Lal bahadur shastri

Biography
1. Born: October 2, 1904
Died: January 10, 1966
Achievements: Played a leading role in Indian freedom struggle; became Parliamentary Secretary of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the then chief minister of Uttar Pradesh; became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pants Cabinet; appointed as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet; also held the portfolios of Transport & Communications, Commerce and Industry, and Home Ministry in the Central cabinet; became Prime Minister of India in 1964; led India to victory over Pakistan in 1965 war.Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of independent India. Though diminutive in physical stature he was a man of great courage and will. He successfully led country during the 1965 war with Pakistan. To mobilize the support of country during the war he coined the slogan of Jai Jawan Jai Kisan. Lal Bahadur Sastri also played a key role in Indias freedom struggle. He led his life with great simplicity and honesty and was a great source of inspiration for all the countrymen.

Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Uttar Pradesh. His parents were Sharada Prasad and Ramdulari Devi. Lal Bahadurs surname was Srivastava but he dropped it as he did not want to indicate his caste. Lal Bahadurs father was a school teacher and later on he became a clerk in the Revenue Office at Allahabad. Though Sharada Prasad was poor, he lived a life of honesty and integrity. Lal Bahadur lost his father when he was only one. Ramdulari Devi raised Lal Bahadur and her two daughters at her fathers house.There is a very famous incident regarding Lal Bahadur Shastris childhood which took place when he was six years old. One day, while returning from school, Lal Bahadur and his friends went to an orchard that was on the way to home. Lal Bahadur Shastri was standing below while his friends climbed the trees to pluck mangoes. Meanwhile, the gardener came and caught hold of Lalbahadur Shastri. He scolded Lal Bahadur Shastri and started beating him. Lal Bahadur Shastri pleaded to gardener to leave him as he was orphan. Taking pity on Lal Bahadur, the gardener said, Because you are an orphan, it is all the more important that you must learn better behavior. These words left a deep imprint on Lal Bahadur Shastri and he swore to behave better in the future.

Lal Bahadur stayed at his grandfathers house till he was ten. By that time he had passed the sixth standard examination. He went to Varanasi for higher education. In 1921 when Mahatma Gandhi launched the non cooperation movement against British Government, Lal Bahadur Shastri, was only seventeen years old. When Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to the youth to come out of Government schools and colleges, offices and courts and to sacrifice everything for the sake of freedom, Lal Bahadur came out of his school. Though his mother and relatives advised him not to do so, he was firm in his decision. Lal Bahadur was arrested during the Non cooperation movement but as he was too young he was let off.After his release Lal Bahadur joined Kashi Vidya Peeth and for four years he studied philosophy. In 1926, Lal Bahadur earned the degree of Shastri After leaving Kashi Vidya Peeth, Lal Bahadur Shastri joined The Servants of the People Society, which Lala Lajpat Rai had started in 1921. The aim of the Society was to train youths that were prepared to dedicate their lives in the service of the country. In 1927, Lal Bahadur Shastri married Lalitha Devi. The marriage ceremony was very simple and Shastriji took only a charkha (spinning wheel) and few yards of Khadi in dowry.

In 1930, Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience Movement. Lal Bahadur Shastri joined the movement and encouraged people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the government. He was arrested and put in jail for two and a half years. In jail Shastriji became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers. Lal Bahadur Shastri had great self respect. Once when he was in prison, one of his daughters fell seriously ill. The officers agreed to release him out for a short time but on condition that he should agree in writing not to take part in the freedom movement during this period. Lal Bahadur did not wish to participate in the freedom movement during his temporary release from prison; but he said that he would not give it in writing. He thought that it was against his self respect to give it in writing.

After Second World War started in 1939, Congress launched Individual Satyagraha in 1940 to demand freedom. Lal Bahadur Shastri was arrested during Individual Satyagraha and released after one year. On August 8, 1942, Gandhiji gave the call for Quit India Movement. Lal Bahadur actively participated in the movement. He went underground but was later arrested. Lal Bahadur Shastri was released in 1945 along with other major leaders. He earned the praise of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant by his hard work during the 1946 provincial elections. Lal Bahadurs administrative ability and organization skills came to the fore during this time. When Govind Vallabh Pant became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as his Parliamentary Secretary. In 1947, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pants Cabinet.

Lal Bahadur Sastri was the General Secretary of the Congress Party when the first general elections were held after India became Republic. Congress Party returned to power with a huge majority. In 1952, Jawahar Lal Nehru appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet. Lal Bahadur Shastris contribution in providing more facilities to travelers in third class compartments cannot be forgotten. He reduced the vast disparity between the first class and third class in the Railways. Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned from Railways in 1956, owning moral responsibility for a railway accident. Jawaharlal Nehru tried to persuade Shastriji but Lal Bahadur Shastri refused to budge from his stand. By his action Lal Bahadur Shastri set new standards of morality in public life.In the next general elections when Congress returned to power, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Minister for Transport and Communications and later the Minister for Commerce and Industry. He became the Home Minister in 1961, after the death of Govind Vallabh Pant. In the 1962 India China war Shastriji played a key role in maintaining internal security of the country.

