Marrie curie

Biography
1. Born November 7, 1867, Warsaw, Congress Kingdom of Poland, Russian Empiredied July 4, 1934, near Sallanches, France), Polish born French physicist, famous for her work on radioactivity and twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With Henri Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and she is the only woman to win the award in two different fields.

From childhood she was remarkable for her prodigious memory, and at the age of 16 she won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education at the Russian lycee. Because her father, a teacher of mathematics and physics, lost his savings through bad investment, she had to take work as a teacher and, at the same time, took part clandestinely in the nationalist free university, reading in Polish to women workers. At the age of 18 she took a post as governess, where she suffered an unhappy love affair. From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronis?awas medical studies in Paris, with the understanding that Bronis?awa would in turn later help her to get an education.

In 1891 Sk?odowska went to Paris and, now using the name Marie, began to follow the lectures of Paul Appel, Gabriel Lippmann, and Edmond Bouty at the Sorbonne. There she met physicists who were already well knownJean Perrin, Charles Maurain, and Aime Cotton. Sk?odowska worked far into the night in her student quarters garret and virtually lived on bread and butter and tea. She came first in the licence of physical sciences in 1893. She began to work in Lippmanns research laboratory and in 1894 was placed second in the licence of mathematical sciences. It was in the spring of that year that she met Pierre Curie.

Their marriage (July 25, 1895) marked the start of a partnership that was soon to achieve results of world significance, in particular the discovery of polonium (so called by Marie in honour of her native land) in the summer of 1898 and that of radium a few months later. Following Henri Becquerels discovery (1896) of a new phenomenon (which she later called radioactivity), Marie Curie, looking for a subject for a thesis, decided to find out if the property discovered in uranium was to be found in other matter. She discovered that this was true for thorium at the same time as G.C. Schmidt did.

Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn to pitchblende, a mineral whose activity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained only by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie then joined her in the work that she had undertaken to resolve this problem and that led to the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium. While Pierre Curie devoted himself chiefly to the physical study of the new radiations, Marie Curie struggled to obtain pure radium in the metallic stateachieved with the help of the chemist Andre Louis Debierne, one of Pierre Curies pupils. On the results of this research, Marie Curie received her doctorate of science in June 1903 and, with Pierre, was awarded the Davy Medal of the Royal Society. Also in 1903 they shared with Becquerel the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of radioactivity.

The birth of her two daughters, Irene and eve, in 1897 and 1904 did not interrupt Maries intensive scientific work. She was appointed lecturer in physics at the ecole Normale Superieure for girls in Sevres (1900) and introduced there a method of teaching based on experimental demonstrations. In December 1904 she was appointed chief assistant in the laboratory directed by Pierre Curie.The sudden death of Pierre Curie (April 19, 1906) was a bitter blow to Marie Curie, but it was also a decisive turning point in her career henceforth she was to devote all her energy to completing alone the scientific work that they had undertaken. On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husbands death, she was the first woman to teach in the Sorbonne. In 1908 she became titular professor, and in 1910 her fundamental treatise on radioactivity was published. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, for the isolation of pure radium. In 1914 she saw the completion of the building of the laboratories of the Radium Institute (Institut du Radium) at the University of Paris. .....

