Major wars of 20th century

Second Boer war
1. Years 1899 1902 Battle deaths 30,800In 1896 Cecil Rhodes sponsored the ineffective coup detat of the Jameson Raid and the failure to gain improved rights for Britons was used as an excuse to justify a major military buildup in the Cape. There was another reason for the British intention to take control of the Boer Republics there was at the time an attempt made by the Transvaal Republic to link up with German South West Africa, a possibility which the British, with an eye to the coming clash with the Empire of the Germans, determined to thwart.

The Boers, under Paul Kruger, struck first. The Boers attacked into Cape Colony and Natal between October 1899 and January 1900. The Boers were able to successfully besiege the British garrisons in the towns of Ladysmith, Mafeking (defended by troops headed by Robert Baden Powell) and Kimberley and inflicted three separate defeats on the British in one week, December 10 to 15, 1899. It was not until reinforcements arrived on February 14, 1900 that British troops commanded by Lord Roberts could launch counter offences to relieve the garrisons (the relief of Mafeking on May 18, 1900 provoked riotous celebrations in England) and enabled the British to take Bloemfontein on March 13 and the Boer capital, Pretoria, on June 5. Boer units fought for two more years as guerrillas, the British, now under the command of Lord Kitchener, responded by constructing blockhouses, destroying farms and confiscating food to prevent them from falling into Boer hands and placing Boer civilians in concentration camps.

The last of the Boers surrendered in May 1902 and the war ended with the Treaty of Vereeniging in the same month. 22,000 British troops had died and over 25,000 Boer civilians. The treaty ended the existence of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State as Boer republics and placed them within the British Empire. But the Boers were given .....

Philippine insurrection
2. Years 1899 1902 Battle deaths 20,500 The Philippine American War was a war between the armed forces of the United States and the Philippines from 1899 through 1913.This conflict is also known as the Philippine Insurrection. This name was historically the most commonly used in the U.S., but Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine American War, and in 1999 the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term.

ORIGINS OF THE WAR In December 1898, the U.S. purchased the Philippines from Spain at the Treaty of Paris for the sum of 20 million United States dollars, after the U.S. defeated Spain in the Spanish American War. The U.S. government made plans to make the Philippines an American colony. However, the Filipinos, fighting for their independence from Spain since 1896, had already declared their independence on June 12. On August 14, 11,000 ground troops were sent to occupy the Philippines. Emilio Aguinaldo, on January 1, 1899, was declared the first President. He later organized a Congress at Malolos, Bulacan to draft a constitution. .....

The War of a Thousand Days
3. Years 1899 1903 Battle deaths 100,000 The Thousand Days War (1899 1902) (Spanish Guerra de los Mil D .....
The Dervish State vs Ethiopia Britain and Italy
4. Years 1899 1920 Battle deaths 6,000 The Dervish state was an early 20th century Somali Sunni Islamic state that was established by Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, a religious leader who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and united them into a loyal army known as the Dervishes.In 1900, an Ethiopian expedition which had been sent to arrest or kill Hassan looted a large number of camels. Hassan in return attacked the Ethiopian garrison at Jijiga on 4 March of that year and successfully recovered all the looted animals. He gained great prestige in recovering the looted stock from the Ethiopians and he used it along with his charisma and powers of oratory to improve his undisputed authority on the Ogaden. To harness Ogaden enthusiasm into final commitment, Hassan married the daughter of a prominent leader and in return gave his own sister, Toohyar Sheikh Adbile, to Abdi Mohammed Waale, a notable elder.

Towards the end of 1900, the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II proposed a joint action with the British against the Dervish. Accordingly, British Lt. Col. E.J. Swayne assembled a force of 1,500 Somali soldiers led by 21 European officers and started from Burco on 22 May 1901, while an Ethiopian army of 15,000 soldiers started from Harar to join the British forces intent on crushing the 20,000 Dervish fighters (of whom 40 percent were cavalry).Hassan was driven across the border into the Majeerteen Sultanate, which had been incorporated into the Italian protectorate. The Ethiopians failed to get a hold on the western Ogaden and the British were eventually forced to retreat, having accomplished none of their goals.

1903 Campaign Hassan defeated a British detachment near Gumburru and then another near Daratoleh. With 1,200 1,500 rifles, 4,000 ponies and some spearmen, he occupied the Nugal Valley from Halin in the British protectorate to Ilig (or Illig) on the Italian held coast. The main British force near Galad (Galadi) under General William Manning retreated north along the line Bohotleh Burao Sheekh. This old established line had already been breached by Hassan when he invaded the Nugal. By the end of June, the withdrawal was complete.

1904 CampaignAfter the failure of General Mannings offensive, General Charles Egerton was entrusted with a response. Following extensive preparations, he united his field force at Bacaadweeyn (Badwein) on 9 January 1904 and defeated Hassan at Jibdalli the next day. The British and their allies from Hobyo harassed Hassan along his retreat, and he lost many of his camels and livestock throughout February.In early March, the second phase of operations began. The Ethiopians advanced as far as Gerlogubi, but turned back in early April. The Italian Navy bombarded Ilig in the winter to no effect. On 16 April, some ships of the East Indies Station under Rear Admiral George Atkinson Willes left Berbera to bombard Ilig in cooperation with an advance overland. The capture of Ilig was effected on 21 April, the British losing 3 men killed and 11 wounded, and the Dervishes 58 killed and 14 wounded. The naval detachment which had fought the battle remained ashore for four days, assisted by an Italian naval detachment that arrived on 22 April. Control of Ilig was finally relinquished to Ali Yusuf of Hobyo. Having defeated his forces in the field and forced his retreat, the British offered the Mullah safe conduct into permanent exile at Mecca; Hassan did not reply.In the 1920 campaign by the British, 12 aircraft were used to support the local British forces. Within a month, the British had occupied the capital of the Dervish State and Hassan had retreated to the west. .....

The Boxer Rebellion
5. Years 1900 1900 Battle deaths 3,003 The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti foreign and anti Christian movement which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1898 and 1900. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the Boxers, and was motivated by proto nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated Chinese forces. The uprising took place against a background of severe drought, and the disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence. After several months of growing violence against foreign and Christian presence in Shandong and the North China plain, in June 1900 Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing, exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 authorized war on foreign powers.

Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers, and Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, Ronglu, later claimed that he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. The Eight Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing on August 14 (Siege of the International Legations), lifting the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers.The Boxer Protocol of September 7, 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, and an indemnity of 67 million pounds (450 million taels of silver) more than the governments annual tax revenue, to be paid as indemnity over a course of thirty nine years to the eight nations involved. .....

Uprisings in Colonial Angola
6. Years 1902 1904 Battle deaths 2,000 The Bailundo Revolt of 1902 was the last attempt by the Ovimbundu peoples to resist Portuguese colonization. The revolt, prompted by the declining price of rubber, pitted rival traders against one another. However, while the Portuguese maintained ethnic and national solidarity, the Ovimbundu continued to engage in slave raids. The Portuguese suppressed the rebellion and annexed the Central Highlands.

Degredado settlers and Boer farmers stole nativeslands, impressing and deporting workers to plantations. Portuguese authorities arrested the king of Bailundo after an Ovimbundu celebration in which natives consumed Portuguese rum, allegedly without paying. The kings advisor, Mutu ya Kevela, allied with Bailundos neighboring kingdoms and launched a liberation war. He told his council, rallying them to fight, Before the traders came we had our own home brewed beer, we lived long lives and were strong. Kevelas troops killed Portuguese colonists and burned down their trading posts. The native revolt spread towards Bie, but Portuguese troops stationed in Benguela and Mo .....

Ilinden Uprising
7. Years 1903 1903 Battle deaths 6,330 The Ilinden Preobrazhenie Uprising or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August 1903 was an organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was prepared and carried out by the Secret Macedonian Adrianople Revolutionary Organization. The British researcher of the Balkans H. N. Brailsford wrote in his book Macedonia Its Races and Their Future The moment for which the Bulgarian population had been preparing for ten years arrived on the festival of the Prophet Elijahs day the evening of Sunday, August the 2nd, 1903. At the same time on the other end of the SMAROs territory, in Eastern Thrace, the leaders of the Adrianople Vilayet comitajis, had unanimously agreed that they were not ready for uprising , but of a feeling of solidarity, had voted for a rising. So in Strandzha the rising had begun on the Feast of the Transfiguration, August 19, 1903.

The rebellion in Macedonia affected most of the central and southwestern parts of the Monastir Vilayet receiving the support mainly of the local Bulgarian peasants and to some extent of the Aromanian population of the region. Provisional government was established in the town of Kru?evo (to the west of Prilep), where the insurgents proclaimed the Krushevo Republic under the presidency of the school teacher Nikola Karev, which was overrun after just ten days, on August 12. On August 19, a closely related uprising organized by Bulgarian peasants in the Adrianople Vilayet led to the liberation of a large area in the Strandzha Mountains near the Black Sea coast, and the creation of a provisional government in Vassiliko, the Strandzha Republic. This lasted about twenty days before being put down by the Turks.

By the time the rebellion had started, many of its most promising potential leaders, including Gotse Delchev, had already been killed in skirmishes with the Ottomans, and the effort was quashed within a couple of months. The survivors managed to maintain a guerrilla campaign against the Turks for the next few years, but its greater effect was that it persuaded the European powers to attempt to convince the Ottoman sultan that he must take a more conciliatory attitude toward his Christian subjects in Europe. .....

Uruguay Civil War
8. Years 1904 1904 Battle deaths 1,000 The Battle of Masoller, which occurred on September 1, 1904, was the final battle of the intermittent Uruguayan Civil War which marked much of 19th century Uruguay, resulting in the victory of the Colorado forces. .....
Second Yemen Rebellion
9. Years 1904 1904 Battle deaths 30,000 Starting in 1872, after the Sanaa region was firmly under control, Ahmed Muhtar Pasha set about restructuring the administration of the Yemen vilayet, dividing it into four sanjaks, with Sanacity serving as capital of the vilayet. Asir became a sanjak of Yemen in 1872. In the late 19th century, the Zaidis rebelled against the Turks, and Imam Mohammed ibn Yahya laid the foundation of a hereditary dynasty. When he died in 1904, his successor Imam Yahya ibn Mohammed led the revolt against the Turks in 1904 1905, and forced them to grand important concessions to the Zaidis. The Ottoman accepted to withdraw the civil code and restore sharia in Yemen.In 1906, the Idrisi leaders of Asir rebelled against the Ottomans. By 1910 they controlled most of Asir, but they were ultimately defeated by Turkish and Hejazi forces. .....
Southwest African Revolt
10. Years 1904 1905 Battle deaths 12,800 During the late 19th century, the first Europeans planning to permanently settle entered the land. Primarily in Damaraland, German settlers acquired land from the Herero in order to establish farms; in 1883, the merchant Franz Adolf Eduard L .....
Russo Japanese war
11. Years 1904 1905 Battle deaths 151,831 The Russo Japanese War (1904 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Imperial Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. It resulted in a surprise victory for Japan, establishing Japan as a major world power.Popular discontent in Russia following the defeat led to the Russian Revolution of 1905. The war ended with mediation by the United States. There was discontent among Japanese over the lack of territorial gains; this led to an erosion of good feelings towards the United States.

The defeat of Russia was met with shock both in the West and especially across Asia. That a non Western country could defeat an established power in such a large military conflict was particularly inspiring to various anti colonial independence movements around the world. After the conclusion of World War II, some Japanese historians would look back upon the war with nostalgia, especially those who have sought to portray Japans conduct in the first half of the century as one of leadership in a sustained effort to liberate oppressed Asian peoples and thereby downplay Japans own imperialistic ambitions throughout the period.

ORIGINS OF THE WAR In the late 1800s and early 1900s, various Western countries were competing for influence, trade, and territory in East Asia and Japan struggled to be a modern great power. Japans location encouraged it to focus on Korea and northern China, putting it in competition mainly with its neighbor, Russia. The Japanese effort to occupy Korea led to the Sino Japanese War, and Japan secured a peace in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 17, 1895) by which China abandoned its own claims to Korea, as well as ceding Taiwan and L .....

Dutch Achinese War
12. Years 1904 1907 Battle deaths 24,200 The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873 1914), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern day Indonesia.

In 1903, the main secular Acehnese resistance leaders including Sultan Muhammad Daud, Tuanku Raja Keumala, Mahmud and Muda Perkasa capitulated. By 1904 most of Aceh was under Dutch control, and had an indigenous government that cooperated with the colonial state. The Dutch consolidated their control over Aceh by practising a policy of religious tolerance as a means of dissuading the Acehnese from taking up an armed struggle. Nevertheless, episodes of marked Dutch military cruelty still occurred during this period. Photographs of a Dutch slaughter in Koeto Reh village taken during a Dutch military expedition in Acehs Gayo and Alas regions in 1904, for example, indicate that killings of large groups of civilians occurred on some occasions. Estimated total casualties on the Aceh side range from 50,000 to 60,000 dead, and over a million wounded. The destruction of entire communities also caused 10,000 Acehnese to flee to neighbouring Malaya.

In the Netherlands at the time, Van Heutsz was considered a hero, named the .....

Maji Maji revolt
13. Years 1905 1906 Battle deaths 8,840 As a result of the so called Scramble for Africa among the major European powers in the 1880s, Germany had ended up with several colonies on the Dark Continent. These were German East Africa (currently Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, and part of Mozambique), German Southwest Africa (present day Namibia), Cameroon, and Togoland (today split between Ghana and Togo).They had a relatively weak hold on German East Africa, but they did maintain a system of forts throughout the interior of the territory and were able to exert some control over it. Since their hold on the colony was weak, they resorted to using violently repressive tactics to control the population.