After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri was unanimously elected as the Prime Minister of India. It was a difficult time and the country was facing huge challenges. There was food shortage in the country and on the security front Pakistan was creating problems. In 1965, Pakistan tried to take advantage of Indias vulnerability and attacked India. Mild mannered Lal Bahadur Shastri rose to the occasion and led the country ably. To enthuse soldiers and farmers he coined the slogan of Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan. Pakistan lost the war and Shastrijis leadership was praised all over the world.In January 1966, to broker peace between India and Pakistan, Russia mediated a meeting between Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan in Tashkent, Russia. India and Pakistan signed the joint declaration under Russian mediation. Under the treaty India agreed to return to Pakistan all the territories occupied by it during the war. The joint declaration was signed on January 10, 1966 and Lal Bahadur Shastri died of heart attack on the same night. .....

Life
2. Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1904, to Ramdulari Devi and Sharada Prasad Shrivastava, in Moghalsarai, United Province (Uttar Pradesh). He shares his birthday with Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation. Lal Bahadur was against the prevailing caste system and therefore decided to drop his surname. The title Shastri was given after the completion of his graduation at Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi in 1925. The title Shastri refers to a scholar or a person, adept in the Holy Scriptures.His father Sharada Prasad, a schoolteacher by profession, passed away when Lal Bahadur was barely two years old. His mother Ramdulari Devi took him and his two sisters to their maternal grandfather Hazari Lals house. Lal Bahadur acquired virtues like boldness, love of adventure, patience, self control, courtesy, and selflessness in his childhood. After completing his primary education at Mirzapur, Lal Bahadur was sent to Varanasi, where he stayed with his maternal uncle.

Young Lal Bahadur, inspired with the stories and speeches of national leaders, developed a desire to participate in the Indian nationalist movement. He would also spend time by reading foreign authors like Marx, Russell and Lenin. In 1915, a speech of Mahatma Gandhi changed the course of his life and decided to jump into the fire of Indian freedom struggle.In order to participate actively in the freedom movement, Lal Bahadur neglected his studies. In 1921, during the non cooperation movement, called by Mahatma Gandhi, Lal Bahadur was arrested for demonstrating in defiance of the prohibitory order. Sine he was a minor then, the authority had to release him. In 1928, Lal Bahadur Shastri married Lalita Devi, the youngest daughter of Ganesh Prasad. He was against the prevailing dowry system and so refused to accept dowry. However, on the repeated urging of his father in law, he agreed to accept only five yards of khadi (cotton, usually handspun) cloth as dowry. .....

Active Nationalist
3. In 1930, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the secretary of the Congress party and later the president of the Allahabad Congress Committee. He played a crucial role during the Salt Movement. Lal Bahadur lead a door to door campaign, urging people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the British authority. The leader was also sent to jail for the campaign. During the long span of nine years he spent in jails, Lal Bahadur utilized the time in reading the social reformers and western philosophers. He was one of the leading and prominent faces that continued the Quit India movement, called by Mahatma Gandhi. Lal Bahadur, in 1937, was elected to the UP Legislative Assembly. .....
Post Independence
4. Lal Bahadur Shastri had served in various positions before being elected as the Prime Minister. After Independence, he became the Minister of police in the Ministry of Govind Vallabh Panth in Uttar Pradesh. His recommendations included the introduction of water jets instead of sticks to disperse the unruly mob. Impressed with his efforts in reforming the state police department, Jawaharlal Nehru, invited Shastri to join the Union cabinet as a Minister for railways. He was a responsible man and known for his ethics and morality. In 1956, Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned from his post, following a train accident that killed around 150 passengers near Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu. Nehru, had once said, No one could wish for a better comrade than Lal Bahadur, a man of the highest integrity and devoted to ideas.Lal Bahadur Shastri returned to the Cabinet in 1957, first as the Minister for Transport and Communications, and then as the Minister of Commerce and Industry. In 1961, he became Minister for Home and formed the Committee on Prevention of Corruption headed by of K. Santhanam. .....
Prime Minister
5. Jawaharlal Nehru was succeeded by a mild mannered and soft spoken Lal Bahadur Shastri on 9 June, 1964. He was a follower of Nehruvian socialism. Despite the strong influence and desire of becoming the Prime Minister, of some party stalwarts Shastri emerged as the consensus candidate.Shastri tackled many elementary problems like food shortage, unemployment and poverty. To overcome the acute food shortage, Shastri asked the experts to devise a long term strategy. This was the beginning of famous Green Revolution. Apart from the Green Revolution, he was also instrumental in promoting the White Revolution. The National Dairy Development Board was formed in 1965 during Shastri as Prime Minister.

After the Chinese aggression, the major cross border problems Shastri faced was caused by Pakistan. It sent her forces across the eastern border into the Rann of Kuch in Gujarat. Shastri showing his mettle, made it very clear that India would not sit and watch. While granting liberty to the Security Forces to retaliate He said, Force will be met with force.The Indo Pak war ended on 23 September 1965 after the United Nations passed a resolution demanding a ceasefire. The Russian Prime Minister, Kosygin, offered to mediate and on 10 January 1966, Lal Bahadur Shastri and his Pakistan counterpart Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Declaration. .....

