. Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain.
Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country, trail riding, all mountain, downhill, freeride, dirt jumping, and trials. The vast majority of mountain biking falls into the recreational cross country and trail riding categories.
This individual sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, and self reliance. Advanced riders pursue steep technical descents and, in the case of freeriding, downhilling, and dirt jumping, aerial maneuvers off both natural features and specially constructed jumps and ramps.
. Mountain bikesdiffer from other bikes primarily in that they incorporate features aimed at increasing durability and improving performance in rough terrain. Most modern mountain bikes have some kind ofsuspension, 26, 27.5 or 29 inch diameter tires, usually between 1.7 to 2.5inches in width, and a wider, flat or upwardly risinghandlebarthat allows a more upright riding position, giving the rider more control. They have a smaller, reinforcedframe, usually made of wide tubing. Tires usually have a pronouncedtread, and are mounted on rims which are stronger than those used on most non mountain bicycles. Compared to other bikes, mountain bikes also tend to more frequently usehydraulic disc brakes. They also tend to have lower ratiogearsto facilitate climbing steep hills and traversing obstacles.Pedalsvary from simpleplatformpedals, where the rider simply places the shoes on top of the pedals, toclipless, where the rider uses a specially equipped shoe with a sole that engages mechanically into the pedal.
. Glovesdiffer from road touring gloves, are made of heavier construction, and often have covered thumbs or all fingers covered for hand protection. They are sometimes made with padding for the knuckles.
. Glasseswith little or no difference from those used in other cycling sports, help protect againstdebriswhile on the trail. Filtered lenses, whether yellow for cloudy days or shaded for sunny days, protect the eyes from strain. Downhill and freeride mountain bikers often use goggles similar to motorcross or snowboard goggles in unison with their fullface helmets.
. Shoesgenerally have gripping soles similar to those of hiking boots for scrambling over un ridable obstacles, unlike the smooth bottomed shoes used in road cycling. Theshankof mountain bike shoes is generally more flexible than road cycling shoes. Shoes compatible with clipless pedal systems are also frequently used.
. Clothingis chosen for comfort during physical exertion in the backcountry, and its ability to withstand falls. Road touring clothes are often inappropriate due to their delicate fabrics and construction.
. Hydration systemsare important for mountain bikers in the backcountry, ranging from simple water bottles to water bags with drinking tubes in lightweight backpacks (e.g.,Camelbaks).
GPS navigation device
. GPS navigation deviceis sometimes added to the handlebars and is used to display and monitor progress on trails downloaded from the internet or pre made mapping systems, record trails on the fly, and keep track of trip times and other data. The GPS system is often a handheld GPS device with color screen and rugged, waterproof (IPX7) design.
Pump and Bike tools
. Pumpto inflate flat tires. And Bike tools and extra bike tubes are important, as mountain bikers frequently find themselves miles from help, with flat tires or other mechanical problems that must be handled by the rider.
High power lights
. High power lightsbased on LED technology, especially for mountain biking at night.
. The style and level of protection worn by individual riders varies greatly and is affected by many factors including terrain, environment, weather, potential obstacles on the trail, experience, technical skill, fitness, perceived risk, desired style and others too numerous to mention. A cross country helmet and simple long fingered gloves are a good minimum for the majority of riding.
Limb protection becomes important when speeds rise, surfaces become loose and sketchy, terrain technical and crashes more common and more severe. Full face helmets and armored suits or jackets are more suited to gravity and air orientated disciplines which use jumps and drops, where their extra bulk and weight is outweighed by the bigger and more frequent crashes with worse consequences. Still, within XC community, the typical road racing attire is what most riders use. Whatever protection is used it should fit well, be comfortable (or it wont be worn) on the bike as well as in the shop and suited for the particular type of riding. Gloves can offer increased comfort while riding, by alleviating compression and friction, and protection in the event of strikes to the back or palm of the hand or when putting the hand out in a fall. Gloves also protect the hand, fingers, and knuckles from abrasion on rough surfaces such as concrete. Many different styles of gloves exist, with various fits, sizes, finger lengths, palm padding and armor options available. Armoring knuckles and the backs of hands with plastic panels is common in more extreme types of mountainbiking.