They began levying head taxes in 1898, and relied heavily on forced labour to build roads and accomplish various other tasks. In 1902 the governor also decided to force villages to grow cotton as a cash crop. Each village was charged with producing a common plot of cotton. The Headmen of the village were left in charge of overseeing the production; a position that left him vulnerable to criticism and rage from the population. The use of regular villagers, who had other things to do, to produce cotton was extremely unpopular across Tanzania. In many places the villagers simply refused to work the land, or refused payment.

These German policies were not only unpopular, they also had serious effects on the lives of Africans. The social fabric of society was being changed rapidly. Gender and social roles were being changed to face the needs of the communities. Since men were forced away from their homes to work, women were forced to assume some of the traditional male roles. Not only that, but the fact that men were away strained the resources of the village and the peoples ability to deal with their environment and remain self sufficient. These effects, combined with Germanys violent forays into the area combined to create a lot of animosity against them amongst the people of the future Tanzania. In 1905 a drought threatened the region. This, combined with the animosity to German agricultural and labour policies, led to open rebellion against the Germans in July.

Some historians believe that Africans turned to magic to drive out the German colonizers and used it as a unifying force in the rebellion. A spirit medium named Kinjikitile Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo. Ngwale began calling himself Bokero and developed a belief that the people of German East Africa had been called upon to eliminate the Germans. He gave his followers war medicine that he said would turn German bullets into water. This war medicine was in fact water (maji in Swahili) mixed with castor oil and millet seeds. Empowered with this new liquid, Bokeros followers began what would become known as the Maji Maji Rebellion. However, some historians believe that the use of maji water was in fact more agriculturally related, and that German observers misinterpreted its significance. The rebellion The followers of Bokeros movement armed themselves rather poorly, fighting only with cap guns, spears, and arrows. However, wearing millet stalks around their foreheads, they started from the Matumbi Hills in the southern part of what is now Tanzania and attacked German garrisons throughout the colony. Nonetheless, the Germans used their superior firepower to their advantage. At Mahenge, several thousand Maji rebels (led by another spirit medium, not Bokero) marched on the German cantonment there and hundreds were cut down by machine gun fire.

While this was the apex of the Rebellion, the Ngoni people decided to join in the revolt with a force of 5,000. German troops, armed with machine guns, departed from Mahenge to the Ngoni camp, which they attacked on 21 October. The Ngoni soldiers retreated, throwing away their bottles of war medicine and crying, The maji is a lie! The Germans had succeeded in quenching the revolt.

Aftermath and interpretationThe Maji Maji Rebellion was the greatest affront to German colonial rule in Africa. The violence and ruthlessness of the German suppression changed the history of southern Tanzania. The native Africans had not previously seen such upheaval as occurred after the revolt. Tens, perhaps hundreds of thousands of people died or were displaced from their homes. In the wake of the rebellion, the imperial government instituted important administrative reforms. .....

Russian Revolution 1905
14. Years 1905 1906 Battle deaths 1,500 On January 22 (January 9), 1905, the day known as Bloody Sunday, there was a protest march in St. Petersburg that was put down by armed force with more than 1,000 killed or injured.This event was the needed spark for many groups in Russian society to move into active protest. Each group had its own aims and even within similar classes there was no overall direction. The main protestors were the peasants (economic), the workers (economic, anti industrialist), intelligentsia and liberals (civil rights), the armed forces (economic), and minority national groups (political and cultural freedom).

The economic situation of the peasants was appalling, but leaderless each splinter sought its own objectives. Unrest was spread across the year, reaching peaks in early summer and autumn before culminating in November. Renters wanted lower rents, hirelings wanted better wages, land holders wanted bigger plots of land. The actual activities were land seizures, sometimes followed by violence and burning; looting the larger estates and illegal hunting and logging in the forests. The level of animosity displayed had a direct link to the condition of the peasants the landless of Livland and Kurland attacked and burned, while the better off in the neighbouring Grodno, Kovno and Minsk took little destructive action.

However, after the events of 1905, peasant unrest returned in 1906 and lasted until 1908. The government concessions were seen as support for the redistribution of land, so there were attacks to force landlords and non peasant land holders to flee. Believing a country wide redistribution was imminent, the peasants took the opportunity to pre empt the decision makers. They were strongly suppressed.The workers act of resistance was the strike. There were widespread strikes in St. Petersburg immediately after Bloody Sunday; over 400,000 workers were involved by the end of January. The action quickly spread to other industrial centres in Poland and the Baltic coast. In Riga 70 protestors were killed on January 13 (J), and in Warsaw a few days later over 100 strikers were shot on the streets. By February there were strikes in the Caucasus and by April in the Urals and beyond. In March all higher academic institutions were forcibly closed for the remainder of the year, adding radical students to the striking workers. In October the ephemeral St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers Deputies, a Menshevik group, organized over 200 factories to strike, the Great October Strike. This action quickly spread to Moscow and by October 13 (J) there was almost no active railway in all Russia. With the unsuccessful and bloody Russo Japanese War with Japan there had been unrest in army reserve units since 1904. In February 1905 the Russian army was defeated at Mukden, losing almost 90,000 men in the process, in May Port Arthur was lost and the Russian fleet mauled at Tsushima. Witte was quickly dispatched to make peace, negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (signed September 5). In 1905 there were naval mutinies at Sevastopol, Vladivostok and Kronstadt, peaking in June, with the mutiny aboard the Battleship Potemkin some sources claim over 2,000 sailors died in the restoration of order. The mutinies were disorganized and quickly crushed. The armed forces were largely apolitical and remained mostly loyal, if dis satisfied, and was widely used by the government to control the 1905 unrest. Non Russian national groups had been angered by the Russification undertaken since Alexander II. The Poles, Finns, and the Baltic provinces all sought autonomy, and also freedom to use their national languages and promote their own culture. Moslem groups were also active, the First Congress of the Moslem Union took place in August 1905. Although certain groups took the opportunity to settle differences with each other rather than the government. Some nationalists undertook anti Jewish pogroms, possibly with government aid. .....

Sokoto and UK vs Mahdist Revolt
15. Years 1906 1906 Battle deaths 2,080 In 1906 a large Mahdist revolution began outside of the city of Sokoto in the village of Satiru, a combined force of the British and the British appointed Sultan of Sokoto, Muhammadu Attahiru II, destroyed the town and killed most residents involved. After 1907 there were fewer revolts and use of military force by the British and the focus of the High Commissioner turned toward taxation and administration. .....
Third Central American war
16. Years 1906 1906 Battle deaths 1,000 After toppling Sierra, Bonilla, a conservative, imprisoned ex president Policarpo Bonilla, a liberal rival, for two years and made other attempts to suppress liberals throughout the country, as they were the only group in the country with an organized political party. The conservatives were divided into a host of personalist factions and lacked coherent leadership, but Bonilla made some efforts to reorganize the conservatives into a national party.Bonilla proved to be an even greater friend of the banana companies than Sierra had been. Under Bonillas rule, companies gained exemptions from taxes and permission to construct wharves and roads, as well as permission to improve interior waterways and to obtain charters for new railroad construction. He would also successfully establish the border with Nicaragua and resist an invasion from Guatemala in 1906. After fending off Guatemalan military forces, Bonilla sought peace with the country and signed a friendship pact with both Guatemala and El Salvador.

Nicaraguas powerful President Jose Santos Zelaya saw this friendship pact as an alliance to counter Nicaragua and began to undermine Bonilla. Zelaya now supported liberal Honduran exiles in Nicaragua in their efforts to topple Bonilla, who had established himself as a dictator. Supported by elements of the Nicaraguan army, the exiles invaded Honduras in February 1907. With the assistance of Salvadoran troops, Manuel Bonilla tried to resist, but in March his forces were decisively beaten in a battle notable for the introduction of machine guns into Central American civil strife. After toppling Bonilla, the exiles established a provisional junta, but this junta would not last. .....

Zulu Rebellion
17. Years 1906 1906 Battle deaths 2,356 In the years following the Anglo Boer War white employers in Natal had difficulty recruiting black farm workers because of increased competition from the gold mines of the Witwatersrand. The colonial authorities introduced a ?1 poll tax in addition to the existing hut tax to encourage black men to enter the labour market. Bambatha, who ruled about 5,500 people living in about 1,100 households, was one of the chiefs who resisted the introduction and collection of the new tax.The government of Natal sent police officers to collect the tax from recalcitrant districts, and in February 1906 two white officers were killed near Richmond, KwaZulu Natal. In the resulting introduction of martial law, Bambatha fled north to consult King Dinizulu, who gave tacit support to Bambatha and invited him and his family to stay at the royal homestead.

Bambatha returned to the Mpanza Valley to discover that the Natal government had deposed him as chief. He gathered together a small force of supporters and began launching a series of guerrilla attacks, using the Nkandla forest as a base. Following a series of initial successes, colonial troops under the command of Colonel Duncan McKenzie set out on an expedition in late April 1906.Once they succeeded in getting face to face with and surrounding the rebels at Mome Gorge, the British victory in the unequal battler was inevitable, given the vast disparity of forces. As the sun rose, colonial soldiers opened fire with machine guns and cannon, on rebels mostly armed only with traditional assegais (spears), knobkerries (fighting sticks) and cowhide shields.

Bambatha was killed and beheaded during the battle; however, many of his supporters believed that he was still alive, and his wife refused to go into mourning. Bambathas main ally, the 95 year old Zulu aristocrat Inkosi Sigananda Shezi of the amaCube clan (cousin and near contemporary of the Zulu king Shaka) was captured by the colonial troops and died a few days later.Between 3,000 and 4,000 Zulus were killed during the revolt (some of whom died fighting on the side of the Natal government). More than 7,000 were imprisoned, and 4,000 flogged. King Dinizulu was arrested and sentenced to four years imprisonment for treason. .....

4th Central American war
18. Years 1907 1907 Battle deaths 1,000 After toppling Sierra, Bonilla, a conservative, imprisoned ex president Policarpo Bonilla, a liberal rival, for two years and made other attempts to suppress liberals throughout the country, as they were the only group in the country with an organized political party. The conservatives were divided into a host of personalist factions and lacked coherent leadership, but Bonilla made some efforts to reorganize the conservatives into a national party.Bonilla proved to be an even greater friend of the banana companies than Sierra had been. Under Bonillas rule, companies gained exemptions from taxes and permission to construct wharves and roads, as well as permission to improve interior waterways and to obtain charters for new railroad construction. He would also successfully establish the border with Nicaragua and resist an invasion from Guatemala in 1906. After fending off Guatemalan military forces, Bonilla sought peace with the country and signed a friendship pact with both Guatemala and El Salvador.

Nicaraguas powerful President Jose Santos Zelaya saw this friendship pact as an alliance to counter Nicaragua and began to undermine Bonilla. Zelaya now supported liberal Honduran exiles in Nicaragua in their efforts to topple Bonilla, who had established himself as a dictator. Supported by elements of the Nicaraguan army, the exiles invaded Honduras in February 1907. With the assistance of Salvadoran troops, Manuel Bonilla tried to resist, but in March his forces were decisively beaten in a battle notable for the introduction of machine guns into Central American civil strife. After toppling Bonilla, the exiles established a provisional junta, but this junta would not last. .....