Marriage
6. He got married to the Lalitha Devi of Mirzapur on 16th of May in 1928 and took a charkha and few yards of Khadi as a marriage gift. .....
Non cooperation movement
7. Till the age ten he stayed at his grandfathers home and had passed the 6th standard. He has completed his higher education from Varanasi. He had joined the non cooperation movement against British Government in 1921 by Mahatma Gandhi when he was only seventeen years old. Even he was arrested during that movement but he was firm in his decision. He took part in that movement even after advice from his mother and relatives to not to do so. .....
The servants of the people society
8. He joined the Kashi Vidya Peeth after his release and completed his philosophy study. He got the degree of Shastri in 1926 and after leaving Kashi Vidya Peeth he had joined the The Servants of the People Society started by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1921. The aim of the The Servants of the People Society was to aware youths about their responsibilities towards country. .....
Civil Disobedience Movement
9. In 1930, he joined the Civil Disobedience Movement as there was call to him from Gandhiji. He was called to join that movement in order to encourage people to oppose to pay land profits and taxes to the government. He had to go in jail for two and half years. He got familiar with all the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries as well as social reformers in the jail. .....
Individual Satyagraha
10. Individual Satyagraha was launched by the Congress in 1940 in order to demand freedom just after the Second World War in 1939. He got arrested for one year during that Individual Satyagraha as well. He again got a call from Gandhiji on August 8, 1942 for Quit India Movement. He took part very actively and got arrested for long. He met with the Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant and got good comments for his hard work throughout the 1946 provincial elections. He was appointed as the Parliamentary Secretary of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant (when Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant became the Chief Minister of UP). He became the Police and Transport Minister in Pants Cabinet in 1947.He became the Congress Partys General Secretary as soon as India became Republic. He again appointed as the Minister of Railways and Transport in the Central Cabinet in 1952 by Jawahar Lal Nehru. His contribution for travelers in third class compartments is unforgettable because he had deducted the huge difference between the Railways first class and third class. He resigned from Railways in 1956 after a railway accident.

Again, when Congress came into the power, he became the Transport and Communications Minister and later Commerce and Industry Minister. In 1961, after the death of the Govind Vallabh Pant, he became the Home Minister. He had well maintained the internal security of the country in the India China war in 1962.He was respected the Bal Gangadhar Tilak too much and used to see him for long as well as hear his speech. Once Bal Gangadhar Tilak visited Varanasi and Lal Bahadur Shastri was fifty miles away from Varanasi in a village. He took some money from his friend and traveled in a train to see and hear the speech of Tilak. Tilaks speech ringed in his ears always and had great effect on his life. The greatest effect on his life was that of Mahatma Gandhi and he devoted his life to the country. .....

As a State Minister
11. After the independence of India, he was selected as the Parliamentary Secretary in his own state, Uttar Pradesh. On 15th of August in the year 1947, he allotted as the Minister of Police and Transport under the Chief Ministership of the Govind Ballabh Pant. He was the first Transport Minister who employed women conductors and Minister of Police who ordered to use jets of water in place of lathis to the police to scatter the public crowds. .....
As a Cabinet Minister
12. He was selected as the General Secretary of All India Congress Committee in the year 1951 when Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister. As a General Secretary, he was in charge for the candidates selection and all the activities related to the election. On 3rd of April in 1952, he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha from UP and appointed as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet from 13th of May, 1952 to 7th of December, 1956. After a railways accident at Mahbubnagar in the month of September in 1956, he resigned from the Railways and Transport Ministership which was rejected by the Nehru. After a second railway accident at Ariyalur in the Tamil Nadu, he again resigned from the Railways and Transport Ministership.

He returned to the Cabinet in the year 1957 as a Minister for Transport and Communications and then Minister of Commerce and Industry. He also became the Union Home Minister in the year 1961 and worked on the Prevention of Corruption in the India. .....

Madras anti Hindi agitation
13. When he was assigned as a Prime Minister of the India after the death of the former Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru on 27th of May in 1964, he retained various earlier members from the Council of Jawaharlal Nehru such as Yashwantrao Chavan as a Defence Minister of India, Swaran Singh as an External Affairs Minister, Indira Gandhi as a Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Gulzarilal Nanda as a Minister of Home Affairs of India, T. T. Krishnamachari as a Finance Minister of India and etc.

He also has involved in solving the Madras anti Hindi agitation in the year 1965. As Indian mother tongue (sole national language) is Hindi, it was opposed by some of the Indian states talking non Hindi language like English. In order to handle that situation, he decided in his meeting with Indira Gandhi to continue the English as an official language by the non Hindi speaking states of the India. After his positive assurance the riots was settled to calm. .....

Green Revolution Campaign
14. During his Prime Ministership, he had involved in maintaining as well as enhancing the Indian economy through his great policies. He made his own policies for enhancing the Indian economy as well as continued the socialist economic policies of the former prime minister. He had promoted the most famous national campaign of increasing the supply and production of milk called White Revolution through supporting various dairy companies like Amul milk co operative of Anand of Gujarat and setting up the National Dairy Development Board.