Early Life and Education
2. Maria Salomea Sklodowska was born in Warsaw, Poland on November 7, 1867. At that time, Warsaw lay within the borders of the Russian Empire. Marias family wanted Poland to be an independent country.We shall refer to Maria from now on as Marie Curie her name after marriage because that is how she is best known.Marie Curies mother and father Bronislawa and Wladyslaw were both teachers and encouraged her interest in science.When Marie was aged 10, her mother died and she started attending a boarding school. She then moved to a gymnasium a selective school for children who were strong academically. Aged 15, Marie graduated from her high school with a gold medal as top student and a burning interest in science. .....
Problems
3. Two obstacles now stood in Maries way
Her father had too little money to support her ambition to go to university.
Higher education was not available for girls in Poland .....
Two Polish Girls in Paris
4. To overcome the obstacles they faced, Marie agreed to work as a tutor and childrens governess to support Bronya financially. This allowed Bronya to go to France to study medicine in Paris.And so, for the next few years of her life, Marie worked to earn money for herself and Bronya. In the evenings, if she had time, she read chemistry, physics and math textbooks. She also attended lectures and laboratory practicals at an illegal free university where Poles learned about Polish culture and practical science, both of which had been suppressed by the Russian Tsarist authorities.In November 1891, aged 24, Marie followed Bronya to Paris. There she studied chemistry, mathematics and physics at the Sorbonne, Pariss most prestigious university. The course was, of course, taught in French, which Marie had to reach top speed with quickly.At first she shared an apartment with Bronya and Bronyas husband, but the apartment lay an hour away from the university. Marie decided to rent a room in the Latin Quarter, closer to the Sorbonne.This was a time of some hardship for the young scientist, winters in her unheated apartment chilled her to the bone. .....
Top Student Again
5. In summer 1893, aged 26, Marie finished as top student in her masters physics degree course. She was then awarded industrial funding to investigate how the composition of steel affected its magnetic properties. The idea was to find ways of making stronger magnets.Her thirst for knowledge also pushed her to continue with her education, and she completed a masters degree in chemistry in 1894, aged 27. .....
Homesick
6. For a long time, Marie had been homesick. She dearly wished to return to live in Poland. After working in Paris on steel magnets for a year, she vacationed in Poland, hoping to find work. She found out that there were no jobs for her.A few years earlier, she had been unable to study for a degree in her homeland because she was a woman. Now, for the same reason, she found she could not get a position at a university. .....
Back to Paris and Pierre
7. Marie decided to return to Paris and begin a Ph.D. degree in physics.Back in Paris, in the year 1895, aged 28, she married Pierre Curie. Pierre had proposed to her before her journey back to Poland. Aged 36, he had only recently completed a Ph.D. in physics himself and had become a professor. He had written his Ph.D. thesis after years of delay, because Marie had encouraged him to.Pierre was already a highly respected industrial scientist and inventor, who, when aged just 21, had discovered the piezoelectric effect with his brother Jacques. Pierre was also an expert in magnetism, and he discovered the effect now called the Curie Point where a change of temperature has a large effect on a magnets properties. .....
Scientific Discoveries
8. The Ph.D. degree is a research based degree, and Marie Curie now began to investigate the chemical element uranium. .....
Discovery of Polonium Radium and a New Word
9. Marie and Pierre decided to hunt for the new element they suspected might be present in pitchblende. By the end of 1898, after laboriously processing tons of pitchblende, they announced the discovery of two new chemical elements which would soon take their place in Dmitri Mendeleevs periodic table.The first element they discovered was polonium, named by Marie to honor her homeland. They found polonium was 300 times more radioactive that uranium.The second element the couple discovered was radium, which they named after the Latin word for ray. The Curies found radium was several million times more radioactive than uranium! They also found radiums compounds were luminous and that radium was a source of heat, which it produced continuously without any chemical reaction taking place. Radium is always hotter than its surroundings. .....
Tragedy and Progress
10. The money from their Nobel Prizes made life easier for Marie and Pierre. For the first time, they could afford a laboratory assistant. Pierre took the Chair of Physics at the Sorbornne. The university also agreed to provide a new, well equipped laboratory for the couple. In 1904, Marie and Pierre had a second daughter, Eve.And then their happy life together came to an end. In 1906, Pierre was killed when he was hit by a horse drawn carriage in the street.Although distraught over her loss, Marie accepted the offer from the Sorbonne to replace Pierre as the Chair of Physics.Again, she was breaking the mold she had been first woman to win a Nobel Prize, now she was the first female professor at the University of Paris. .....
Nobel Prize for Chemistry
11. In 1910, Marie isolated a pure sample of the metallic element radium for the first time. She had discovered the element 12 years earlier.In 1911, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.Again, Marie Curie had broken the mold she was the first person to win a Nobel Prize in both physics and chemistry. In fact, she is the only person ever to have done this. .....
The Coming of War
12. During World War 1, 1914 1918, Marie Curie put her scientific knowledge to use. With the help of her daughter Irene, who was only 17 years old, she set up radiology medical units near battle lines to allow X rays to be taken of wounded soldiers. By the end of the war, over one million injured soldiers had passed through her radiology units. .....
One of the Greats
13. Marie Curie was now recognized worldwide as one of sciences greats. She traveled widely to talk about science and to promote The Radium Institute which she had founded to carry out medical research.Marie was one of the small number of elite scientists invited to one of the most famous scientific conferences of all time the 1927 Solvay Conference on Electrons and Photons. .....
Healing the World
14. Marie Curie became aware that the rays coming from radioactive elements could be used to treat tumors. She and Pierre decided not to patent the medical applications of radium, and so could not profit from it.In her later years, Marie Curies dearest wish was to explore the use of radioactivity in medical applications. To do this, she established the Radium Institute.At $120,000 per gram, radium was horrendously expensive millions of dollars in todays money. Marie Curie could only afford 1 gram of it for use in cancer therapies at the Radium Institute.In 1920, Marie gave an interview about her work at the Radium Institute to the American journalist Marie Mattingly Meloney, who was usually called Missy.