Romanian Peasant Revolt
19. Years 1907 1907 Battle deaths 2,000 The 1907 Romanian PeasantsRevolt took place in March 1907 in Moldavia and it quickly spread, reaching Wallachia. The main cause was the discontent of the peasants about the inequity of land ownership, which was in the hands of just a few large landowners. The revolt began on the lands administered by one lessor, Mochi Fischer, in the village of Fl?manzi (the name seems predestined, as it literally means hungry men) due to Fischers refusal to renew the leasing with the local peasants. The Austrian Jewish family of Fischer used to lease about 75 percent of the arable land in three Romanian counties in Moldavia (the so called Fischerland). The peasants, fearing that they would remain without work and, more importantly, without food, began to act violently. Mochi Fischer was scared and fled to a friend of his in Cern?u?i, leaving the peasants without signed contracts. The fear of remaining out of work, combined with the activities of some alleged Austro Hungarian instigators, led the peasants to revolt. The revolt soon spread across most of Moldavia, with several landownersproperties destroyed and many lessors killed or wounded. The Conservative government (Partidul Conservator) couldnt handle the situation and resigned, and the Liberals (Partidul Na?ional Liberal) of Dimitrie Sturdza assumed power.On 18 March a state of emergency was declared, then general mobilization, with 140,000 soldiers being recruited by 29 March. The Romanian Army began firing on the peasants; thousands of peasants perished and more than 10,000 were arrested. .....
Morocco unrest
20. Years 1907 1908 Battle deaths 1,400Quote from Balagan.org.uk An Arab ex court scribe, Jilali ben Dris, revolted against the Sultan (Fleming, 1991; Furneaux, 1967; Woolman, 1968). Jilali ben Dris was popularly known as El Rogui (the Pretender) or Bu Hamara (literally the man who rides on a female donkey but referring to a Djinn trickster in local myth). El Roguis movement lasted from late 1901 until Sep 1908. The rebellion started in the Taza region to the south of the Rif, but spread to cover the area from the Algerian border to Fez. In 1907 El Rogui invaded the Rif Mountains and promptly sold mining concessions to European companies. This action offended the Beni Urriaguel and other central Riffi tribes. The Elder Adb el Krim raised a Riffi army, crushed the interlopers in battle, and drove them back south to Taza (1908). The Sultan captured El Rogui in 1909, paraded him through Fez in a cage and then had him shot. .....
Korean guerilla war against Japanese occupation
21. Years 1907 1910 Battle deaths 17,736 By 1905 Japan had thwarted Chinese and Russian bids for influence over the Korean Peninsula and felt comfortable in demanding of Korea a relationship to her benefit. The 1905 Taft Katsura agreement in effect gave tacit U.S. approval to the Japanese colonization of the peninsula in exchange for Japanese recognition of U.S. influence over the Philippines. Without opposition in Korea, in November 1905 Japan concluded a treaty with King Kojong, making Korea a protectorate and giving herself control over Koreas foreign relations and external matters. The Japanese resident general also slowly took over internal affairs. With the forced abdication of the king in 1907, his son Sukjong took the throne. Japan pressured him to abdicate three years later and formally annexed the country in April 1910. .....
Portugese war against Dembos
22. Years 1907 1910 Battle deaths 5,100 One of the most difficult Portuguese military campaigns of the period was waged against the Dembos, a Kimbundu speaking people who lived less than 150 kilometers northeast of Luanda. The Portuguese attacked the Dembos repeatedly over a period of three years before the Dembos were finally subdued in 1910. Because of difficult conditions, including the tropical climate, the Portuguese did not complete their occupation of Dembos land until 1917. An estimate of casualties places losses at 5000 to the Portuguese and 5000 to the Dembos. .....
Iranian Constitution War
23. Years 1908 1909 Battle deaths 1,100 The Persian Constitutional Revolution or Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1907. The revolution led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia (Iran).The Revolution opened the way for cataclysmic change in Persia, heralding the modern era. It saw a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press. The revolution created new opportunities and opened up seemingly boundless possibilities for Persias future. Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were ultimately to be in some way changed by it. The old order, which Nasser al Din Shah Qajar had struggled for so long to sustain, finally died, to be replaced by new institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order. .....
French Conquest of Wadai Sultanate
24. Years 1909 1911 Battle deaths 12,000 The militaristic Ouaddai opposed French domination until being overcome on June 6, 1909 with the occupation of the capital Abeche by French troops where a puppet sultan was installed. Resistance continued until the last independent sultan was captured in 1912 bringing the sultanate to an end. It became part of the independent Republic of Chad on that countrys independence in 1960. The Ouadda .....
Mexican Revolution
25. Years 1910 1920 Battle deaths 125,000 In 1910 the 80 year old az decided to hold an election to serve another term as president. He thought he had long since eliminated any serious opposition in Mexico; however, Francisco I. Madero, an academic from a rich family, decided to run against him and quickly gathered popular support, despite azs putting Madero in jail.When the official election results were announced, it was declared that az had won reelection almost unanimously, with Madero receiving only a few hundred votes in the entire country. This fraud by the Porfiriato was too blatant for the public to swallow, and riots broke out. Madero prepared a document known as the Plan de San Luis Potos?, in which he called the Mexican people to take their weapons and fight against the government of Porfirio az on November 20, 1910.

This started what is known as the Mexican Revolution (Revolucion Mexicana). Madero was incarcerated in San Antonio, Texas, but his plan took effect in spite of him being in jail. The Federal Army was defeated by the revolutionary forces which were led by, amongst others, Emiliano Zapata in the South, Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco in the North, and Venustiano Carranza. Porfirio az resigned in 1911 for the sake of the peace of the nation and went to exile in France, where he died in 1915.The revolutionary leaders had many different objectives; revolutionary figures varied from liberals such as Madero to radicals such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. As a consequence, it proved very difficult to reach agreement on how to organize the government that emanated from the triumphant revolutionary groups. The result of this was a struggle for the control of Mexicos government in a conflict that lasted more than twenty years. This period of struggle is usually referred to as part of the Mexican Revolution, although it might also be looked on as a civil war. Presidents Francisco I. Madero (1911), Venustiano Carranza (1920), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) were assassinated during this time, amongst many others. Following the resignation of az and a brief reactionary interlude, Madero was elected President in 1911. He was ousted and killed in 1913. Venustiano Carranza, a former revolutionary general who became one of the several presidents during this turbulent period, promulgated a new Constitution on February 5, 1917. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 still guides Mexico.In 1920, ?lvaro ObregOn became president. He accommodated all elements of Mexican society except the most reactionary clergy and landlords, and successfully catalyzed social liberalization, particularly in curbing the role of the Catholic Church, improving education and taking steps toward instituting womens civil rights.While the Mexican revolution and civil war may have subsided after 1920, armed conflicts did not cease, The most widespread conflict of this era was the battle between those favoring a secular society with separation of Church and State and those favoring supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, which developed into an armed uprising by supporters of the Church that came to be called la Guerra Cristera. .....

Chinese Revolution
26. Years 1911 1911 Battle deaths 1,000 The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty (1644 1911), and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui). The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.The Xinhai Revolution was motivated by anger at corruption in the Qing government, by frustration with the governments inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers, and by majority Han Chinese resentment toward a government dominated by an ethnic minority (the Manchus). .....
Cuba vs Partido Independiente de Color
27. Years 1911 1911 Battle deaths 1,050 The Negro Rebellion, also known as the Little Race War, the War of 1912, or The Twelve, was an armed conflict in Cuba, between Afro Cuban rebels on one side and the Cuban and US military on the other. It took place mainly in the eastern region of the island in 1912. The conflict involved the widespread massacre of Afro Cubans, by the Cuban Army, and an intervention by the United States military. Both the massacre and the presence of American troops quelled the violence so the unrest and the occupation ended after only a few weeks. The Afro Cubansleader, Evaristo Estenoz, was killed during the rebellion, and their party, the Independent Party of Color, was dissolved.The Afro Cubans lost between 3,000 to 6,000 killed, both combatants and non combatants. The results of the rebellion were disastrous; conditions in Cuba largely remained the same after 1912, except for the Independent Party of Color, which was dissolved. .....
First Sino Tibetan War
28. Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 2,000 Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil refers to the racial clash in the Lhasa region of Tibet and various mutinies as a result of the Wuchang Uprising. The Wuchang Uprising unfolded on October 10, 1911, and marked the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution. Turmoils in the frontier regions of China began to spread.The revolutionaries led by Sun Yat sen insisted on getting rid of the Tartars and rejected the Manchus, creating a new regime based completely on the Han dominated China proper. The multiculturalism in China began to experience crisis on collapsing (Sun Yat sen later discovered the motto to be inappropriate, and modified it). It was one of the mistakes made by Sun Yat sen.

Turmoil in TibetThe influence of Wuchang Uprising rapidly spread to the frontier region. Many of the Qing Army in Tibet were members of Ge Lao Hui, and there were internal strifes going on. These Tibetan armies ended up struggling against each other, and Tibet fell into a state of anarchy. In the winter of 1911, the Qing Governor of Sichuan Zhao Erfeng were executed by radical civilians, and the situation turned worse as the region of Xikang fell into turmoil as well. The British colonial government in India along with the 13th Dalai Lama took the opportunity and ignited the contradiction between Han Chinese and Tibetan radicals. As a result, the Han Chinese in Tibet were being constantly killed, and Dalai Lama were able to eliminate the Qings influence in Tibet and return as the sole administrator of the region. The Qing army in Tibet were unable to resist the Dalai Lama and the British colonial army, and fled back to inland China via India. .....

Italo Turkish War
29. Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 20,000 The Italo Turkish or Turco Italian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Italy from September 28, 1911 to October 18, 1912.The war was started after Italian imperialist ambitions, notably for the Turkish provinces of Tripolitana and Cyrenaica, in Libya, as well as the Dodecanese archipelago, reached boiling point, causing the Italians to decide to take the provinces by force from the Ottoman Empire.The war, though minor in scale, was a key step towards the First World War, as it exposed the overall disorganisation and weakness of Turkey and awakened a ferocious nationalism in Italy that would, in 1922, help Benito Mussolini to power.

It also saw numerous technological advances developed in the early 1900s used in warfare; notably the aeroplane. On October 23, 1911, an Italian pilot flew over Turkish lines on a reconnaissance mission, and in 1912, the first ever bomb dropped from the air landed on Turkish troops in Libya.The war was concluded after the Italian army took Tripoli, and on October 18, a peace treaty was signed, handing over the provinces that Italy had started the war to control.The Italo Turkish war was also key in the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire as it showed, to the subjects of the empire, that the government in Constantinople was not invincible, thus strengthening the Arabic nationalism that T.E. Lawrence would later use to Britains advantage in the First World War. .....

Paraguay Coups
30. Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 5,000 The revolution of August 1904 began as a popular movement, but Liberal rule quickly degenerated into factional feuding, military coups, and civil war. Political instability was extreme in the Liberal era, which saw twenty one governments in thirty six years. During the period 1904 to 1922, Paraguay had fifteen presidents. By 1908 the radicales had overthrown General Ferreira and the c .....
1st Balkan War
31. Years 1912 1913 Battle deaths 82,000 The Balkan Wars were two wars in South eastern Europe in 1912 1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, Bulgaria suffering defeat at the hands of her former allies and losing much of what she had been promised in the initial partition scheme.The wars were an important precursor to World War I, to the extent that Austria Hungary took alarm at the great increase in Serbias territory and regional status. This concern was shared by Germany, which saw Serbia as a satellite of Russia. Serbias rise in power thus contributed to the two Central Powers willingness to risk war following the assassination in Sarajevo of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914.

The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century. Serbia had gained substantial territory during the Russo Turkish War of 1877 78, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although she lost a small area to Turkey in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885). All three as well as tiny Montenegro sought additional territories within the large Turkish ruled regions known as Albania, Macedonia and Thrace.Tensions among the Balkan states over their rival aspirations in Macedonia subsided somewhat following intervention by the great Powers in the mid 1900s aimed at securing both fuller protection for the provinces Christian majority and protection of the status quo. The question of Ottoman rules viability revived, however, after the Young Turk revolution of July 1908 compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution.

While Austria Hungary seized the opportunity of the resulting Ottoman political uncertainty to annex the formally Ottoman province of Bosnia Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878, Bulgaria declared itself a fully independent kingdom (October 1908) and the Greeks of Crete proclaimed unification with Greece, though the opposition of the great powers prevented the latter action from taking practical effect. Frustrated in the north by Austria Hungarys incorporation of Bosnia with its 825,000 Orthodox Serbs (and many more Serbs and Serb sympathizers of other faiths), and forced (March 1909) to accept the annexation and restrain anti Habsburg agitation among Serbian nationalist groups, the Serbian government looked to formerly Serb territories in the south, notably Old Serbia (the Sanjak of Novi Pazar and the province of Kosovo).On August 28, 1909, demonstrating Greek officers urging constitutional revision and a more nationalist foreign policy secured the appointment of a more sympathetic government which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greeces favour and reverse the defeat of 1897. Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of her independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and north eastern Macedonia for expansion. In March 1910, an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo. In August 1910 Montenegro followed Bulgarias precedent by becoming a kingdom. Initially under the encouragement of Russian agents, a series of agreements were concluded between Serbia and Bulgaria in March 1912 and between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912. Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The Serbian Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia. Then on October 8, 1912 the First Balkan War began when Montenegro declared war against Turkey pre empting a warning from Russia and Austria Hungary. Albania declared independence on November 28, 1912. On December 2, the Balkan League signed an armistice with Turkey ending the war. Turkey withdrew to the Enos Media Line. An initial peace was concluded at the Treaty of London in May 1913. By the time of the Armistice, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece had overrun Albania. At the Treaty of London, Austria Hungary and Italy strongly supported the creation of an independent Albania. In light of this, Serbia and Greece sought compensation from the Macedonian territories that had been overrun by Bulgaria. Bulgaria unsuccessfully attempted to resist this by force of arms. Defeated by Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Romania and Turkey in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria signed an Armistice on July 31, 1913. At the Treaty of Bucharest in August 1913, the final territorial adjustments were made. .....

Kuomintang vs Chinese Army
32. Years 1913 1913 Battle deaths 5,000 Founded in Guangdong Province on August 25, 1912 by Sung Chiao jen and Dr. Sun Yat sen, the KMT was formed from a collection several revolutionary groups, including the Tongmenghui, as a moderate democratic socialist party.The party gained a majority in the first National Assembly, but in 1913 Yuan Shikai, who was President dissolved the body, had Sung assassinated, and ordered the Kuomintang suppressed.

Sun re established the KMT in the form of a secret society while exiled in Japan in 1914 and returned in 1918 to establish a rival government at Guangzhou. In 1923, the KMT and its government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers. Soviet advisers the most prominent of whom was an agent of the Comintern, Mikhail Borodin began to arrive in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, establishing a Leninist party structure that lasted into the 1990s. The Communist Party of China was under Comintern instructions to cooperate with the KMT, and its members were encouraged to join while maintaining their party identities, forming the First United Front between the two parties. Soviet advisers also helped the Nationalists set up a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques and in 1923 sent Chiang Kai shek, one of Suns lieutenants from Tongmeng Hui days, for several monthsmilitary and political study in Moscow.At the first party congress in 1924, which included non KMT delegates such as members of the CPC, they adopted Suns political theory, which included the Three Principles of the People nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people. .....