His great involvement to the management of chronic food shortage all over the India can never be forgotten. He had requested to the Indian people to give up their one meal of the day on their own will in order to save some food for the people living in the affected area of food shortage. He had promoted the Green Revolution campaign (by creating his slogan Jai Jawan Jai Kisan) all over the India in order to boost up the food production all across the India during the food shortage during 22 days long Indo Pak war of 1965. .....

Jai Jawan Jai Kisan
15. He was a great Prime Minister of India as he had given his outstanding supports and efforts in making the country a developed country. He is remembered all over the country by the people at his birthday anniversary and death anniversary each year. Even after being an ordinary Indian person he worked so great like an extraordinary man to lead his country.He became a successful Prime Minister of the India as he led the India during its most disastrous conditions like Indo Pak war, food shortage and tec. He had created his own slogan of Jai Jawan Jai Kisan to solve the problem of food shortage all over the India during the Indo Pak war of 1965. .....
His Contribution in the Foreign Policies
16. He had paid great involvement in the foreign policies to enhance the country defense budget by increasing the closer relationship with the Soviet Union after the disastrous condition of the country of Sino Indian War in 1962. He had decided to increase the defense budget of armed forces of the country after the military ties of Chinese Peoples Republic and Pakistan.

He also had signed the agreement of Srimavo Shastri Pact (Bandaranaike Shastri pact) in 1964 with the Prime minister of Sri Lanka (Sirimavo Bandaranaike) considering the Indian Tamils status in the then Ceylon. During this agreement sign up a big settlement was done between India and Sri Lanka, around 600,000 Indian Tamils were freed up and around 375,000 were granted citizenship of Sri Lanka. However, on 31st of October in 1981, this settlement was lapsed by India due to the death of the Lal Bahadur Shastri and only 300,000 Indian Tamils were repatriated and only 185,000 were granted citizenship by the Sri Lanka. .....

Indo Pak War
17. He was a great warrior who led the India to get victory in the Indo Pak War in the year 1965. He had said in his statement that during the economic development of the country, we would favor to be alive in the poverty for long time according to the necessity but we never let our freedom to be threatened. The purpose of Pakistan was Kashmir during the Indo Pak War, however, Lal Bahadur Shashtri made them clear that force would be answered only with force. After a long period of time, the Indo Pak war finished on 23rd of September in the year 1965 with the involvement of United Nation to ceasefire peaceful coexistence.After the end of war between India and Pakistan, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan went for a meeting in the Tashkent where both of them had signed the Tashkent Declaration on 10th of January in the year 1966. .....
Lal Bahadur Shastri Death Mystery
18. He endured a fatal heart attack some hours after signing a treaty on 10th of January in 1966, in which India and Pakistan have the same opinion to not to interfere in each other internal affairs as well as never force or settle disputes between them by the peaceful means. He died on 11th of January in the year 1966. .....
Great achievements
19. He played a great and leading role for the freedom of India. He became the Pandit Govind Vallabh Pants Parliamentary Secretary followed by the chief minister of UP. In the Pants Cabinet he became the Minister of Police as well as Transport and allotted as the Minister of the Railways and Transport in the Central Cabinet. He also apprehended the assortments of Commerce and Industry, Transport and Communications, as well as the Home Ministry in the Central cabinet. .....
Bharat Ratna
20. He was a dazzling star of an Indian history. The President of India bestowed him the award of Bharat Ratna after his death. .....
Domestic policies
21. Shastri retained many members of Nehrus Council of Ministers. T. T. Krishnamachari was retained as the Finance Minister of India, as was Defence Minister Yashwantrao Chavan. He appointed Swaran Singh to succeed him as External Affairs Minister. He also appointed Indira Gandhi, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru and former Congress President, as the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Gulzarilal Nanda continued as the Minister of Home Affairs.

Shastris tenure witnessed the Madras anti Hindi agitation of 1965. The government of India had for a long time made an effort to establish Hindi as the sole national language of India. This was resisted by the non Hindi speaking states particularly Madras State. To calm the situation, Shastri gave assurances that English would continue to be used as the official language as long the non Hindi speaking states wanted. The riots subsided after Shastris assurance, as did the student agitation. .....

Economic policies
22. Shastri continued Nehrus socialist economic policies with central planning. He promoted the White Revolution a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk by supporting the Amul milk co operative of Anand, Gujarat and creating the National Dairy Development Board. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, Prime Minister of India, visited Anand on 31 October 1964 for inauguration of the Cattle Feed Factory of Amul at Kanjari. As he was keenly interested in knowing the success of this co operative, spent a whole night with farmers in a village, even had dinner with a farmer discusses his wish to Mr Verghese Kurien, then the General Manager of Kaira District Co operative Milk Producers Union Ltd (Amul) to replicate this model to other parts of the country for improving the socio economic conditions of farmers. As a result of this visit, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established at Anand in 1965.

While speaking on the chronic food shortages across the country, Shastri urged people to voluntarily give up one meal so that the saved food could be distributed to the affected populace. He himself motivate the countrymen to maximize the cultivation of food grains by plough the lawn in his official residence in New Delhi.Shastri hated the idea of going around with a begging bowl. So he hit upon a novel idea. He went on air to appeal to his countrymen to skip a meal a week. The response was overwhelming. Even restaurants and eateries downed the shutters on Monday evenings. Many parts of the country observe the Shastri Vrat. First he implement the system in his own family before appealing to the country men.During the 22 day war with Pakistan in 1965, On October 19, 1965, Shastri gave the seminal .....