Missy asked Marie how she could help the Institute. Marie said that American chemical companies had now isolated 50 grams of radium. Her Institute desperately needed one more gram for medical research, but could not afford it.Missy returned to the USA and became Chair of the Marie Curium Radium Fund, with the aim of getting Marie Curie her 1 gram of radium. Money was raised in small donations all over the country. The Standard Chemical Company of Pittsburgh agreed to supply the radium at the reduced price of $100,000.On May 20th, 1921, President Warren G. Harding presented Marie with the radium in a lead lined steel box at the White House.Since then, the Radium Institute (it is now the called the Curie Institute) has gone from strength to strength. Three of its workers have been awarded Nobel Prizes Irene and Frederic Joliot Curie won the chemistry prize in 1935 and Pierre Gilles de Gennes won the physics prize in 1991. Irene was Marie and Pierres daughter. She shared the prize with her husband Frederic. The Curie Institute continues to do important research work today. .....

Radioactive
15. Marie next decided to test all of the known many chemical ores to see if any others would emit Becquerel rays. In 1898, she coined the term radioactive to describe materials that had this effect. Pierre was so interested in her research that he put his own work aside to help her. Together, they found that two ores, chalcolite and pitchblende, were much more radioactive than pure uranium. Marie suspected that these ores might contain as yet undiscovered radioactive elements.

Several tons of pitchblende were donated by the Austrian government, but the space Marie was using for a lab was too small. The Curies moved their research to an old shed outside of the school. Processing the ore was backbreaking work. New protocols for separating the pitchblende into its chemical components had to be devised. Marie often worked late into the night stirring huge cauldrons with an iron rod nearly as tall as her.

Little by little, various components of the ore were tested. The Curies found that two of the chemical components, one containing mostly bismuth and another containing mostly barium, were strongly radioactive. In July 1898, the Curies published their conclusion the bismuth compound contained a previously undiscovered radioactive element that they named polonium, after Marie's native country, Poland. By the end of that year they had isolated a second radioactive element they called radium, from radius, the Latin word for rays. In 1902, they announced success in extracting purified radium.In June 1903, Marie was the first woman in Europe to earn a doctorate in physics. In November of that year the Curies, together with Henri Becquerel, were named winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions to the understanding of atomic structure. The nominating committee objected to including a woman as a Nobel Laureate, but Pierre insisted that the original research was Maries. In 1911, after Pierres death, Marie was awarded a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of the elements polonium and radium. .....