2nd Balkan War
33. Years 1913 1913 Battle deaths 60,500 The Balkan Wars were two wars in South eastern Europe in 1912 1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, Bulgaria suffering defeat at the hands of her former allies and losing much of what she had been promised in the initial partition scheme.The wars were an important precursor to World War I, to the extent that Austria Hungary took alarm at the great increase in Serbias territory and regional status. This concern was shared by Germany, which saw Serbia as a satellite of Russia. Serbias rise in power thus contributed to the two Central Powerswillingness to risk war following the assassination in Sarajevo of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914.

The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century. Serbia had gained substantial territory during the Russo Turkish War of 1877 78, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although she lost a small area to Turkey in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885). All three as well as tiny Montenegro sought additional territories within the large Turkish ruled regions known as Albania, Macedonia and Thrace. Tensions among the Balkan states over their rival aspirations in Macedonia subsided somewhat following intervention by the great Powers in the mid 1900s aimed at securing both fuller protection for the provinces Christian majority and protection of the status quo. The question of Ottoman rules viability revived, however, after the Young Turk revolution of July 1908 compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution.

While Austria Hungary seized the opportunity of the resulting Ottoman political uncertainty to annex the formally Ottoman province of Bosnia Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878, Bulgaria declared itself a fully independent kingdom (October 1908) and the Greeks of Crete proclaimed unification with Greece, though the opposition of the great powers prevented the latter action from taking practical effect. Frustrated in the north by Austria Hungarys incorporation of Bosnia with its 825,000 Orthodox Serbs (and many more Serbs and Serb sympathizers of other faiths), and forced (March 1909) to accept the annexation and restrain anti Habsburg agitation among Serbian nationalist groups, the Serbian government looked to formerly Serb territories in the south, notably Old Serbia (the Sanjak of Novi Pazar and the province of Kosovo).

On August 28, 1909, demonstrating Greek officers urging constitutional revision and a more nationalist foreign policy secured the appointment of a more sympathetic government which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greeces favour and reverse the defeat of 1897. Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of her independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and north eastern Macedonia for expansion. In March 1910, an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo. In August 1910 Montenegro followed Bulgarias precedent by becoming a kingdom.Initially under the encouragement of Russian agents, a series of agreements were concluded between Serbia and Bulgaria in March 1912 and between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912. Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The Serbian Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia.Then on October 8, 1912 the First Balkan War began when Montenegro declared war against Turkey pre empting a warning from Russia and Austria Hungary. Albania declared independence on November 28, 1912. On December 2, the Balkan League signed an armistice with Turkey ending the war. Turkey withdrew to the Enos Media Line. An initial peace was concluded at the Treaty of London in May 1913.

By the time of the Armistice, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece had overrun Albania. At the Treaty of London, Austria Hungary and Italy strongly supported the creation of an independent Albania. In light of this, Serbia and Greece sought compensation from the Macedonian territories that had been overrun by Bulgaria. Bulgaria unsuccessfully attempted to resist this by force of arms. Defeated by Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Romania and Turkey in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria signed an Armistice on July 31, 1913. At the Treaty of Bucharest in August 1913, the final territorial adjustments were made. .....

World War I
34. Years 1914 1918 Battle deaths 10,670,868 World War I (also known as the First World War and the Great War) was a conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918. Chemical weapons were used for the first time, the first mass bombardment of civilians from the sky was executed, and some of the centurys first genocides took place during the war. No previous conflict had mobilised so many soldiers, or involved so many in the field of battle. Never before had casualties been so high. The First World War was the first total war. World War I was also a war of change, a last blow to the old order in Europe to pave way for the new. Dynasties such as the Habsburgs, Romanovs, and Hohenzollerns, who had dominated the European political landscape and had roots of power back to the days of the Crusades, all fell after the 4 year war. Many of the events and phenomena that would dominate the world of the 20th century can trace their origins to this war including Communism, World War II and even the Cold War. .....
Russian Revolution and Civil War
35. Years 1917 1922 Battle deaths 802,225 The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the provisional government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. The Revolution can be viewed in two distinct phases. The first one was that of the February Revolution of 1917, which displaced the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia, and sought to establish in its place a liberal republic. The second phase was the October Revolution, in which the Soviets, inspired and increasingly controlled by Lenins Bolshevik party, seized power from the Provisional Government.The February Revolution came about almost spontaneously when people protested against the Tsarist regime as they lacked enough food to eat. There was also great dissatisfaction with Russias continued involvement in the First World War. As the protests grew, various political reformists (both liberal and radical left) started to coordinate some activity. In early February the protests turned violent as large numbers of city residents rioted and clashed with police and soldiers. When the bulk of the soldiers garrisoned in the Russian capital Petrograd joined the protests, they turned into a revolution ultimately leading to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.

Between February and October numerous anarchist and communist (Bolshevik) revolutionists attempted to foment further revolution. In July, the St. Petersburg Military section of the Bolshevik Party, in combination with a major working class Bolshevik Party branch and the Petrograd anarchists, fomented a civil revolt. However, this revolt failed.The October Revolution was led by Lenin and was based upon the ideas of Karl Marx. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. On November 7, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a nearly bloodless revolt against the ineffective Kerensky Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show an October 25 date). The October Revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February, replacing Russias short lived liberal government with a bolshevik one. Although many bolsheviks (such as Leon Trotsky) supported a soviet democracy, the reform from above model gained definitive power when Lenin died and Stalin gained control of the USSR. Trotsky and his supporters, as well as a number of other democratically minded communists, were persecuted and eventually imprisoned or killed.

After October 1917, many esers (Socialist Revolutionaries) and Russian Anarchists opposed the Bolsheviks through the soviets. When this failed, they revolted in a series of events calling for a third revolution. The most notable instances were the Tambov rebellion, 1919 1921, and the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921. These movements, which made a wide range of demands and lacked effective coordination, were eventually crushed during the Civil War. The Russian Civil War, which broke out in 1918 shortly after the revolution, brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation. The war was fought mainly between the Reds, the communists and revolutionaries, and the Whites the monarchists, conservatives, liberals and socialists who opposed the Bolshevik Revolution. The Whites had backing from nations such as the UK and USA. Also during the Civil War, Nestor Makhno lead a Ukrainian anarchist movement which generally cooperated with the Bolsheviks. However, a Bolshevik force under Mikhail Frunze destroyed the Makhnovist movement, when the Makhnovists refused to merge into the Red Army. In addition, the so called Green Army (nationalists and anarchists) played a secondary role in the war, mainly in Ukraine. .....

Finnish Civil War
36. Years 1918 1918 Battle deaths 15,150 The Finnish Civil War was fought from January to May 1918, between the Reds (punaiset), Communists together with Social Democrats, and the Whites (valkoiset), forces of the Conservative Senate intending to maintain status quo (retained independence and constitutional monarchy without parliamentarism). Finns have many names for this conflict vapaussota (War of Liberty), kansalaissota or sis?llissota (Civil War), luokkasota (Class War), punakapina (Red Rebellion), torpparikapina (CroftersRebellion), veljessota (the war between brothers). All of these names are true in one way or another. The Civil War and the Continuation War have been the two most controversial and emotion loaded events in the history of modern Finland, often seen as the hinges or pivots of Finlands fate. Thus the Civil War has had a great influence also on the foreign relations of Finland. .....
Estonian Liberation War
37. Years 1918 1920 Battle deaths 11,750 The Estonian War of Independence (Estonian Vabaduss .....
Caco Revolt
38. Years 1918 1920 Battle deaths 2,102 Between 1911 and 1915, a series of political assassinations and forced exiles saw the presidency of Haiti change six times. Various revolutionary armies carried out this series of coups. Each was formed by cacos, or peasant brigands from the mountains of the north, along the porous Dominican border, who were enlisted by rival political factions under the promises of money, which would be paid after a successful revolution, and the opportunity to plunder. In 1919, a new caco uprising began, led by Charlemagne Peralte, vowing to .....
Third Anglo Afghan War
39. Years 1919 1919 Battle deaths 2,136 Amanullahs ten years of reign initiated a period of dramatic change in Afghanistan in both foreign and domestic politics. Amanullah declared full independence and sparked the Third Anglo Afghan War. Amanullah altered foreign policy in his new relations with external powers and transformed domestic politics with his social, political, and economic reforms. Although his reign ended abruptly, he achieved some notable successes, and his efforts failed as much due to the centripetal forces of tribal Afghanistan and the machinations of Russia and Britain as to any political folly on his part. Amanullah came to power just as the entente between Russia and Britain broke down following the Russian Revolution of 1917. Once again Afghanistan provided a stage on which the great powers played out their schemes against one another. Amanullah attacked the British in May 1919 in two thrusts, taking them by surprise. Afghan forces achieved success in the early days of the war as Pashtun tribesmen on both sides of the border joined forces with them.The military skirmishes soon ended in a stalemate as the British recovered from their initial surprise. Britain virtually dictated the terms of the 1919 Rawalpindi Agreement, a temporary armistice that provided, somewhat ambiguously, for Afghan self determination in foreign affairs. Before final negotiations were concluded in 1921, however, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries. .....
Hungarian Romanian War of 1919
40. Years 1919 1919 Battle deaths 11,000 The seeds of the Hungarian Romanian war of 1919 were planted when Transylvania proclaimed union with Romania on December 1, 1918. In April 1919, the Bolsheviks came to power in Hungary, at which point its army attempted to retake Transylvania, commencing the war. By its final stage, more than 120,000 troops on both sides were involved. The destruction of the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the Romanian occupation of parts of Hungary proper, including its capital Budapest in August 1919, ended the war. Romanian troops withdrew from Hungary in March 1920. .....
Hungary Civil War
41. Years 1919 1920 Battle deaths 1,500 In 1918, as a result of defeat in World War I, the Austro Hungarian Monarchy collapsed. On October 31, 1918, the success of the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought the liberal count Mih .....
First British Waziristan War
42. Years 1919 1920 Battle deaths 2,000 The Waziristan campaign 1919 1920 was a military campaign conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region. These operations were conducted in 1919 1920, following the unrest that arose in the aftermath of the Third Anglo Afghan War.The prelude to the 1919 1920 campaign was an incursion by the Mahsud Tribe in the summer of 1917 while British forces were otherwise engaged fighting in the First World War. The British Forces eventually restored calm, however, in 1919 the Waziris took advantage of unrest in Afghanistan following the Third Anglo Afghan War to launch more raids against British garrisons.The first attempt to subdue them began in November 1919, when Major General Sir Andrew Skeen launched a series of operations against the Tochi Wazirs. These operations were largely successful and terms were agreed, and in December Skeen turned his attention to Mahsuds. As the 43rd and 67th Brigades were grouped together as the Derajet Column and committed to the fighting, they met heavy resistance as the largely inexperienced Indian units came up against determined, well armed tribesmen.

The fighting continued for about twelve months in this vein, and the British had to resort to using aircraft on a number of occasions to suppress the tribesmen.The Mahsuds took heavy casualties during the fighting at Ahnai Tangi and it was these casualties, as well as the destruction of their villages a month later by bombers of the Royal Air Force, that temporarily subdued the Mahsuds. When the Wana Wazirs rose up in November 1920, they appealed for help from the Mahsuds, but still recovering from their earlier defeat, no support was forthcoming and the Wazir opposition faded away. On 22 December 1920, Wana was re occupied.Minor raids by the Wazirs and forays by British forces continued into 1921, however, following the 1919 20 campaign, the British decided upon a change of strategy in Waziristan. It was determined that a permanent garrison of regular troops would be maintained in the region to work in much more closely with the militia units that were being reconstituted following the troubles that occurred during the 1919 war with Afghanistan .....

Polish Soviet War
43. Years 1919 1920 Battle deaths 100,000 After the First World War, Poland regained independence lost with the Third Partiton of Poland in 1795. After 123 years of annexation Second Polish Republic was proclaimed in 1918.Polish leader JOzef Pisudski envisioned a new federation (sometimes called Federation of Miedzymorze) which would be composed of Poland, Lithuania and western Ukraine (centered at Kyiv), forming a Polish led East European confederation as a counterweight to Russia. This new country was to have similar borders to the former Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth from 16th 18th century.
At the same time Russia was transforming into the Soviet Union, through the Russian Revolutions and Russian Civil War that begun in 1917.Lenin, leader of the new communist government of Russia, saw Poland as the bridge that would have to be crossed in order to help the communists fractions in Germany and Western Europe, according to the plan that would bring the worldwide domination of communism, as predicted by Karl Marx. When the German Revolution begun in 1918 Soviets decided it was time to start expanding their influence westwards. .....
Turkish War of Independence
44. Years 1919 1921 Battle deaths 40,000 The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923.1916 The Sykes Picot Agreement between the United Kingdom and France is signed, dividing the Ottoman Empire between several states, both independent (e.g. Armenia and Kurdistan) and subject to such European nations as the UK, Italy, France, Imperial Russia and Greece. According to this treaty, a small territory around Ankara was all that was to be left for the Turks. This treaty is not recognized by the Ottoman state.1919 M .....
Second Greco Turkish War
45. Years 1919 1922 Battle deaths 50,000 The Greco Turkish War of 1919 1922, also called the War in Asia Minor, and (in Turkey) a part of the Turkish War of Independence, was a war between Greece and Turkey fought in the wake of World War I. The war arose because the western Allies, particularly British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side. These included eastern Thrace, the islands of Imbros and Tenedos, and parts of western Anatolia around the city of Smyrna (current day yzmir), all of which had substantial Greek populations. .....
Nejd Hejaz Wars
46. Years 1919 1925 Battle deaths 4,000 The First Saudi Hashemite War, also known as the First Nejd Hejaz War or the al Khurma dispute took place in 1918 1919 between Abdulaziz Ibn Saud of the Emirate of Nejd and the Hashemites of the Kingdom of Hejaz.The war came within the scope of the historic conflict between the Hashemites of Hejaz and the Saudis of Ryadh (Nejd) over supremacy in Arabia. It resulted in the defeat of the Hashemite forces and capture of al Khurma by the Saudis and his allied Ikhwan, but British intervention prevented immediate collapse of the Hashemite kingdom, establishing a sensitive cease fire that would last until 1924.Source Wikipedia, published under the GNU FDL.