Foreign policies
23. Shastri continued Nehrus policy of non alignment but also built closer relations with the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the Sino Indian War of 1962 and the formation of military ties between the Chinese Peoples Republic and Pakistan, Shastris government decided to expand the defence budget of Indias armed forces.In 1964, Shastri signed an accord with the Sri Lankan Prime minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike regarding the status of Indian Tamils in the then Ceylon.This agreement is also known as the Srimavo Shastri Pact or the Bandaranaike Shastri pact.Under the terms of this agreement, 600,000 Indian Tamils were to be repatriated, while 375,000 were to be granted Sri Lankan citizenship. This settlement was to be done by 31 October 1981. However, after Shastris death, by 1981, India had taken only 300,000 Tamils as repatriates, while Sri Lanka had granted citizenship to only 185,000 citizens (plus another 62,000 born after 1964). Later, India declined to consider any further applications for citizenship, stating that the 1964 agreement had lapsed.

In December 1965 Lal Bahadur Shastri made an official visit with his Family to Rangoon, Burma and re established a cordial relation with the countrys Military government of General Ne Win. Indias relationship with Burma stained after the 1962 Military coup followed by Lakhs of Indian Family most of them are Tamils and Bengalis repatriate to India from 1964.The central government in New Delhi monitored the overall process of repatriation and arranged for identification and then transportation of the Indian returnees from Burma back into India, it fell under the responsibilities of local governments to provide adequate facilities to shelter the repatriates upon disembarkation on Indian soil. Particularly in the Madras State the Chief Minister during that time Mr. Minjur K. Bhaktavatsalam shown great care in rehabilitation of the returnees. .....

War with Pakistan
24. Shastris greatest moment came when he led India in the 1965 Indo Pak War.Laying claim to half the Kutch peninsula, the Pakistani army skirmished with Indian forces in August, 1965. In his report to the Lok Sabha on the confrontation in Kutch, Shastri stated.In the utilization of our limited resources, we have always given primacy to plans and projects for economic development. It would, therefore, be obvious for anyone who is prepared to look at things objectively that India can have no possible interest in provoking border incidents or in building up an atmosphere of strife... In these circumstances, the duty of Government is quite clear and this duty will be discharged fully and effectively... We would prefer to live in poverty for as long as necessary but we shall not allow our freedom to be subverted.

Under a scheme proposed in June 1965 by British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, Pakistan obtained 10%, in place of their original claim of 50% of the territory. But Pakistans aggressive intentions were also focused on Kashmir. When armed infiltrators from Pakistan began entering the State of Jammu and Kashmir, Shastri made it clear to Pakistan that force would be met with force. In September 1965, major incursions of militants and Pakistani soldiers began, hoping not only to break down the government but incite a sympathetic revolt. The revolt did not happen, and India sent its forces across the Ceasefire Line (now Line of Control) and threatened Pakistan by crossing the International Border near Lahore as war broke out on a general scale. Massive tank battles occurred in the Punjab, and while the Pakistani forces made some gains, Indian forces captured the key post at Haji Pir, in Kashmir, and brought the Pakistani city of Lahore under artillery and mortar fire.

On 17 September 1965, while the Indo Pak war was on, India received a letter from China alleging that the Indian army had set up army equipment in Chinese territory, and India would face Chinas wrath, unless the equipment was pulled down. In spite of the threat of aggression from China, Shastri declared Chinas allegation is untrue. If China attacks India it is our firm resolve to fight for our freedom. The might of China will not deter us from defending our territorial integrity. The Chinese did not respond, but the Indo Pak war resulted in some 34,000 casualties on each side and significant loss of material.The Indo Pak war ended on 23 September 1965 with a United Nations mandated ceasefire. By that time, India had inflicted a crushing defeat on Pakistan. In a broadcast to the nation on the day the of ceasefire, Shastri stated.While the conflict between the armed forces of the two countries has come to an end, the more important thing for the United Nations and all those who stand for peace is to bring to an end the deeper conflict.... How can this be brought about? In our view, the only answer lies in peaceful coexistence. India has stood for the principle of coexistence and championed it all over the world. Peaceful coexistence is possible among nations no matter how deep the differences between them, how far apart they are in their political and economic systems, no matter how intense the issues that divide them. During his tenure as Prime Minister, Shastri visited many countries including Russia, Yugoslavia, England, Canada, Nepal, Egypt and Burma.[8] Incidentally en route to the Non Alliance Conference in Cairo he met the Pakistan President Ayub Khan at Karachi Airport during fuel refilling in 1964. After the declaration of ceasefire with Pakistan in 1965, Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan attended a summit in Tashkent (former USSR, now in modern Uzbekistan), organized by Alexei Kosygin. On 10 January 1966, Shastri and Khan signed the Tashkent Declaration. .....