. Helmetsprovide important head protection. The use of helmets, in one form or another, is almost universal amongst all mountain bikers. The main three types are cross country, rounded skateboarder style (nicknamed half shells or skate style) and full face. Cross country helmets tend to be light and well ventilated, and more comfortable to wear for long periods, especially while perspiring in hot weather. In XC competitions, most bikers use the usual road racing style helmets, for their lightweight and aerodynamic qualities. Skateboard helmets are simpler and cheaper than other helmet types; provide greater coverage of the head and resist minor scrapes and knocks. Unlike road biking helmets, skateboard helmets typically have a thicker, hard plastic shell which can take multiple impact before it needs to be replaced. The trade off for this is that they tend to be much heavier and less ventilated (sweatier), therefore not suitable for endurance based riding.Full face helmets (BMX style) provide the highest level of protection, being stronger again than skateboard style and including a jaw guard to protect the face. The weight is the main issue with this type but nowadays they are often relatively well ventilated and made of high tech materials, such as carbon fiber. Full face helmets with detachable chin guards are being developed but are not yet available in the U.S. As all helmets should meet minimum standards, SNELL B.95 (American Standard) BS EN 1078:1997 (European Standard), DOT or motorized ratings are making their way into the market. The choice of helmet often comes down to rider preference, likelihood of crashing and on what features or properties of a helmet they place emphasis. Helmets are mandatory at competitive events and almost without exception at bike parks, most organisations also stipulate when and where full face helmets must be used.
Body armor and pads
. Body armor and pads, often referred to simply as armor, protect limbs and trunk in the event of a crash. While initially made for and marketed at downhillers, freeriders and jump/street riders, body armor has trickled into other areas of mountain biking as trails have become faster and more technical. Armor ranges from simple neoprene sleeves for knees and elbows to complex, articulated combinations of hard plastic shells and padding that cover a whole limb or the entire body. Some companies market body armor jackets and even full body suits designed to provide greater protection through greater coverage of the body and more secure pad retention. Most upper body protectors also include a spine protector that comprises plastic or metal reinforced plastic plates, over foam padding, which are joined together so that they articulate and move with the back. Some mountain bikers also use BMX style body armor, such as chest plates, abdomen protectors, and spine plates. New technology has seen an influx of integrated neck protectors that fit securely with full face helmets. There is a general correlation between increased protection and increased weight/decreased mobility, although different styles balance these factors differently. Different levels of protection are deemed necessary/desirable by different riders in different circumstances. Backpack hydration systems such asCamelbakswhere a water filled bladder is held close to the spine used by some riders for their perceived protective value. However, there is only anecdotal evidence of protection and with the exception of one specific product by the company Deuter, they are never sold as spine protection.
. First aidkits are often carried by mountain bikers, so that they are able to clean and dress cuts and abrasions and splint broken limbs. Experienced mountain bike guides may be trained in dealing with suspected spinal injuries (e.g., immobilizing the victim and keeping the neck straight). Seriously injured people may have to be removed bystretcher, by a motor vehicle suitable for the terrain, or by helicopter.
. Cross Country(XC) generally means riding point to point or in a loop including climbs and descents on a variety of terrain. A typical XC bike weighs around 9 13 kilos (20 30lbs), and has 0 125 millimeters (0 5inches) of suspension travel front and sometimes rear.