The 1924 campaign came within the scope of the historic conflict between the Hashemites of Hejaz and the Saudis of Ryadh (Nejd), which had already sparked the First Saudi Hashemite War in 1919.The pretext for renewed hostilities between Nejd and Hejaz came when the pilgrims from Nejd were denied access to the holy places in Hejaz. On August 29, 1924, Ibn Saoud began his military campaign against Hejaz by advancing towards Taif, which surrendered without a major struggle. Following the fall of Taif, the Saudi forces and the allied Ikhwan tribesmen moved on Mecca. Sharif Husseins request for British assistance was denied to him on the pretext of non intervention in religious disputes. King Hussein bin Ali had meanwhile fled from Mecca to Jeddah, after the assistance request from King Abdullah of Transjordan was denied as well. The city of Mecca fell without struggle on October 13, 1924. The Islamic Conference, held in Riyadh on the 29th October 1924, brought a wide Islamic recognition of Ibn Sauds jurisdiction over Mecca.With the advancement of the Saudi forces and blockade imposed on Jeddah, Hejazi army began disintegrating. The city of Medina surrendered on December 12, 1925, and Yanbu fell 12 days later. Jeddah was handed to Sultan Abdulaziz of Najd and Saudi forces on December 1925, with the Saudi forces entering its gates on January 8, 1926, after capitulation and safe passage was negotiated between King bin Ali, Sultan Abdulaziz, and the British Counsul by the citys ruler Sheikh Abdullah Alireza. .....

Franco Syrian war
47. Years 1920 1920 Battle deaths 3,500 The Battle of Maysalun, also called The Battle of Maysalun Pass, took place between Syrian and French forces some 12 miles west of Damascus on July 23, 1920. The battle occurred when the French moved to topple the newly proclaimed nationalist government of Hashim al Atassi under King Faisal. An independent Kingdom of Syria had recently been proclaimed after an Arab army led by British colonel T. E. Lawrence defeated the Ottomans and captured Damascus. However, as a result of negotiations between the western powers at the San Remo conference, and the secret Sykes Picot Agreement between Britain and France, the French were given a mandate over Syria by the League of Nations, which Faisal and his government refused to recognize. Faisal also refused to recognize Lebanese independence from Greater Syria. The French had set up the republic on the remnants of a former Ottoman Christian majority autonomous province. The French forces advanced out of Beirut and were led by General Gouraud. Some Maronite Lebanese reportedly fought on the French side, unwilling to join a Muslim dominated Kingdom of Syria. General Yusuf Al Azmah (36 years old), who was killed in the battle, led the Syrian forces. The French forces easily defeated the newly formed Syrian army and the King was exiled. There were open Maronite celebrations at the French victory. The battle ushered in the new era of French colonialism and led to more revolts in North Syria and Damascus. .....
Iraq vs UK
48. Years 1920 1921 Battle deaths 9,540 During World War I, British forces invaded Mesopotamia in 1917 and occupied Baghdad. Before they succeeded, they suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army, the siege and surrender of Kut. At the end of the war, the Ottoman empire collapsed and an armistice was signed with Turkey in 1918.Iraq was carved out of the old Ottoman Empire by direction of the UK government on January 10, 1919, and on November 11, 1920 it became a League of Nations mandate under British control with the name State of Iraq.At the end of the war, ownership of and access to Iraqs petroleum was split five ways 23.75% each to the UK, France, The Netherlands and the USA, with the remaining 5% going to a private oil corporation headed by Calouste Gulbenkian. The Iraqi government got none of the nations oil. This remained the situation until the revolution of 1958.

The British government laid out the institutional framework for Iraqi government and politics; the Iraqi political system suffered from a severe legitimacy crisis; Britain imposed a Hashemite monarchy, defined the territorial limits of Iraq with little correspondence to natural frontiers or traditional tribal and ethnic settlements, and influenced the writing of a constitution and the structure of parliament. Britain also had to put down a major revolt ( also known as the Arab revolt) against foreign rule between 1920 and 1922, resorting to aerial bombardment of Iraqi villages before control was established. These operations, in which it is alleged poison gas was used, were led by the future prime minister W.Churchill. .....

Conquest of Mongolia
49. Years 1920 1921 Battle deaths 4,000 Following the Russian Revolution of October 1917, China regained its claims to Outer Mongolia aiming at its conversion into a common Chinese province. In late 1919, the Chinese general Xu Shuzheng occupied Urga and forced the Bogd Khaan and the leading nobles to sign a document renouncing Mongolias independence. Leaders of Mongolias national independence movement, such as Magsarjav or Damdinsuren (died in the prison under brutal torture) were arrested and imprisoned. The Chinese had tighted their control of Mongolia by this time.Russian White Guard troops led by Baron R.F. von Ungern Sternberg (Baron Ungern von Sternberg), who had been defeated in the Civil War in Transbaikalian Siberia, invaded Mongolia in October 1920. In October November 1920, Ungerns troops assaulted the capital, Niislel Khuree, known to Europeans under the name Urga (now Ulaanbaatar), several times but were repelled with heavy losses. Ungern entered contacts with Mongolian nobles and lamas and received Bogd Khaans edict to regain independence. On 2 5 February 1921, after fighting a huge battle, he drove the Chinese forces out of Mongolian capital. .....
Green Rebellion
50. Years 1920 1921 Battle deaths 6,700 The Green armies, Green Army were armed peasant groups which fought against all governments in the Russian Civil War. They fought to protect their communities from requisitions or reprisals by either side. At times associated with the Socialist Revolutionary Party, by far the largest grouping of the Russian Constituent Assembly, the Green Armies had at least tacit support throughout much of Russia. However, the Green Armiesprimary base, the peasantry, were largely reluctant to wage an active campaign during the Russian Civil War. .....
Blackshirts vs Leftists
51. Years 1920 1922 Battle deaths 3,300 In March 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the first Italian Combat League (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento) at the beginning of the two red years (biennio rosso). He suffered a defeat in the election of November 1919. But, by the election of 1921, Mussolini gained entrance to Parliament. Out of his Fascist party the Blackshirts (Squadristi) were formed. In August 1920, the Blackshirts were used to break the general strike which had started at the Alfa Romeo factory in Milan. In November 1920, after the assassination of Giordana (a right wing municipal counsellor in Bologna), the Blackshirts were used as a repression tool by the state[citation needed] to crush the socialist movement (which included a strong anarcho syndicalist component), especially in the Po Valley.Trade unions were dissolved while left wing mayors resigned. The fascists, included on Giovanni Giolittis National Union lists at the May 1921 elections, then won 36 seats. Mussolini then withdrew his support to Giolitti and attempted to work out a temporary truce with the socialists by signing a Pacification Pact in summer 1921. This provoked a conflict with the most fanatical part of the movement, the Squadristi and their leaders the Ras. In July 1921, Giolitti attempted without success to dissolve the squadristi. The contract with the socialists was then broken at its turn in November 1921, Mussolini adopted a nationalist program and founded the National Fascist Party, which boasted 700,000 members in July 1922. In August, an anti fascist general strike was triggered, but failed to rally the Italian Peoples Party (Partito Popolare Italiano) and was repressed by the fascists. .....
Senussi Orden vs Italy
52. Years 1920 1932 Battle deaths 40,000 The attempted Italian colonization of the Ottoman provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica was never wholly successful. Several reorganizations of the colonial authority were made necessary, in the face of an armed Libyan opposition. From 1919 (May 17) to 1929 (January 24) the Italian government maintained the two traditional provinces, with separate colonial administrations. A system of controlled local assembies with limited local authority was set up, but it was revoked 9 March 1927. In 1929 Tripoli and Cyrenaica were united as one colonial province, then in 1934, as Italy struggled to retain colonial power, the classical name Libya was revived as the official name of the colony, which was split into four provinces, Tripoli, Misurata, Bengasi, and Derna.In 1920 (October 25) the Italian government recognized Sheikh Sidi Idris the hereditary head of the nomadic Senussi, with wide authority in Kufra and other oases, as Emir of Cyrenaica, a new title extended by the British at the close of World War I. The emir would eventually become king of the free Libyan state.

Sporadic fighting intensified after the accession to power in Italy of the dictator Benito Mussolini. Idris fled to Egypt in 1922. From 1922 to 1928, Italian forces under Gen. Badoglio slowly gained control over Libya. The Senussi leader in Cyrenaica surrendered to the Italians on January 3 1928, virtually ending the organized struggle for independence in eastern Libya, for the time. Resistance to the Italian occupation crystallized round the person of Sheik Idris, the Emir of Cyrenaica. .....

Ireland freestaters vs Irregulars
53. Years 1921 1922 Battle deaths 4,000 The Irish Civil War (June, 1922 April, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921 which had established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland.Upon the Treatys ratification (January 1922) by a narrow majority in the D .....
Moplah Riots in Kerala
54. Years 1921 1922 Battle deaths 2,450 The Moplah Rebellion (also known as the Moplah Riots, Maappila Lahala in Malayalam) was a British Muslim and Hindu Muslim conflict in Kerala that occurred in 1921. During the early months of 1921, multiple events including the Khilafat movement and the Karachi resolution fueled the fires of rebellion amongst the Moplah Muslim community. A rumour spread amongst the Moplahs that the British rule had ended and the Islamic Caliphate had been re established at Delhi. .....
Soviet Turkestan War
55. Years 1921 1923 Battle deaths 3,500 The Basmachi movement (Russian ???????????, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim, largely Turkic peoples of Central Asia. The movements roots lay in the 1916 violence that erupted over conscription of Muslims by the Russian Empire for service in World War I. In the months following the October 1917 Revolution, renewed violence developed into a major uprising centered in the Ferghana Valley, soon spreading across all of Soviet Turkestan. Guerrilla and conventional warfare lasted for years in various regions, and the violence was both anti Soviet and anti Russian.After major Red Army campaigns and concessions regarding economic and Islamic practices in the mid 1920s, the military fortunes and popular support of the Basmachi declined. Although resistance flared up again in response to collectivization, the Sovietization of Central Asia proceeded apace and the struggle ended. .....
Druze revolt
56. Years 1925 1927 Battle deaths 6,000 The Syrian Revolution, Great Syrian Revolt or Great Druze Revolt (1925 1927) was the largest and longest lasting anti colonial insurgency in the inter war Arab East. Mobilizing peasants, workers, and army veterans, rather than urban elites and nationalist intellectuals, it was the first mass movement against colonial rule in the Middle East. The revolt failed to liberate Syria from French occupation, but it provided a model of popular nationalism and resistance that remains potent in the Middle East today. Each subsequent Arab uprising against foreign rule has repeated the language and tactics of the Great Syrian Revolt. .....
Northern Expedition
57. Years 1926 1928 Battle deaths 126,500 The Northern Expedition was a military campaign led by Chiang Kai Shek in 1927 intended to unify China under the rule of the Kuomintang and ending the rule of local warlords. It was largely successful at these objectives. During the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China were cooperating with each other.The Northern Expedition began from a base area in Guangdong province. Chiang was able to achieve victory over the warlords in large part because both the National Revolutionary Army and the Kuomintang were far better organized than the warlord armies which they faced. In addition, Chiang had the advantage of a chain reaction effect as victory over one warlord encouraged others to defect to Chiang which strengthened his position even more.Today, the Northern Expedition is viewed positively both in Mainland China and on Taiwan because it ended a period of anarchy and started the formation of a effective Chinese central government. .....
The Cristero War
58. Years 1926 1929 Battle deaths 10,000 The Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929 was an uprising and counter revolution against the Mexican government of the time, set off by religious persecution of Catholics, specifially the strict enforcement of the anti clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and the expansion of further anti clerical laws. Regarding this period, recent President Vicente Fox stated, After 1917, Mexico was led by anti Catholic Freemasons who tried to evoke the anticlerical spirit of popular indigenous President Benito Ju .....
Second Afghan Anti Reform War
59. Years 1928 1929 Battle deaths 15,000 The political and judicial reforms Amanuallah proposed were equally radical for the time and included the creation of Afghanistans first constitution (in 1923), the guarantee of civil rights (first by decree and later constitutionally), national registration and identity cards for the citizenry, the establishment of a legislative assembly, a court system to enforce new secular penal, civil, and commercial codes, prohibition of blood money, and abolition of subsidies and privileges for tribal chiefs and the royal family.Although sharia (Islamic law) was to be the residual source of law, it regained prominence after the Khost rebellion of 1923 24. Religious leaders, who had gained influence under Habibullah Khan, were unhappy with Amanullahs extensive religious reforms.