Memorials
25. Shastri was known for his honesty and humility throughout his life. He was the first person to be posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, and a memorial Vijay Ghat was built for him in Delhi.Several educational institutes, Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (Mussorie, Uttarakhand) is after his name.Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management was established in Delhi by the Lal Bahadur Shastri Educational Trust in 1995 as is one of the top business schools in India.The Shastri Indo Canadian Institute was named after Shastri due to his role in promoting scholarly activity between India and Canada.Lal Bhadur Shastri Memorial run by Lal Bahadur Shastri National Memorial Trust, is situated next to 10 Janpath his residence as Prime Minister, at 1, Motilal Nehru Place, New Delhi. .....
Freedoms Soldier
26. The struggle for freedom was intensifield all over the country in 1930. Mahatma Gandhi started the Salt Satyagraha. Lal Bahadur took a leading role in it.At the age of seventeen Lal Bahadur had participated in a procession against the British Government. The government had arrested him and then freed him. But this time it did not let him off easily. He had been calling on people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the government and the government had been keeping a wary eye on him. Now he was sent to prison for two and a half years.From this time onwards prison became his second home. He was sent to prison seven times and was forced to spend nine long years in various prisons on different occasions.His going to prison was a blessing in disguise. He had time to read a number of good books. He became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers. He translated the autobiography of Madam Curie (a French scientist who discovered radium) into Hindi.Lal Bahadurs virtues shone even in the prison. He was a ideal prisoner. He was a model to others in discipline and restraint. Many political prisoners used to quarrel among themselves for small things. They used to cringe for small favors before the officials of the prison. But Lal Bahadur used to give up his comforts for others. .....
The Responsibility of Freedom
27. Later, in 1947, Lal Bahadur became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pants Ministry. He took many steps to bring discipline into the administration. As Transport Minister he subjected government buses to discipline. He was the first to appoint women conductors. Usually the minister in charge of the Police Department will not remain popular for long. But Lal Bahadur Shastri never allowed the police to resort to lathi charge and firing. He ordered that using jets of water instead of lathis should disperse unruly crowds. Though there were many strikes in Uttar Pradesh when he was in office, there was not a single occasion when people shouted slogans against him.

Lal Bahadur was a lover of cricket. Once he was watching a match at Kanpur. Trouble broke out among the spectators. The Police and young men came to blows. Since Shastriji was on the spot thesituation did not go out of control. The young men demanded that the red turbans (thepolice) should not be found on the cricket ground and Lal Bahadur agreed. But the police were there the next day. The young men became angry with Shastriji and protested. Lal Bahadur laughed and said, I fulfilled my promise to you faithfully. You did not want red turbans to be here. You see the police are now wearing khaki turbans. The spectators laughed and dropped the matter. .....

China Cannot Frighten Us
28. Just at this time another danger threatened India. China sent a letter, which said, The Indian army has set up army equipment in Chinese territory. India should pull down this equipment. Otherwise it will have to face the wrath of China.At that moment India was fighting against the Pakistani army equipped with the latest weapons supplied in plety by the United States of America. And, at this very moment how was India to resist China.Chinas allegations were a bundle of lies. If India removed the military equipment she would be admitting that Chinas charges were true. Also, that would mean India was afraid of China.Even the big nations waited breathlessly to see what Lal Bahadur would say and what India would do.Lal Bahadur did not take long to give a reply. The letter from China was received on the morning of 17th September 1965. He made a statement in the Parliament the same afternoon. He declared: Chinas allegation is untrue. If China attacks India it is our firm resolve to fight for our freedom. The might of China will not deter us from defending our territorial integrity.

China kept quiet.Indias soldiers had no fear of death and fought most splendidly and heroically. The army and the air force functioned like the two arms of a single body. The invaders were beaten. The Pakistani army could not stand against the Indian army. It was then that, for the first time, the world came to realize the supremacy of the Indian army. .....

Force will be met with force
29. Even before the ink with which they had signed the Kutch agreement dried up, Pakisthan raised its hood to strike again. Pakistani soldiers entered Kashmir in disguise. In September 1965 there was a large scale invasion of the territory by Pakistani soldiers in the Chhamb area. War broke out all along the Cease fire Line on the Kashmir border.The enemies who had managed to enter Kashmir were cunning and mischievous. Pakistan also tried to incite Indian Muslims. The Pakisthan army was engaged in forcibly occupying areas, which belonged to India. There was the danger of the fighting spreading to the eastern border also. In addition to this, there was the threat posed by the Chinese on the northern borders of India. Lal Bahadur Shastri faced all these problems with a will of iron. It was at this time that the country understood the greatness of Lal Bahadur Shastri. He decided that was the time to teach Pakistan a lesson. He gave full freedom to the Commander of the Army. Go forward and strike was Shastrijis command to the generals.

Addressing the nation on 13th August 1965 Shastriji referred to Pakistans threats and said, Force will be met with force. Two days later, during the celebration of Independence day, he declared from the ramparts of the Red Fort: It does not matter if we are destroyed. We will fight to the last to maintain the high honor of the Indian nation and its flag. .....