Later years
16. Marie continued to do research in radioactivity. When World War I broke out in 1914, she suspended her studies and organized a fleet of portable X ray machines for doctors on the front.After the war, she worked hard to raise money for her Radium Institute, including a trip to the United States. But by 1920, she was suffering from medical problems, likely due to her exposure to radioactive materials. On July 4, 1934, she died of aplastic anemia, a blood disease that is often caused by too much exposure to radiation.Maries was buried next to Pierre, but in 1995, their remains were moved and interred in the Pantheon in Paris alongside France's greatest citizens.The Curies received another honor in 1944 with the discovery of the 96th element on the Periodic Table of the Elements, which was named curium. .....
Marie Curie quotes
17. Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more so that we may fear less.
Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas.
One never notices what has been done, one can only see what remains to be done.
There are sadistic scientists who hurry to hunt down errors instead of establishing the truth.
I am one of those who think like Nobel, that humanity will draw more good than evil from new discoveries. .....
School in France
18. It took six years, but, after Bronislawa graduated and became a doctor, Marie moved to France and entered the Sorbonne. During the six years Marie had read a lot of books on math and physics. She knew she wanted to become a scientist.Marie arrived in France in 1891. In order to fit in, she changed her name from Manya to Marie. Marie lived the life of a poor college student, but she loved every minute of it. She was learning so much. After three years she earned her degree in Physics.In 1894 Marie met Pierre Curie. Like Marie, he was a scientist and the two of them fell in love. They married a year later and soon had their first child, a daughter named Irene. .....
New Elements
19. Marie and her husband spent many hours in the science lab investigating pitchblende and the new element. They eventually figured out that there were two new elements in pitchblende. They had discovered two new elements for the periodic table.Marie named one of the elements polonium after her homeland Poland. She named the other radium, because it gave off such strong rays. The Curies came up with the term radioactivity to describe elements that emitted strong rays. .....
Tough Times in Poland
20. As Marie grew older her family came upon tough times. Poland was under the control of Russia at the time. People were not even allowed to read or write anything in the Polish language. Her father lost his job because he was in favor of Polish rule. Then, when Marie was ten, her oldest sister Zofia became sick and died from the disease typhus. Two years later her mother died from tuberculosis. This was a difficult time for the young Marie.After graduating from high school, Marie wanted to attend a university, but this wasn't something that young women did in Poland in the 1800s. The university was for men. However, there was a famous university in Paris, France called the Sorbonne that women could attend. Marie did not have the money to go there, but agreed to work to help pay for her sister Bronislawa to go to school in France, if she would help Marie after she graduated. .....
Postwar years
21. In 1920, for the 25th anniversary of the discovery of radium, the French government established a stipend for her, its previous recipient was Louis Pasteur (1822 95) In 1921, Marie was welcomed triumphantly when she toured the United States to raise funds for research on radium. Mrs. William Brown Meloney, after interviewing Marie, created a Marie Curie Radium Fund and raised money to buy radium, publicising her trip.In 1921, US President Warren G. Harding received her at the White House to present her with the 1 gram of radium collected in the United States.Before the meeting, recognising her growing fame abroad, and embarrassed by the fact that she had no French official distinctions to wear in public, the French government offered her a Legion of Honour award, but she refused.In 1922 she became a fellow of the French Academy of Medicine. She also travelled to other countries, appearing publicly and giving lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Czechoslovakia.Led by Curie, the Institute produced four more Nobel Prize winners, including her daughter Irene Joliot Curie and her son in law, Frederic Joliot Curie.Eventually, it became one of four major radioactivity research laboratories, the others being the Cavendish Laboratory, with Ernest Rutherford, the Institute for Radium