Conventional wisdom holds that the tribal revolt that overthrew Amanullah grew out of opposition to his reform program, although those people most affected by his reforms were urban dwellers not universally opposed to his policies, rather than the tribes. Nevertheless, the king had managed to alienate religious leaders and army members.The unraveling began, however, when Shinwari Pashtun tribesmen revolted in Jalalabad in November 1928. When tribal forces advanced on the capital, many of the kings troops deserted. Amanullah faced another threat as well in addition to the Pashtun tribes, forces led by a Tajik tribesman were moving toward Kabul from the north. In January 1929, Amanullah abdicated the throne to his oldest brother, Inayatullah, who ruled for only three days before escaping into exile in India. Amanullahs efforts to recover power by leading a small, ill equipped force toward Kabul failed. The deposed king crossed the border into India and went into exile in Italy. .....

Kuomintang vs warlords
60. Years 1929 1930 Battle deaths 75,000 In early 1927 the KMT CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CPC and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the Nationalist government from Guangzhou to Wuhan. But Chiang, whose Northern Expedition was proving successful, set his forces out to destroy the Shanghai CPC apparatus. Chiang Kai shek, with the aid of the Shanghai underworld, arguing that communist activities were socially and economically disruptive, turned on Communists and unionists in Shanghai, arresting and executing hundreds on April 12, 1927. The purge widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Ching weis Wuhan government (a contest won by Chiang Kai shek) and destroyed the urban base of the CPC. Chiang, expelled from the KMT for his actions, formed a rival government in Nanjing. There now were three capitals in China the internationally recognized warlord regime in Beijing; the Communist and left wing Kuomintang regime at Wuhan; and the right wing civilian military regime at Nanjing, which would remain the Nationalist capital for the next decade.The Comintern cause appeared bankrupt. A new policy was instituted calling on the CPC to foment armed insurrections in both urban and rural areas in preparation for an expected rising tide of revolution. Unsuccessful attempts were made by Communists to take cities such as Nanchang, Changsha, Shantou, and Guangzhou, and an armed rural insurrection, known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising, was staged by peasants in Hunan Province. The insurrection was led by Mao Zedong.But in mid 1927 the CPC was at a low ebb. The Communists had been expelled from Wuhan by their left wing KMT allies, who in turn were toppled by a military regime.

The KMT resumed the campaign against warlords and captured Beijing in June 1928, after which most of eastern China was under Chiangs control, and the Nanjing government received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China. The Nationalist government announced that in conformity with Sun Yat sens formula for the three stages of revolution military unification, political tutelage, and constitutional democracy China had reached the end of the first phase and would embark on the second, which would be under KMT direction. .....

Ikhwan Revolt
61. Years 1929 1930 Battle deaths 5,500 The Ikhwan Revolt had begun in 1927, when elements of the Ikhwan, the radical irregular tribesmen of Arabia, undermined the authority of Ibn Saud and begun raiding neighbouring Iraq and Kuwait. The relations between the House of Saud and the Ikhwans deteriorated into an open bloody feud in December 1928. The main perpetrators of the rebellion were crushed in the Battle of Sabilla, on 29 March 1929. Ikhwan tribesmen and Saudi government troops clashed again in the Jabal Shammar region in August 1929, and Ikhwan tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on October 5, 1929. Faisal al Dawish, one of the main leaders of the rebellion and the leader of Mutair tribe, fled to Kuwait in October 1929. Government troops had finally suppressed the rebellion on January 10, 1930, when other Ikhwan rebel leaders surrendered to the British. In the aftermath, the Ikhwan leadership was slain, and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the three main Ikhwan leaders, was killed in 1931, while al Dawish died in prison in Riyadh on October 3, 1931. .....
Communists vs Koumintang
62. Years 1930 1935 Battle deaths 500,000 During the Agrarian Revolution, Communist Party activists retreated underground or to the countryside where they fomented a military revolt (Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927), combined the force with remnants of peasant rebels, and established control over several areas in southern China. Attempts by the Nationalist armies to suppress the rebellion were unsuccessful but extremely damaging to the Communist forces.A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors.After Chiang Kai shek had foiled the coup to oust him launched by Feng Y .....
Brazilian Revolt
63. Years 1932 1932 Battle deaths 1,000 By 1934 Vargas would develop in response what Thomas E. Skidmore and Peter H. Smith called a legal hybrid between the regimes of Mussolinis Italy and Salazars Portuguese Estado Novo, copied repressive fascist tactics, and conveyed their same rejection of liberal capitalism, but attained power baring few indications of his future quasi fascist polices.Changing conditions forced Vargas to eventually abandon the arrangements of the provisional government (1930 34), characterized by a path of social reformism that appeared to favor the generally left wing of his revolutionary coalition, the tenentes.Opposition from the right, however, marked Vargas earliest moves away from the social reformism of his early years. A conservative insurgency in 1932 was the key turning point. After the July 1932 constitutionalist revolt a veiled attempt by the paulista coffee oligarchs to retake the central government Vargas tried to recover support of the landed elites, including the coffee growers, in order to establish a new alliance of power. The revolt reacted to Vargas appointment of Jo .....
El Salvador La Matanza
64. Years 1932 1932 Battle deaths 2,600 The violence in El Salvador dates back to the 1930s and the coffee oligarchy (los catorce), which at that time was led by the countrys fourteen richest families, owning 90% of the land. Under the leadership of Agustin Farabundo Mart .....
Chaco War
65. Years 1932 1935 Battle deaths 92,661 The Chaco War (1932 1935) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the arid Chaco Boreal region of South America. Though the region was sparsely populated, control of the Paraguay River running through it would have given one of the two landlocked countries access to the Atlantic Ocean. This was especially important to Bolivia, which had lost its Pacific Ocean coast to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1883). Furthermore, the discovery of oil in the Andean foothills sparked speculation that the Chaco itself would be a rich source of petroleum. In international arbitration, Bolivia argued that the region had been part of the original Spanish province to which Bolivia was heir. Meanwhile, Paraguay had begun to cultivate the region, making it the worlds largest producer of mate, while the small indigenous population of Guarani Indians was related to that countrys own Guarani population. Finally, Paraguay had also lost almost half of its territory to Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina in the War of the Triple Alliance and was not prepared to see what it perceived as its last chance for a viable economy fall victim to Bolivia.Border skirmishes throughout the late 1920s culminated in an all out war in 1932, when the Bolivian army, following the orders of the President Daniel Salamanca, attacked a Paraguayan garrison at Vanguardia.

The war was a disaster for both sides. Bolivias European elite forcibly enlisted the large indigenous population into the army, though they felt little connection to the nation state. While Paraguay was able to foment nationalist fervor among its predominantly mixed population, its soldiers were ill prepared for the dearth of water or the harsh conditions of terrain and climate they encountered. In fact, of the wars 100,000 casualties, more died from diseases such as malaria and other infections than from the actual fighting. At the same time, the war brought both countries to the brink of economic disaster. In addition, on November 27, 1934, Bolivian generals frustrated by the progress of the war seized President Salamanca while he was visiting their headquarters in Villamontes and replaced him with the vice president, Jose Luis Tejada Sorzano.By the time a ceasefire was negotiated on June 12, 1935, Paraguay had seized control over most of the region. This was recognized in a 1938 truce, signed in Argentina, by which Paraguay was awarded three quarters of the Chaco Boreal. Some years later it was found that there were no oil resources in the Chaco proper.Many middle class Bolivians were humiliated by Bolivias quick military defeat during the Chaco War, which led to a mass movement away from the traditional order known as the GeneraciOn del Chaco, which was epitomized by the MNR led Revolution of 1952. .....

World War II
66. Years 1939 1945 Battle deaths 50,000,000 World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theaters, and costing approximately 50 million lives. The war was fought mainly between an alliance of the British Commonwealth, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China collectively known as the Allies; and the Axis Powers, an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan. Most of the fighting occurred in the Atlantic theater in and around Europe, and in the Pacific theater in the Pacific and East Asia.

The war was significant in that it was the first war in which air power was a significant factor. Indeed, the first combat operation in World War II was a German bombing attack against Poland, while the last combat operation was the American atom bomb attack against Nagasaki. The war also saw the re emergence of the United States from its isolationism, the destruction and rebuilding of Germany and Japan into major industrial powers, and the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as global superpowers. The war also directly led to the United Nations, which was founded by the victorious Allies in order to prevent such a large and destructive conflict from ever again happening. .....

Chinese Civil War
67. Years 1945 1950 Battle deaths 1,200,000 The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (the Nationalist Party; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). It began with the takeover of the KMT by the right wing General Chiang Kai shek and purges of leftist and Communist members in 1926 and ended in 1949 with an unofficial cessation of major hostilities, with the Communists controlling mainland China and the Nationalists controlling Taiwan, Penghu, and several outlying Fujianese islands. .....
Taiwanese revolt
68. Years 1947 1947 Battle deaths 1,250 The 228 Incident, also known as the 228 Massacre, was an anti government uprising in Taiwan that began on February 27, 1947 and was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang (KMT) government. Estimates of the number of deaths vary from ten thousand to thirty thousand or more. The Incident marked the beginning of the Kuomintangs White Terror period in Taiwan, in which thousands more Taiwanese vanished, were killed, or imprisoned. The number 228 refers to the day the massacre began February 28, or 02 28. .....
Paraguayan Gvt vs Rebels
69. Years 1947 1947 Battle deaths 1,000 The Allied victory (in World War II) convinced Mor .....
Telangana Rebellion and Indo Hyderabad War
70. Years 1947 1948 Battle deaths 5,210 This article is about the events related to Hyderabad War Telenganans vs Razakars, 1947 48 and Indo Hyderabad War in 1948. Telangana Rebellion The Telangana Rebellion or Vetti Chakiri Movement also known as Telangana Raithanga Sayudha Poratam was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. Operation Polo Operation Polo, the code name of the Hyderabad Police Action was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union. The conflict began after Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII decided not to join the princely State of Hyderabad to either India or Pakistan after the partition of India. The Nizams defiance was backed by Qasim Razvis armed militias, known as Razakars and had the moral support of Pakistan. After a stalemate in negotiations between the Nizam and India, mass killing and rape of the Hindu population by Razakars, and wary of a hostile independent state in the centre of India, Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Patel decided to annex the state of Hyderabad. He sent the Indian Army and the Hyderabad State Forces were defeated within five days. .....
Civil War in Mandatory Palestine
71. Years 1947 1948 Battle deaths 4,009 The 1947 48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947, the date of the United Nations General Assembly vote for the Partition Plan for Palestine, to the termination of the British Mandate itself on 14 May 1948.This period constitutes the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war, during which the Jewish and Arab communities of Palestine clashed, while the British, who had the obligation to maintain order, organized their withdrawal and intervened only on an occasional basis.The next phase of the conflict was the 1948 Arab Israeli War, which began on 15 May 1948, on the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, when the conflict in Palestine became an outright war between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbours. .....
Indian Partition Communal Violence
72. Years 1947 1948 Battle deaths 200,000 The partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (that later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India). The Indian Independence Act 1947 had decided 15 August 1947 as the appointed date for the partition. However, Pakistan came into existence a day earlier, on 14 August.The partition of India was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Indian Empire and the end of the British Raj. It resulted in a struggle between the newly constituted states of India and Pakistan and displaced up to 12.5 million people with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million (most estimates of the numbers of people who crossed the boundaries between India and Pakistan in 1947 range between 10 and 12 million). The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of mutual hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to this day.

While some argue that the violence that erupted at the moment of Partition was popular and spontaneous and that it cant be considered as a general phenomenon due to the non involvement of large scale organizations (Alam, 1998 98), the nature and the extent of the violence clearly underline the organized and planned character of the attacks. Furthermore, it suggests the involvement of private armies such as the Muslim League National Guard, the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS) and the Akal Fauj, counting respectively 42,300, 59,200 and at least 8,000 members (Hansen, 2002 135). Although the State did not directly participate in the violence, the communalized role of the police, the complicity if not direct involvement of the political leaderships and the States attitude of laissez faire point to its responsibility (Virdee, 2007 16 36; Khan, 2007 36 60). During its existence, between August 1 and 31, the 50,000 men Punjab Boundary Force was unable or unwilling to maintain peace and order (Jeffrey, 1974 491 520).

Violence was not just a marginal phenomenon, a sudden and spontaneous communal frenzy that accompanied Partition. It was on the contrary at the very heart of the event. Nor was it merely a consequence of Partition but rather the principal mechanism for creating the conditions for Partition. Violence constituted the moral instrument through which the tension between the pre Partition local character of identity and its postcolonial territorial and national redefinition was negotiated (Gilmartin, 1998 1069 1089). Violence operated as the link between the community and its new national territory. That is precisely what gave it its organized and genocidal dimension as it was meant for control of social space so as to cleanse these territories from the presence of other religious communities (Hansen, 2002). .....

First Kashmir War
73. Years 1947 1949 Battle deaths 3,200 The Indo Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949.India and Pakistan achieved their long sought after independence from the United Kingdom on August 15, 1947. The subcontinent was split along religious lines with the Muslim northwest and north east going to Pakistan and the rest of the area going to India. The region of Kashmir was a principality still ruled by a prince, Maharaja Hari Singh.Singh was a Hindu as were most of the elites of Kashmir. Three quarters of the population were Muslims, however. When the plans for partition were drawn up the decision of which country to join was left to Singh. He was reluctant to join the Muslim state of Pakistan, but also did not want to join democratic India where his autocratic powers would be curtailed. Thus he delayed and the status of the region was still in question upon the departure of the British.This position soon became untenable, however. The religious rioting and violence that had started in the Punjab was spreading north. On October 20 groups of tribesmen from Pakistan moved into Kashmir and began to march on the captial of Srinagar.In desperation Hari Singh fled to India and asked for Indian troops to stop the uprising, the Indians demanded that Singh sign Kashmir over to India, which he reluctantly did. The Indian troops arrived and quickly blocked the advance of the Muslims, preventing the imminent sacking of Srinigar.