. All mountain/Enduro(AM) bike category typically provides 125 170 millimeters (5 7inches) of rear and front suspension travel and stronger components than XC models, while still providing overall weight suitable for climbing and descending on a variety of terrain. While traditionally called All Mountain riding, this style has been adopted to the Enduro World Series. There are two formats of Enduro racing. Big Mountain Enduro is mostly similar to a DH course, but is much longer, sometimes taking a full day to complete, incorporates a few climbing sections to keep riders challenged. Gravity enduro uses an equal amount uphill and downhill on paper, but the uphill segments are not timed. Typically, there is a maximum time limit on how long a rider has to reach the top of the climb. There is also a third all mountain genre called super D this style of race is more similar to XC, but has sustained climbs followed by sustained descents. A super D course has climbs that are less technical than the descents. Enduro racing is seen as the everymans race in North America, and while there are still extremely high level riders such as J
. Downhill(DH) is, in the most general sense, riding mountain bikes downhill. The rider commonly travels to the point of descent by other means than cycling, such as a ski lift or automobile, as the weight of the downhill mountain bike often precludes any serious climbing. Downhill specific bikes are universally equipped with front and rear suspension, large disc brakes, and use heavier frame tubing than other mountain bikes. Because of their extremely steep terrain (often located in summer at ski resorts), downhill courses are one of the most extreme and dangerous venues for mountain biking. They include large jumps (up to and including 12 meters (40feet)), drops of 3+ meters (10+ feet), and are generally rough and steep top to bottom. To negotiate these obstacles at race speed, racers must possess a unique combination of total body strength, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and mental control. Minimum body protection in a true downhill setting is knee pads and a full face helmet with goggles, although riders and racers commonly sport full body suits to protect themselves. Downhill bikes now weigh around 16 20 kilos (35 45lbs), while professional downhill mountain bikes can weigh as little as 15 kilos (33lbs), fully equipped with custom carbon fibre parts, air suspension, tubeless tires and more. Downhill frames get anywhere from 170 250 millimeters (7 to 10inches) of travel and are usually mounted with a 200 millimeter (8inch) travel dual crown fork.
. Four cross is a sport in which riders compete either on separate tracks, as in Dual Slalom, or on a short slalom track, as in 4X. Most bikes used are light hard tails, although the last World Cup was actually won on a full suspension bike. The tracks have dirt jumps, berms, and gaps. Professionals in gravity mountain biking tend to concentrate either on downhill mountain biking or 4X/dual slalom because they are very different. However, some riders, such asCedric Gracia, still do 4X and DH, although that is becoming more rare as 4X takes on its own identity.
. Freeride/ Big Hit / Hucking. Freeride, as the name suggests is a do anything discipline that encompasses everything from downhill racing without the clock to jumping, riding North Shore style (elevated trails made of interconnecting bridges and logs), and generally riding trails and/or stunts that require more skill and aggressive techniques than XC. Freeride bikes are generally heavier and more amply suspended than their XC counterparts, but usually retain much of their climbing ability. It is up to the rider to build his or her bike to lean more toward a preferred level of aggressiveness. Slopestyle type riding is an increasingly popular genre that combines big air, stunt ridden freeride with BMX style tricks. Slopestyle courses are usually constructed at already established mountain bike parks and include jumps, large drops, quarter pipes, and other wooden obstacles. There are always multiple lines through a course and riders compete for judges points by choosing lines that highlight their particular skills. A typical freeride bike is hard to define, but 13 18 kilos (30 40) lbs with 150 250 millimeters (6 10inches) of suspension front and rear.
. Dirt Jumping(DJ) is one of the names given to the practice of riding bikes over shaped mounds of dirt or soil and becoming airborne. The idea is that after riding over the take off the rider will become airborne, and aim to land on the landing. Dirt jumping can be done on almost anything but the bikes are generally smaller and more maneuverable hardtails so that tricks e.g. backflips, are easier to complete. The bikes are simpler so that when a crash occurs there are fewer components to break or cause the rider injury. Bikes are typically built from sturdier materials such as steel to handle repeated heavy impacts of crashes and bails.
. Trialsriding consists of hopping and jumping bikes over obstacles, without touching a foot onto the ground. It can be performed either off road or in an urban environment. It requires an excellent sense of balance. The emphasis is placed on techniques of effectively overcoming the obstacles, although street trials (as opposed to competition oriented trials) is much like Street and DJ, where doing tricks with style is the essence. Trials bikes look almost nothing like mountain bikes. They use either 20, 24 or 26 wheels and have very small, low frames, some types without a saddle.