Research, Vienna, with Stefan Meyer, and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, with Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In August 1922, Marie Curie became a member of the newly created International Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations.In 1923, she wrote a biography of Pierre, entitled Pierre Curie.In 1925, she visited Poland, to participate in the ceremony that laid foundations for the Radium Institute in Warsaw.Her second American tour, in 1929, succeeded in equipping the Warsaw Radium Institute with radium, it was opened in 1932 and her sister Bronis?awa became its director.These distractions from her scientific labours and the attendant publicity caused her much discomfort but provided resources needed for her work.In 1930, she was elected a member of the International Atomic Weights Committee where she served until her death. .....
Death
22. Marie Curie died aged 66 on July 4, 1934, killed by aplastic anemia, a disease of the bone marrow. It is likely that the radioactivity she had been exposed to during her career caused the disease.Scientists are now much more cautious in their handling of radioactive elements and X rays than they were in the first few decades after their discovery. Marie Curies own books and papers are so radioactive that they are now stored in lead boxes, which may only be opened by people wearing protective suits. .....
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Antiaging Skin Basics Hydrate from within. Dry skin makes wrinkles more obvious. The only natural relief from dry skin is ample hydration. Drink 4 pints (2 liters) of water daily to plump up skin, give hair gloss, flush out toxins, and help relieve headaches that can lead to frown lines. .....
Healthy foods that can make you Fat
Yogurt. A container of plain yogurt contains just 100 calories and provides a dose of bone-building calcium. But one small cup of yogurt that comes with fruit on the bottom may contain up to 150 calories and 26 grams of sugar. Get it guilt free: Buy plain, f .....
Benefits of Chives
AntiInflammatory. The plant includes a moderate antiinflammatory effect. Whenever included in your diet it can benefit prevent rheumatoid arthritis. The juice of the plant can be used an insect resistant. Whenever placed on wounds, it lowers fungal infections. The chi .....
Homeopathy
CEDRON. Simarouba cedron syn. Simaba cedron, Quassia cedronCedron, rattlesnake beans.Key Uses:Neuralgic pains and other nervous system conditions, such as spasms or ticsRecurrent fevers, such as those associated with malariaSevere headaches or migrainesOrig .....
Best Valentines Day Gifts
Bella Pearl Double Dangling Pendant Necklace. This pearl pendant is elegant and understated. This style is available in a couple of different options. You can get the necklace with two white pearls, or with one white pearl and one black pearl. The version pictured above has one white pearl, and .....
Precautions while using CNG
Emergency Shut Down Procedure. To shut down a CNG storage system 1. Turn the ignition switch to OFF and set the parking brake. 2. Turn off the battery disconnect switch. 3. Shut off fuel at 1 4 turn valve on the FMM. 4. Inform emergency personnel. .....
Benefits of Artichoke
How to eat artichokes. In France, freshly steamed artichokes are typically served with a Hollandaise sauce or raspberry vinegar. After steaming, you can also slice them in half, brush with oil or melted butter and grill on a griddle pan or barbecue. Serve with a squeeze of .....
Simple Tricks To Make Your Hair Grow Faster
Simple Tricks To Make Your Hair Look Longer. Apart from hair extensions, there are a few hair styling options that make your hair look longer than it actually is. These could include straightening, middle parting, adding layers etc. .....
What to Eat in Delhi
Chicken changezi. A nonveg Delhi favorite chicken changezi is roasted chicken cooked with tomato ginger garlic onions green chilies fresh coriander (cilantro) spices and plenty of oil until its packed with spicy flavor and richly red in color. Its roots are Punjabi an .....
Rules to play Darts
Ppd. Points Per Dart is used for all 01 games, 301, 501, etc.. To obtain a PPD, divide the total points by the number of actual darts thrown. Example Player #1 wins the game with his 12th dart. He has achieved a total of 301 points. His PPD is 25.08 301 / .....
Romantic Valentines Date Ideas
Plane Crazy About You Date. Not only is this a fun date, but it will have your sweetheart sitting on CLOUD NINE. If you are just plane crazy about your spouse, this is the perfect date to express just how much you love them. .....
Healthy Blood