In response to what Mohammed Ali Jinnah saw as the invasion of Kashmir by the Indians he ordered Pakistani military forces into Azad Kashmir as volunteers. They also supplied the anti Indian forces with arms and vehicles.With the arrival of winter little fighting could be carried out in the mountainous region, but the next May India launched a massive offensive routing the Pakistani backed forces in the region. As a result Pakistan sent three brigades of the Pakistani army into the region. The fighting soon stalemated and both sides waited for international mediation to help resolve the situation.After protracted negotiations a cease fire was agreed to by both parties which came into effect January 5, 1949. The cease fire line created what were meant to temporary borders between Indian and Pakistani zones of control, and promised a plebiscite would be held to determine the future of the territory. .....

Vietnam Civil War
74. Years 1955 1964 Battle deaths 164,923 The 1959 to 1963 phase of the Vietnam War started after the North Vietnamese had made a firm decision to commit to a military intervention in the guerrilla war in the South, a buildup phase began, between the 1959 North Vietnamese decision and the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, which led to a major US escalation of its involvement. Vietnamese communists saw this as a second phase of their revolution, the US now substituting for the French. Between the 1954 Geneva accords and 1956, the two states created by the talks were still forming; the influence of major powers, especially France and the United States, and to a lesser extent China and the Soviet Union, were as much an influence as any internal matters. There is little question that in 1957 1958, there was a definite early guerilla movement against the Di?m government, involving individual assassinations, expropriations, recruiting, shadow government. The insurgents were South Vietnamese rebels or northerners who had been living there for some time. While there was clearly communications and perhaps arms supply from the north, there is little evidence of any Northern units in the South, although organizers may well have infiltrated.There was endemic insurgency in South Vietnam throughout the period 1954 1960. It can also be established but less surely that the Di?m regime alienated itself from one after another of those domestic sectors which might have offered it political support, and was grievously at fault in its rural programs. That these conditions engendered animosity toward the Southern dictatorship seems almost certain, and they could have led to a major resistance movement even without North Vietnamese help.

There is little doubt that there was some kind of Viet Minh derived stay behind organization between 1954 and 1960, but it is unclear that they were directed to take over action until 1957 or later. Before that, they were unquestionably recruiting and preparing.While the visible guerilla incidents increased gradually, the key policy decisions by the North were made in 1959. Early in this period, there was a greater degree of conflict in Laos than in South Vietnam. US combat involvement was, at first, greater in Laos, but the activity of advisors, and increasingly US direct support to South Vietnamese soldiers, increased, under US military authority, in late 1959 and early 1960. Communications intercepts in 1959, for example, confirmed the start of the Ho Chi Minh trail and other preparation for large scale fighting. North Vietnam declared its public support for communist insurgents in South Vietnam. The communist forces in South Vietnam established the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Viet Cong). At the same time, the United States helped the South Vietnamese regime conduct its war strategy. Despite this assistance, the communist forces still won on the battlefield, fighting several large campaigns next to the big cities. Di?m was unable to take control of political crisis and was overthrown by the Council of Revolutionary Military (some documents of both sides suggest that it was the United States which had given the green light for this coup). After several years of chaos, the Ng .....

Sinai War
75. Years 1956 1956 Battle deaths 2,142 On October 29, Israel invaded the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula and made rapid progress towards the Canal Zone. As per the agreement, Britain and France offered to reoccupy the area and separate the warring armies. Nasser (whose nationalisation of the company had been greeted with delirium by Egyptian crowds) refused the offer, which gave the European powers a pretext for a joint invasion to regain control of the canal and topple the Nasser regime. To support the invasion, large air forces had been deployed to Cyprus and Malta by the UK and France and many aircraft carriers were deployed. The two regularly available airfields on Cyprus were so congested that a third field which was in dubious condition had to be brought into use for French aircraft. Even RAF Luqa on Malta was extremely crowded with RAF Bomber Command aircraft. The UK deployed HMS Eagle, Albion and Bulwark and France had FS Arromanches and Lafayette on station. In addition, two smaller British carriers were acting as jumping off points for the worlds first helicopter borne assault. The United Kingdom and France began to bomb Egypt on October 31 to force the reopening of the canal with Operation Musketeer. Nasser responded by sinking all 40 ships then present in the canal, closing it to further shipping until early 1957.On late 5 November the 3rd Battalion of the Parachute Regiment dropped at El Gamil Airfield, clearing the area and establishing a secure base for incoming support aircraft and reinforcements. At first light on the 6 November Commandos of No42 and 40 Commando Royal Marines stormed the beaches, using landing craft of WW2 vintage. Salvos from the battlegroup standing offshore opened fire, giving good covering fire for the landings and causing considerable damage to the Egyptian batteries and gun emplacements. The town of Port Said sustained great damage and was seen to be alight.

Meeting stiff resistance as they moved inland, No45 Commando assaulted by helicopter and upon landing, moved inland. Several helicopters were hit from shore batteries and casualties were sustained. Friendly fire from British carrier borne aircraft caused heavy casualties to 45 Commando and HQ. Street fighting and house clearing was the order of the day. Again, stiff opposition came from well entrenched sniper positions which caused a number of casualties. .....

Second Kashmir War
76. Years 1965 1965 Battle deaths 5,000 The 1965 war, also known as the Second Kashmir War, between India and Pakistan was the culmination of a series of skirmishes that occurred between April 1965 and September 1965. Details of this war, like those of most India Pakistan wars, are sketchy and riddled with media biases. .....
The Six Day War
77. Years 1967 1967 Battle deaths 10,047 The 1967 Arab Israeli War, also known as the Six Day War or June War was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. As a result, Israel gained control of the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day. .....
Indian Govt vs Punjab
78. Years 1985 2000 Battle deaths 7,247 The conflict taking place in the north western Indian state Punjab saw the Indian government fighting a number of Sikh insurgent outfits aiming for the establishment of a Sikh state, Khalistan (Land of the Pure). The conflict became active in 1983 and throughout its duration displayed much violence, generating high death tolls. Following large counterinsurgency operations, the government pronounced the insurgency defeated in 1993. .....
Burundi Civil War
79. Years 1991 2005 Battle deaths 8,295 The Burundi Civil War (1993 2005) is driven by ethnic rivalries between Hutu and Tutsi tribal factions of Burundi. Rivalry escalated into a bloody power struggle following the presidential election of June 1993. The swearing in of Pierre Nkurunziza as president in August 2005 was seen as a formal endpoint to the conflict, but one major rebel group remained outside the peace process. Over 300,000 people perished in the war. (comment the number 300,000 probably includes excess deaths, Globalsecurity puts the figure at 200,000 and UUCD states 7125 battle deaths) Background Burundis first multiparty national elections were held on June 27, 1993. Melchior Ndadaye of the Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) won the presidential election, the first person from the Hutu tribe to become the president since the country secured independence from Belgium in 1962. Hutus are the majority ethnic group, at about eighty five percent, in the country, but the government has been dominated by Tutsis, through the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) political party. Ndadaye was killed in a coup detat by Tutsi military officers on October 21, 1993. .....
Tajikistan Govt vs Opposition
80. Years 1992 1998 Battle deaths 6,834 When Tajikistan became independent in 1991, communist leaders continued to control the country. Unified in their opposition, democratic and Islamist parties formed UTO (United Tajik Opposition). UTO fought against the government until 1998 in spite of the several peace agreements signed during the period. In 1998 another opposition group, the Movement for Peace in Tajikistan, attacked government forces as it rejected the power sharing agreement between UTO and the government signed in 1997. .....
Russia vs Chechnyan Secessionists
81. Years 1994 2007 Battle deaths 17,601 Coinciding with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, part of Chechnya declared independence from the Russian Federation. Simmering debate over independence ultimately led to civil war in 1993. The First Chechen War began in 1994 when Russian forces entered Chechnya to restore civil order and central rule. Following a 1997 ceasefire agreement, Russian troops were withdrawn from Chechnya.

The 1997 election of separatist President Aslan Maskhadov led to turbulence within the country and a chilly relationship with Moscow. Further tensions arose in January and February of 1999 as Maskhadov announced that Islamic Sharia law would be introduced in Chechnya over the course of three years. In March of that year, General Gennadiy Shpigun Moscows envoy to Chechnya was kidnapped and ultimately killed. .....

Nepal Civil War
82. Years 1996 2006 Battle deaths 12,284 The Nepal Civil War was a conflict between monarchist government forces and Maoist rebels in Nepal which lasted from 1996 until 2006. The war was started by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on February 13, 1996, with the aim of establishing the Peoples Republic of Nepal.More than 12,700 people were killed and an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. This conflict disrupted the majority of rural development activities and led to a deep and complex transformation of Nepalese society. On November 21, 2006, a peace agreement was signed between the rebels and the new democratic government. .....
Guinea Bissau Coup
83. Years 1998 1999 Battle deaths 1,700 The conflict over government in Guinea Bissau was triggered by the dismissal by President Viera of General Ansumane Mane. The latter formed a military junta, Military Junta for the Consolidation of Democracy, Peace and Justice, and challenged the government, which could only avoid defeat by relying on foreign troops. Following negotiations and a peace agreement, the rebels made a final push and ousted President Veira, thus ending the conflict. .....
Eritrea vs Ethiopia
84. Years 1998 2000 Battle deaths 98,192 The Eritrean Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, forming one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea and Ethiopia two of the worlds poorest countries spent hundreds of millions of dollars on the war, and suffered tens of thousands of casualties as a direct consequence of the conflict, which resulted in minor border changes.According to a ruling by an international commission in The Hague, Eritrea broke international law and triggered the war by invading Ethiopia.At the end of the war Ethiopia held all of the disputed territory and had advanced into Eritrea. After the war ended, the Eritrea Ethiopia Boundary Commission, a body founded by the UN, established that Badme, the disputed territory at the heart of the conflict, belongs to Eritrea. As of 2012, Ethiopia still occupies the territory. .....
Afghanistan war
85. Years 2001 2012 Battle deaths 42,932 The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7, 2001 as the U.S. military operation Operation Enduring Freedom, was launched by the United States with the United Kingdom in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. The stated purpose of the invasion was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbor to al Qaeda. The United States Bush Doctrine stated that, as policy, it would not distinguish between al Qaeda and nations that harbor them.Two military operations in Afghanistan seek to establish control over the country. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is a United States combat operation involving some coalition partners and currently operating primarily in the eastern and southern parts of the country along the Pakistan border. Approximately 28,300 U.S. troops are in OEF. The second operation is the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), initially established by the UN Security Council at the end of December 2001 to secure Kabul and its surroundings. NATO assumed control of ISAF in 2003. By January 12, 2009, ISAF had around 55,100 troops from 41 countries, with NATO members providing the core of the force. The United States has approximately 23,300 troops in ISAF.

The U.S. and the UK led the aerial bombing campaign, with ground forces supplied primarily by the Afghan Northern Alliance. In 2002, American, British and Canadian infantry were committed, along with special forces from several allied nations. Later, NATO troops were added.The initial attack removed the Taliban from power, but Taliban forces have since regained some strength. The war has been less successful in achieving the goal of restricting al Qaedas movement. Since 2006, Afghanistan has seen threats to its stability from increased Taliban led insurgent activity, record high levels of illegal drug production, and a fragile government with limited control outside of Kabul. As of end 2008, the war has been unsuccessful in its primary purpose of capturing Osama bin Laden. .....