Urban or Street
. Urban/Streetis essentially the same as urban BMX (orFreestyle BMX), in which riders perform tricks by riding on/over man made objects. The bikes are the same as those used for Dirt Jumping, having 24 or 26 wheels. Also, they are very light, many in the range of 25 30lbs, and are typically hardtails with between 0 100 millimeters of front suspension. As with Dirt Jumping and Trials, style and execution are emphasized.
Mountain bike trail riding
. Mountain bike trail ridingis recreational mountain biking on hiking trails (hike on a bike), dirt roads and unpaved tracks, forest paths, etc.(pictured at right); its also practiced in dedicated trail centers, such as the scenicSlickrock Trailor Western AustraliasMunda Biddi Trail, which at over 1000km is one of the worlds longest off road trails. There aretrail bike designsfor this activity
Mountain Bike Touring
. Mountain Bike Touring or Marathonis long distance touring on dirt roads and single track with a mountain bike. With the popularity of theGreat Divide Trail, theColorado Trailand other long distance off road biking trails specially fitted mountain bikes are increasingly being used for touring. Bike manufacturers like Salsa have even developed MTB touring bikes like the Fargo model.Mixed Terrain Cycle Touringor rough riding is a form of mountain bike touring but involves cycling over a variety of surfaces and topography on a single route, with a single bicycle. The recent popularity of mixed terrain touring is in part a reaction against the increasing specialization of the bike industry. Focusing on freedom of travel and efficiency over varied surfaces, mixed terrain bicycle travel has a storied past.
. Injuries are a given factor when mountain biking, especially in the more extreme disciplines such as downhill biking. Injuries range from minor wounds, such as cuts and abrasions from falls on gravel or other surfaces, to major injuries such as broken bones, head or spinal injuries resulting from impacts with rocks, trees or the terrain being ridden on.
Protective equipment can protect against minor injuries and reduce the extent or seriousness of major impacts, but may not protect a rider from major impacts or accidents. To reduce the risk of injury, a rider must also take steps to minimize the risk of accidents, and thus the potential for injury; by choosing trails which fall within the range of their experience level, ensuring that they are fit enough to deal with the trail they have chosen, and keeping their bike in top mechanical condition.
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Play with Scale
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. Mozambique , AfricaIt is a pristine, lovely, semi tropical Indian Ocean island in Mozambique. It has beautiful coral reef, amazing marine life besides calm water and picturesque view. Besides water skiing, parasailing and wind surfing, sunset cruises
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Use positive competition
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Benefits of Cumin
. When taken regularly, the seeds get rid of the worms present in the intestines. Cumin seeds and cumin powder should be kept in a tightly sealed glass container in a cool, dark and dry place. Ground cumin will keep for about six months, while the whol
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. The bullmastiff is a large breed of domestic dog, with a solid build and a short muzzle. The bullmastiff shares the characteristics of Molosser dogs, and was originally developed by 19th-century gamekeepers to guard estates. The breed's bloodlines ar
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. Lincoln served on the Illinois State Legislature for several terms. During that time he studied the law and began to work as a lawyer. He ran for the U.S. Congress in 1845. He won the election and served as a congressman for one term. After serving a
Tips to succeed in an Interview
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Global Dial Code
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Most Expensive Bikes in The World
. Cost: $ 150,000 The worlds first production motorcycle, Hildebrand and Wolf M
Ways to Reduce Your Impact
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Benefits of Passion fruits
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Benefits of Thyme
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Strange Places and Customs Motorcycle Temple
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Amazing Staircases Around the World
Rue Foyatier stairway
. The Rue Foyatier stairway in Paris, France, leads to Montmarte, one of the leading tourist attractions in Paris, with the Sacre Coeur basilica located on its top. The Rue Foyatier stairway, with its 300 steps, is one of the most stunning staircases i
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. Scoring occurs once all eight disks have been played and is according to the areas marked on the court with 10 points being deducted for any disks in the 10 off area. A disk must be entirely within one of the five areas and not touching the outside