Death
30. Lal Bahadur Shastri, who had earlier suffered two heart attacks, died of the third cardiac arrest on 11 January, 1966. He is the only Indian Prime Minister, to have died in office, overseas. Lal Bahadur Shastri was the first person to be posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, (Indias highest civilian award). .....
Most Expensive Yachts Ever Built
Al Mirqab. Price: $250 million You know what they say about people with big names big yachts. Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, former Prime Minister of Qatar, owns this quarter billion dollar monster. .....
Most Photogenic and breathtaking places in the world
Awesome Flower Street. Awesome Flowers offers beautiful fresh flower arrangements in Houston TX. Our expert florists create the perfect gifts to suit any special occasion. Awesome Flowers also offers quick and easy floral delivery around Houston. Need flowers delivered acr .....
What to Eat in Bihar
Makai ki Roti. Kneed the atta with water, keep aside for rest, until it is firm, then make a roti out of it and bake it till golden. .....
Fitness Tips
Eat alkaline promoting foods. Research suggests that eating too many acidic foods can damage our lungs and kidneys. Balance out the acidity with foods that promote an alkaline body environment. Eat lots of root vegetables, cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, and brusse .....
Interior Essentials
Utilizing Your Cabinets Perfectly. Though cabinets look well in your living room; these however serve a multiple purpose. Cabinets in the dining room are often referred to as buffets, credenzas or sideboards, can help you arrange your china or linens. Or you can try to install a medic .....
Healthy Knee
Dont be afraid to isolate after traumatic injury. Most of the time, isolation exercises totally suck, especially if strength and or performance are your primary goals. However, in a rehabilitation setting the rules can, and need, to change.Following my knee scope, I started back into training with b .....
Make your home like a hotel
Bright and Green. I love the hard geometry of the chest next to the frilly curtains, Olsen says. To add a soft touch to the metal Heimdal bed from Ikea, he slipcovered a length of foam in Schumachers Hong Kong for a headboard. Duvet cover and pillow shams by Schweitze .....
Beautiful Christmas Markets
Southampton England. Southampton hosts a Bavarian-style Christmas market in its city centre from 21 November to 28 December this year. .....
Best Foods to Eat to Gain Muscle
Black Beans. This particular bean is rich in vitamins B, K, C and A and low in saturated fats. Along with its high protein and fiber content, this bean has 15 grams of fiber and protein per cup. Black beans provide a caloric dense carbohydrate perfect for muscle .....
Precautions while using Touch Screen Mobile
Features. Other aspects to consider while choosing a touchscreen cell phone are battery life, standby time, operating system, memory capacity, processor speed, expandable memory, and the built in features that come with the phone. Each of these attributes has .....
Benefits of Bitter Gourd
Folates. Fresh pods are a good source of folates. 100 grams of fresh pods provide 72 .....
World Carnival
Pflasterspektakel Austria. Pflasterspektakel is an annual street art festival in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. It includes musical acts, juggling, acrobatics, pantomime, improvisational theatre, clownery, fire dancing, painting, samba parades, as well as a programme for .....
Famous Hill Station of India
Matheran. It is Asias only automobile free hill station, providing the cleanest and freshest air and atmosphere to dwell in. The most mesmerizing part of the trip is the toy train ride from Neral to Matheran that covers the entire topography of the hill statio .....
Fitness Stretching
Recumbent Hip External Rotator and Hip Extensor Stretch Crossed Leg. Hip Stretches: Method:Lie on your back on a comfortable surface. Bend the left leg so that the knee is raised up off the floor while keeping the left foot on the floor. Bend the right knee and cross the right ankle over and just above the left knee. .....
Celebrities Pulling Weird Faces
Cara Delevingne. Its nice to know Cara Delevingne doesnt take things too seriously. Here she is at the British Fashion Awards with her well-deserved award for Model of the Year 2014. .....
Retro Toys That Are Now Worth A Fortune
Transformers Optimus Prime and Megatron. If you have the original Optimus Prime and/or Megratron action figures, you could be looking at earnings somewhere around $800 $900 bucks. .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Website Speed. There are free tools that test how fast your website loads. Too slow? You will loose visitors. Here are some sites where you can test you site speed. Webpagetest.org Gtmetrix.com Tools.pingdom.com Speedtest.net .....
Interior Design Ideas
Put your bed to work. When space is at a premium, make every piece of furniture earn its keep. This sleek bed has storage in the headboard for books, plus under bed storage for clothes. Clever. .....
Most Amazing Tree Tunnels
Yew Tunnel UK. The Yew Tunnel is thought to have been planted by the Dyer family during the eighteenth century, and it is possibly unique in the U.K. When they had grown tall they were bent over to form an extended arch.?Their trunks have spread and their branches .....
Benefits of Brussel
Pregnancy support. Brussels sprouts is high in folate (B9) which helps in fetal development. Before and during pregnancy, folate prevents the occurrence of neurological defects, such as spina bifida, in the fetus. It is one of the excellent vegetable sources for vitami .....
Spookiest Abandoned Places
Red Sands Sea Forts Sealand United Kingdom. Built off the coast of England during World War II for coastal protection, these forts are now abandoned. .....
What to Eat in Rajsthan