Al Quaeda vs USA and allies
86. Years 2001 2012 Battle deaths 4,538 The War on terrorism or War on terror (abbreviated in policy circles as GWOT for global war on terror) is a global effort by the governments of several countries (primarily the United States and its principal allies) to destroy international groups it deems as terrorist (primarily radical Islamist terrorist groups, including al Qaeda) and ensure rogue nations no longer support terrorist activities. It has been adopted as a consequence of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.The United States, with support from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the Northern Alliance, invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 as part of its War on Terrorism campaign. The military campaign, led by U.S. general Tommy Franks, was initially dubbed Operation Infinite Justice but quickly renamed Operation Enduring Freedom, due to perceived religious connotations of the former. British military operations against Afghanistan were codenamed Operation Veritas.According to the U.S., the purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom was to target Osama bin Laden, suspected of planning and funding the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack, and his terrorist network al Qaida, as well as the Taliban government in Afghanistan which allegedly provided support to al Qaida and gave them safe haven. Many journalists have reported that plans to attack al Qaida and the Taliban existed as early as the Clinton administration. .....
Iraq vs US led coalition
87. Years 2003 2003 Battle deaths 8,202 The 2003 invasion of Iraq, also called simply the Iraq War or Operation Iraqi Freedom, was a war that began March 20, 2003, fought between a group of troops consisting primarily of American and British, but also Polish, Australian and several other nations forces, and Iraq.The invasion began without the explicit authorization of the United Nations Security Council, and most legal authorities take the view that the action violated the U.N. Charter. The Bush Administration has cited Security Council resolutions from early 1990s as legal justification, though there is no clear support in any of them for military action against Iraq.After approximately three weeks of fighting, Iraq was occupied by coalition forces and the rule of Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party came to an end. Subsequently, the period known as post invasion Iraq began. Approximately 250,000 United States troops, with support from 45,000 British, and smaller forces from other nations, collectively called the Coalition of the Willing, entered Iraq primarily through a staging area in Kuwait. Plans for opening a second front in the north were abandoned when Turkey officially refused the use of its territory for such purposes. Forces also supported Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 50,000.Facing them was a large but poorly equipped military force. The regular Iraqi army was estimated at 280,000 350,000 troops, with four Republican Guard divisions with 50,000 80,000 troops, and the Fedayeen Saddam, a 20,000 40,000 strong militia, who used guerrilla tactics during the war. There were an estimated thirteen infantry divisions, ten mechanized and armored divisions, as well as some special forces units. The Iraqi Air Force and Navy played a negligible role in the conflict. .....
Iraqi Insurgency
88. Years 2003 2012 Battle deaths 17,304 In 2003, a multi national coalition comprising USA, UK and Australia ousted the Saddam Hussein regime and a new government was installed. Shortly after, violence and criticism of the government and its foreign support escalated into a renewed armed conflict, in which a number of opposition groups became involved. .....
Waziristan conflict
89. Years 2004 2012 Battle deaths 20,165 The War in North West Pakistan is an armed conflict between the Pakistani Army and Islamist militants made up by local tribesmen, the Taliban and foreign extremists. It began in 2004 when tensions rooted in the Pakistani Armys search for al Qaeda members in Pakistans mountainous Waziristan area (in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) escalated into armed resistance by local tribesmen.Clashes erupted between the Pakistani troops and al Qaedas and other militants joined by local rebels and pro Taliban forces. The Pakistani actions were presented as a part of the War on Terrorism, and had connections to the war and Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan.After a truce in September 2006, clashes escalated again in 2007, with local tribesmen ousting militant Uzbeks and attacking the Pakistani security forces again in July 2007. .....
Southern Lebanon War
90. Years 2006 2006 Battle deaths 821 The 2006 Lebanon War, known in Lebanon as the July War and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War, was a 34 day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations brokered ceasefire went into effect on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon.The conflict began when Hezbollah militants fired rockets at Israeli border towns, wounding several civilians, as a diversion for an anti tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence. Of the seven Israeli soldiers in the two jeeps, two were wounded, three were killed, and two were seized and taken to Lebanon. Five more were killed in a failed Israeli rescue attempt. Israel responded with massive airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon, which damaged Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beiruts Rafic Hariri International Airport which Israel said Hezbollah used to import weapons, an air and naval blockade, and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.The conflict killed more than a thousand people, most of whom were Lebanese civilians; severely damaged Lebanese infrastructure; and displaced 974,184 Lebanese and 300,000 500,000 Israelis, although most, if not all, were able to return to their homes. After the ceasefire, some parts of Southern Lebanon remained uninhabitable due to unexploded cluster bombs.

On 11 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved UN Resolution 1701 in an effort to end the hostilities. The resolution, which was approved by both Lebanese and Israeli governments the following days, called for disarmament of Hezbollah, for withdrawal of Israel from Lebanon, and for the deployment of Lebanese soldiers and an enlarged United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) force in southern Lebanon. The Lebanese army began deploying in southern Lebanon on 17 August 2006. The blockade was lifted on 8 September 2006. On 1 October 2006, most Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon, though the last of the troops continued to occupy the border straddling village of Ghajar. In the time since the enactment of UNSCR 1701 both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah. .....

Mexican Drug War
91. Years 2006 2012 Battle deaths 83,000 The Mexican Drug War is an ongoing armed conflict between rival drug cartels fighting each other for regional control and against the Mexican government forces. The governments principal goal has been to put down the drug related violence that was raging between different drug cartels before any military intervention was made. In addition, the Mexican government has claimed that their primary focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on drug trafficking prevention, which is left to U.S. functionaries.Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for several decades, they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombias Cali and Medell .....
Kivu Conflict
92. Years 2006 2012 Battle deaths 4,272 The Kivu conflict began as an armed conflict between the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and the Hutu Power group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) in 2004. The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo also became involved in the conflict. Until March 2009, the main combatant group against the FARDC was the rebel Tutsi forces formerly under the command of Laurent Nkunda (National Congress for the Defence of the People, CNDP).CNDP is sympathetic to the Banyamulenge in Eastern Congo, an ethnic Tutsi group, and to the Tutsi dominated government of Rwanda. It was opposed by the FDLR, by the DRCs army, and by United Nations forces. (retrieved 12/12/04) .....
Yemen vs Al Quaeda
93. Years 2009 2012 Battle deaths 3,669 Since 2009, the government has been engaged in an armed conflict over government with the al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).In 2012, the armed conflict between the government of Yemen and AQAP escalated drastically. In May, the Yemeni military launched a large scale offensive in order to regain control of the areas captured by AQAP in 2011. The army, heavily supported by local tribes, pushed AQAP on the defensive and ousted the group from the captured areas, including the important port city Zinjibar. Following the intensive fighting, AQAP made a strategic shift and focused more on high profile assassinations and hit and run attacks. .....
Libyan Civil War
94. Years 2011 2012 Battle deaths 1,928 During 2011 Libya was engulfed in a conflict over governmental power; the incumbent leader col. Muammar Gaddafi was challenged as the wave of popular uprisings; the Arab Spring. The protests in Libya quickly evolved to an organized and armed opposition operating from the eastern city Benghazi. After a much debated resolution, resolution 1973, was passed by the Security Council of the UN a no fly zone was established. The enforcement of the no fly zone came into effect on the 17 March 2011. Despite the aerial support the Libyan rebels; the National Transitional Council (NTC) became involved in a protracted conflict with Gaddafis troops. After just short of half a years fighting the Libyan capital Tripoli came under NTCs control. Two months after that, in October 2011 Gaddafi himself was found and fatally shot. The killing of Gaddafi effectively ended the conflict in Libya. .....
Syrian civil war
95. Years 2011 2012 Battle deaths 15,897 The Syrian civil war, also referred to as the Syrian uprising, is an ongoing armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Baath Party government and those seeking to oust it. The conflict began on 15 March 2011 with nationwide demonstrations as part of the wider protest movement known as the Arab Spring. Protesters demanded the resignation of President Bashar al Assad, as well as the end to nearly five decades of secular Baath Party rule. .....
First and Second Congo Wars
96. Years 1996 2006 Battle deaths 151,377 The first and second Congo Wars took place in the territory of the Democratic Republic of Congo and was one of the deadliest wars in the world since World War II. This conflict is sometimes known as Africas First World War because it at times involved armed forces from more than seven nations as well as numerous rebel groups and militias. The war started in 1996 in the aftermath of the civil war in Rwanda and was formally ended by a peace agreement in 2003. The conflict restarted again in 2006 in the Kivu provinces of northeastern DRC.The recent conflict in the Congo has been rooted in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide and related violence in Burundi which saw hundreds of thousands of Hutus flee both countries into eastern Za .....
South Yemen Coup
97. Years 1986 1986 Battle deaths 10,000 The earlier history of this region can be found at the entry for Hadhramaut. British influence increased among the traditional sultanates in the south and eastern portion of Yemen, historically known as the Hadhramaut after the British captured the port of Aden in 1839. It was ruled as part of British India until 1937, when Aden was made a crown colony with the remaining land designated as east Aden and west Aden protectorates. By 1965, most of the tribal states within the protectorates and the Aden colony proper had joined to form the British sponsored Federation of South Arabia. In 1965, two rival nationalist groups the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the National Liberation Front (NLF) turned to terrorism in their struggle to control the country. In 1967, in the face of uncontrollable violence, British troops began withdrawing, Federation rule collapsed, and NLF elements took control after eliminating their FLOSY rivals. South Arabia, including Aden, was declared independent on November 30, 1967, and was renamed the Peoples Republic of South Yemen. In June 1969, a radical wing of the Marxist NLF gained power and changed the countrys name on December 1, 1970, to the Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY). In the PDRY, all political parties were amalgamated into the Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), which became the only legal party. The PDRY established close ties with the Soviet Union, Red China, Cuba, and radical Palestinians.

Republic of YemenAlthough the governments of the PDRY and the YAR declared that they approved a future union in 1972, little progress was made toward unification, and relations were often strained. In 1979, simmering tensions led to fighting, which was only resolved after Arab League mediation. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait in March 1979. However, that same year the PDRY began sponsoring an insurgency against the YAR. In April 1980, PDRY President Abdul Fattah Ismail resigned and went into exile. His successor, Ali Nasir Muhammad, took a less interventionist stance toward both the YAR and neighboring Oman. On January 13, 1986, a violent struggle began in Aden between Ali Nasir Muhammad and the returned Abdul Fattah Ismail and their supporters. Fighting lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casualties, Ali Nasirs ouster, and Ismails death. Some 60,000 persons, including Ali Nasir and his supporters, fled to the YAR.In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card.In November 1989, the leaders of the YAR (Ali Abdullah Saleh) and the PDRY (Ali Salim al Baidh) agreed on a draft unity constitution originally drawn up in 1981. The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on May 22, 1990. Saleh became President, and al Baidh became Vice President. .....

Sudan Government vs Militias
98. Years 1983 2012 Battle deaths 68,769 The civil war in Sudan is a conflict between the Sudanese Government in Sudan and several militant groups of which some (for example SPLA) strive for an independent south and some (SLA, JEM) for an independent Darfur. The war has been ongoing since the 1980ies. The conflict in Darfur intensified in 2003. UCDP Prior to independence from Britain in 1956, there was a distinct division between southern and northern Sudan. Until 1946, the two regions were administered as separate entities, with northern Sudan being governed by the British protectorate Egypt, while the British themselves administered the southern part. There were large differences between the regions, geographically and culturally, as well as developmentally. Whereas the Arab Muslim north was, and still is, more advanced, the south, which is mainly inhabited by Christian and Animist Africans, was, and continues to be, remote and underdeveloped. When the two regions came together as one country, the colonial rulers handed over power to the Moslem elite in the north, and thus began the northern domination with subsequent tension between the two regions. .....
Nicaragua Govt vs Contras
99. Years 1981 1990 Battle deaths 30,000 Upon assuming office in 1981, U.S. President Ronald Reagan condemned the FSLN for joining with Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries such as El Salvador. His administration authorised the CIA to begin financing, arming and training the remnants of Somozas National Guard as anti Sandinista guerrillas that were branded counter revolutionary by leftists. (contrarrevolucionarios in Spanish) This was inevitably shortened to Contras, a label the anti Communist forces chose to embrace.They operated out of camps in the neighbouring countries of Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The U.S. also sought to place economic pressure on Nicaragua; the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo, and the CIA disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaraguas Corinto harbour, an action condemned by the World Court as illegal. As was typical in guerrilla warfare, the Contras were engaged in a campaign of economic sabotage in an attempt to combat the Sandinista government.

The armed resistance to the Sandinistas in Honduras initially called itself the Nicaraguan Revolutionary Democratic Alliance (ADREN) and was known as the 15th of September Legion. It later formed an alliance, called the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN), which included other groups including MISURASATA and the Nicaraguan Democratic Union. Together, the members of these groups were generally called Contras. The Sandinistas condemned them as terrorists, and human rights organisations expressed serious concerns over reports of Contra attacks on civilians. In 1982, under pressure from Congress, the U.S. State Department declared Contra activities terrorism. The Congressional intelligence committee confirmed reports of Contra atrocities such as rape, torture, summary executions, and indiscriminate killings. After the U.S. Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras in 1983, the Reagan administration continued to back the Contras by covertly selling arms to Iran and channelling the proceeds to the Contras (The Iran Contra affair.) When this scheme was revealed, Reagan admitted that he knew about the Iranian arms for hostages dealings but professed ignorance about the proceeds funding the Contras; for this, National Security Council aide Lt. Col. Oliver North took much of the blame.The Contra war unfolded differently in the northern and southern zones of Nicaragua. Contras based in Costa Rica operated in Nicaraguas Atlantic Coast, which is sparsely populated by indigenous groups including the Miskito, Sumu, Rama, Garifuno, and Mestizo. Unlike Spanish speaking western Nicaragua, the Atlantic Coast is predominantly English speaking and was largely ignored by the Somoza regime. The coste .....

Uganda Civil War
100. Years 1980 2007 Battle deaths 116,044 In February 1981, shortly after the new Obote government took office, with Paulo Muwanga as vice president and minister of defense, a former Military Commission member, Yoweri Museveni, and his armed supporters declared themselves the National Resistance Army (NRA). Museveni vowed to overthrow Obote by means of a popular rebellion, and what became known as the war in the bush began. Several other underground groups also emerged to attempt to sabotage the new regime, but they were eventually crushed. Museveni, who had guerrilla war experience with the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberta .....
Uganda vs Tanzania
101. Years 1978 1979 Battle deaths 4,000 The Uganda Tanzania war (usually referred to in Uganda as the Liberation War) was fought between Uganda and Tanzania in 1978 1979, and led to the overthrow of Idi Amins regime. Idi Amins forces included thousands of troops sent by Muammar Gaddafi, and some Palestinian support.The armed conflict between Tanzania and Uganda concerned the so called Kagera Salient, an 1800 square km strip of Tanzanian territory in the northwestern most part of the country, bordering Uganda. While the territory had been claimed by Uganda many times before, it was not until in November 1978 that the country launched an invasion and declared the Salient to be an integral part of Uganda. After a Tanzanian counter attack in mid November the Ugandan forces were eventually pushed out of the region. .....
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