Best Foods to Eat If You Start Feeling Sick
. Anise seeds are often found in cookies but they can do more for you than just taste good. Anise helps you expel mucus and eases a cough, too. Try making a tea from a cup of crushed anise seeds and a cup of boiling water. Flavor it with honey and cinn
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Star Wars Cast Signed Autographed 8 10
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Powerful Militaries In The World
. Under the constant threat of the gigantic Chinese army that has plans to invade and occupy the country, Taiwan has focused its military development in terms of defense operations. Thats why, for such a small island, Taiwan has more helicopters (307)
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Benefits of Tomatoes
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. Tomatoes keep the digestive system healthy by preventing both constipation and diarrhea. It also prevents jaundice and effectively removes toxins from the body. Furthermore, tomatoes have a large amount of fiber, which can bulk up stool and reduce sy
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. Hancock star Charlize Theron still looks superhot even at 38. The south African actress won acclaim for roles in Mighty Joe young, cider house rules and monster which won her four awards including the Oscar in 2003. In Hancock she looks even better,
Celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi
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. Tamil nadu is one of the states where ganesh chaturthi is celebrated in a grand manner.In tamil nadu ganesh chaturthi is known as vinayakachaturthi or pillayar chaturthi. It falls on the fourth day after new moon in the month of aavani.On this day ga
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The Nati of Himachal Pradesh
. Nati a traditional dance form of Himachal Pradesh is largely performed during celebrations. The dance reflects the rich natural beauty of this serene place. The dance involved slow moves but a sequence is maintained throughout the dance. Dancers join
Tips to succeed in Study
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. Time management is important for study success. Your study programme at Leiden University may be more or less intensive or structured than what you were used to, so you may need to manage your time differently. It is important to set priorities for a
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Whiten Teeth for Less
. Add a little bit of baking soda to toothpaste to get a brighter smile.
When your partner tells you something that is bothering him
. When we mirror, this helps us not feel as defensive and allows us the opportunity to better understand what he is trying to communicate.
. Built between 1724 1730 by the ruler of Jaipur Maharaja Jai Singh II, Jantar Manatar is an astronomical monument which measures time and also taps the movement of the sun, moon and the planets.It is a prime example of classical Indian architecture co
Precautions while using Refrigerators
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. Do not spray the refrigerator with waterwhile it is plugged in, as it may cause anelectric shock.Commercial refrigerator and freezer units, which go by many other names, were in use for almost 40 years prior to the common home models. They used gas s
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. The human nose can't detect the smell of natural gas which can be hazardous so the gas companies mix a chemical called Marcaptan to give it a distinct odour
Eye care tips for Computer users
Get a comprehensive eye exam
. Having a routine comprehensive eye exam is the most important thing you can do to prevent or treat computer vision problems. According to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), computer users should have an eye exam before
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Lotschberg Base Tunnel Switzerland
. Lotschberg Base Tunnel, built through the Alps in Switzerland, is the third longest railway tunnel in the world. The 34.6km long tunnel allows passenger and freight trains operated by BLS on the Lotschberg line. The tunnel includes a non ballasted tr
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. In a study of 100 women conducted last year at the State University of New York at Buffalo, researchers found that those who owned a dog had lower blood pressure than those who didnt. If you dont have a pooch, visit a friends Petting an animal for ju
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. Pollution, sun and dust can have adverse effects on your tresses. They make your hair dry and damaged by stripping off the natural oils from the scalp and inhibit the hair growth. Wear a hat or cover your head with a silk scarf when you step outside.
Rules to play Synchronized Swimming
. While holding a vertical body position, one leg remains vertical while the other leg bends so that its toe is touching the knee of the vertical leg.