Curb Added Sugars with No Calorie Drinks. Iced tea, fruit punch, sports drinks, energy drinks they might sound like healthy, thirst-quenching choices, but most are far from it. Research shows that American adults consume an average of 22 teaspoons of added sugars a day (about 15 percent of .....
Rules to play Foosball
Tournament director. The administration of tournament play shall be the responsibility of the Tournament Director. This includes making the draws, scheduling the events, timing matches, etc. The decision of the Tournament Director in such matters is final. All matters pe .....
Vasant Panchami
Occurrence. Vasant Panchami is the first and more minor of two spring themed festivals in Hindu culture. Vasant Panchami initiates the spring festive cycle and heralds its summation that occurs with Holi.The seasonal aspects of the festival are more significant .....
Reality TV Shows That Are Far From Reality
The Hills. The Hills is an American reality television series that follows lives of young women from Los Angeles, California. Every season ends with a developmental finale, showing major events like formation of relationships or departure of a major character. .....
Xmas Facts
Facts 6. Ancient Roman observances of the Natalis solis invicti and the Saturnalia occurred in December and involved much feasting, singing, parades and other forms of celebrating. Not to be outdone, when the Church adopted Christmas it introduced a major Chr .....
Fish Aquarium
Coolie Loach. The Coolie Loach grows to 3 inches and does best when kept in a group. This bottom-dwelling fish does not do very well with active tank mates that also tend to spend their time at the bottom of the tank. It hides during the day, burying itself in gra .....
Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhis death. It was January 1948. Communal feelings were high due to the partition of the country. Hindu communalists thought that Gandhi was pro-Muslim. His fast for communal amity which resulted in the Government of India honouring its obligation of giving Rs. .....
The Pool Gems Tips Tricks and Secrets
Fundamentals. 1.A session with an experienced and qualified instructor can be very helpful to players at all levels.2.Make sure your stance is stable, provides clearance for the stroke, and is comfortable.3.Keep your grip relaxed during the entire stroke.4.Make su .....
World Flags
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a shield with a golden lion rampant, holding a torch; the s .....
Best Street Artists In The World
Swoon New London Connecticut. The most famous wheat paster in the world of street art, Swoons work has inspired a whole generation of artists. Her life sized paper cutouts of human figures are extremely detailed and they go through different stages as they decay due to their ephe .....
Important Tips for Hiring the Best Employees
What Is a Paycheck. A paycheck is a check issued by an employer in order to satisfy the compensation commitment the employer has with the employee. The paycheck is most frequently issued every two weeks, weekly or monthly. Employees generally receive 26 paychecks a year .....
Famous Markets Of India
Chinese Market. Been to a market which glows with Bright Red Color in the morning and light bulbs in the night. If not, then this is the market where you should go. Filled with Red color products, be it electronic items, toys, dolls, dresses, carpets or curtains. Av .....
Most Expensive Divorces In History
Boris Berezovsky and Galina Besharova. Boris Berezovsky began his career as a teacher earning only $70 a month in the former Soviet Union, but later became one of Russia s most powerful and richest businessmen. He married Galina Besharova in 1991, but the couple divorced in 2010 with Gali .....
Reasons You Should Brush Your Teeth
Floss. Brushing without flossing is like jumping out of a plane without a parachute. Sure, it ll save you a little bit of time, but in the end you die. Okay, it was a bit of a slant, but you get the point. Although your brush can clean the exposed surfaces .....
Lata Mangeshkar
Childhood. Lata Mangeshkar was born on September 28, 1929 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh into a Maharashtrian Brahmin household. Her father was Dinanath Mangeshkar and her mother was named Shudhmati.Lata was the oldest of several children. She had a younger brothe .....
Tips to get ready for New Year
Pluck Your Eyebrows. You can not do as many things with them as your eyes, but they are incredibly important as they frame your face. You may have had them threaded, plucked or waxed professionally in advance but even so use a good magnifying mirror and lighting to pluck .....
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