitamin A help in maintaining good vision and appetite. Other polyphenolic antioxidants contained in the fruit act as antimicrobials against E.coli, Klebiesella sp., Staph .....
Mahashivratri Festival
Legends of Mahashivratri. There are various interestinglegendsrelated to the festival of Maha Shivaratri. According to one of the most popular legends, Shivaratri marks the wedding day of Lord Shiva and Parvati. Some believe that it was on the auspicious night of Shivaratri t .....
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