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. Sal Alfonso del Mar is a private resort in Algarrobo, Chile, that is home to the largest swimming pool in the world, with 66 million gallons of treated Pacific Ocean water. In this record breaking pool, visitors can take part in watersports such as s
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. The purifying effect of lettuce is the result of the combined actions of antioxidants (which help neutralize harmful substances accumulate in the body), potassium (which promotes diuresis, thereby helping eliminate toxins from the body) and fiber (wh
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Fazl Bey Istanbul Turkey
. One of Istanbuls most famous coffee stops is Fazil Bey, which has existed since the 1920s. Top notch Brazilian beans are roasted and ground on site, then brewed in a traditonal cevze (a small copper pan with a long handle) before being served with a
. 1. A lemon a day keeps the cold away. For a bad cold, the juice of two lemons in ½ a litre (2½ cups) of boiling water sweetened with honey, taken at bed time, is a very effective remedy.2. Have ginger (adrak) tea.3. Cut ginger (adrak) into 1" _ 1½" p
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. In all of our searching and all of our reading, we have never found a country with a more hilarious military system than Sweden. Not even Norway, and they are giving knighthoods to penguins! Two stories will perfectly illustrate our point. Firstly, a
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MOST EXPENSIVE HOTEL PRESIDENT WILSON SWITZERLAND
. At a whopping $65000 (although it can reach upwards of $80000) per night the Royal Penthouse Suite at Hotel President Wilson in Geneva is the most expensive hotel room in the world. Featuring 12 bedrooms and 12 bathrooms it overlooks Lake Geneva and
Benefits of Durian
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. Durian (Thurian) is usually an exotic fruit. Its medical title is Durio zibethinus. It is probably the family Bombacaceae in the order Malvales. Durian develops effectively in damp situations (7580% humidity) with a rain fall in between 1,600 as well
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Heena Design 27
. Bored of the same old colours on your mehendi.Then here a way to add some colour to your hands with this Glitter mehendi design.The designs are drawn using normal mehendi and the motifs and patterns are filled using Glitter from the tube.This is a ne
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. Truth be told any site that revolves around crazy conspiracy theories is doomed to be viewed as strange, odd, and creepy. Were afraid that this is the case with this site as well. However, after giving an honest chance to this site you might just rea
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. Chess boxing is a hybrid sport that combines chess with boxing in alternating rounds. The sport was invented by French artist and filmmaker Enki Bilal in his comic book Froid ?quateur in 1992. The first real event of chess-boxing was organized by Dut
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. Are that you should follow specific sizing instructions when buying a new Lacrosse helmet, and dont be tempted to decorate your helmet with stickers or graphics, it can damage the outer case and cause it to be less efficient.
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In case of fire
. Evacuate the vehicle and surrounding place. Take help of fire fighting experts. Extinguish the fire with water fire extinguishers. If feasible, close down the cylinder valve master shut off valve in the CNG system to control the gas leakage.
. Idlis are full of vitamins minerals and carbohydrates. They are prepared with no oil or masala which makes them a very healthy alternative. Try eating your idli with honey nutela or peanut butter if you
Tips To Lose Weight
Bulk up your meals with veggies
. You can eat twice as much pasta salad loaded with veggies like broccoli, carrots, and tomatoes for the same calories as a pasta salad sporting just mayonnaise. Same goes for stir fries, omelets, and other veggie friendly dishes. If you eat a 1:1 rati
Benefits of Bananas
. Tamales are wrapped in banana leaves, which imparts a different flavor than corn husks. Check out Saveurs recipe for Guatemalan Tamales with Ancho Chile Sauce or Simply Recipes Vegetarian Banana Leaf Tamales.
Bathe your hair in botanical oils
. Available at health food stores, olive, jojoba, and sweet almond oils are all wonderful elixirs for hair. If your hair is thick and heavy, coconut oil works wonders. Dampen your hair and apply small amounts of the botanical oil until your hair is tho
What to Eat in Jharkhand
. Chaat is a term describing savory snacks, typically served at road-side tracks from stalls or food carts in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. With its origins in Uttar Pradesh, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of South Asia. The wo
Benefits of Turmeric
Love your liver
. According to early experimental research at the Medical University Graz in Austria, the curcumin in turmeric may delay liver damage that can eventually lead to cirrhosis.
What to Eat in Orissa
. Chhencheda is an Oriya nonvegetarian dish made with crushed fish heads along with vegetables. The main ingredients are fish (generally Rohu or Tilapia) head and vegetables like eggplant, potatoes, tomatoes, zucchini (called Janhi in Oriya), onions, e
Amazing Embroidery Designs
Get the Football Split Applique design
. Stitch up an applique sunflower with lots of dimension or try some line designs that could be colored, tone on tone or variegated.