Ghevar. Ghevar is a Rajasthani sweet traditionally associated with the Teej Festival. It is disc shaped, and made from oil, flour and sugar syrup. There are many varieties of Ghevar, including plain, mawa and malai ghevar.It is very famous in the adjoining s .....
Benefits of Star Apple
Keeping Quality. Ripe fruits remain in good condition for 3 weeks at 37.4 .....
Precautions while using Computer and Laptops
Get a screen saver for your LED Screen. Often while moving from one place to the other, we close the laptop and place it into a laptop bag which is cool enough to make the laptop safe. But whats happening inside a close laptop is but discouraging, most of the times your keyboards keys touc .....
Worlds Awesomest Tunnels
Zhongnanshan. Shaanxi Province, China Anything that breaks up the monotony of driving half an hour through a pressurized tube is welcome, so consider the Zhongnanshan tunnel, which is lined with, uh, lifelike palm trees and tropical grass. American engineers could .....
Amazing Dances Around The World
Break Dance. Also known as B boying This athletic and extremely visual solo dance form originated among African American and Puerto Rican youths in New York City during the early 1970s. .....
Most Beautiful Christian College and University Campuses in the World
Uganda Christian University. Uganda Christian University, set in the heart of the beautiful continent of Africa, is arguably one of the most beautiful college campuses throughout not only Africa, but the world. Right in the city of Mukono, Uganda, about 25 kilometers outside the .....
Benefits of Strawberries
Anti anemic. Strawberries can help prevent and fight certain types of anemia, due to their high content in folate, which is essential for the synthesis of hemoglobin, the protein in red cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. .....
Essential Photography Tips
Use a wide aperture for portraits. Anyone with a cat knows that when they're hunting or playing their irises contract to enlarge the size of their pupils. This has the same effect as widening the aperture in a camera lens: it makes the subject they are focusing on very sharp while cau .....
Best Foods to Eat If You Start Feeling Sick
Oregano. Antiviral, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory, oil of oregano is extremely powerful and has been shown to fight viruses. It inhibits the growth of unwelcome pathogens, and has myriad other health uses to warrant it a spot in your medicine cabinet. A .....
Travelling Tips
Spend Credit Earn Miles. If youre the type of person who actually pays off his credit card bill on time and in full, get a card thats affiliated with an airline or hotel you like. The first purchase bonuses alone usually translate into a free domestic flight or a nights hote .....
World Wonders
Royal Caribbean s Allure. Royal Caribbean's Allure of the Seas is four football fields long, can accommodate 5,400 passengers and 2,400 crew members, and even has a Starbucks. The ship is so tall it has telescoping funnels to allow it to pass under bridges .....
Beautiful Reasons to Visit Australia
LORD HOWE ISLAND. This UNESCO World Heritage site is located 410 miles (660 kilometers) off the north coast of New South Wales and allows only 10,000 tourists each year in an effort to protect the crystal clear waters and wildlife.Snorkeling, diving, kayaking, bird wa .....
Benefits of Oregano
Taxonomy. Many subspecies and strains of oregano have been developed by humans over centuries for their unique flavors or other characteristics. Tastes range from spicy or astringent to more complicated and sweet. Simple oregano sold in garden stores as Origa .....
What to Eat in Tamil Nadu
Chmchm. Chmchm, goes back about 150 years. The modern version of this ovalshaped sweet is reddish brown in colour and has a denser texture than the rshogolla. It can also be preserved longer. Granules of maoa or dried milk can also be sprinkled over chmchm. .....
Classic Ideas For Styling Long Hair
Polished Twisted Bun. Twisted buns are always suitable for Indian women with long hair. Long thick hair and high bun, both sound quite relevant to each other. Don t believe us. Rather, check out this hairstyle. Just, twist up your polished locks and make a huge high bun a .....
Rules to play Darts
Feats. Various darting accomplishments.Every Professional Darts Corporation tournament is operated under the rules. .....
Rules to play Aquatics
Water vortex rules. An adult must accompany non swimming children. Non swimmers must wear a lifejacket. Swimmers must be at least 48 tall or accompanied by an adult. Use caution when entering and exiting the water vortex. .....
Major Wars Of 20th Century
Southern Lebanon War. Years 2006 2006 Battle deaths 821 The 2006 Lebanon War, known in Lebanon as the July War and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War, was a 34 day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary force .....
Rules to play High Jump
The object. The object of the game is to jump higher than your opponents. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Superstar Ingredients Your antiaging oil kit. These essential oils are for use diluted in a base or carrier oil for massage, baths, and conditioning treatments. Frankincense is great for toning, lifting, and antiwrinkle effects. It also helps to deepen breathing and enhance meditation. Lavende .....
Benefits of Fennel Seeds
Pleasant smelling herb. Fennel is a perennial, pleasant smelling herb with yellow flowers. It is native to the Mediterranean, but is now found throughout the world. Dried fennel seeds are often used in cooking as an anise flavored spice. But don .....
Ideal for Cooking
Asparagus And Arugula Salad. Very simple ingredients and a bold flavor. A hearty salad option featuring asparagus, arugula, avocado oil, and a simple vinaigrette. .....
Hanuman
HOW HANUMAN GOT HIS POWERS BACK. All the Vanar sena (monkey soldier), Hanumanji, Angad and Jambhavant started looking for Mother Sita in every direction. But their search yield no result and they all sat by the ocean all distressed. Then Hanumanji met Sampati whose brother Jatayu w .....
Street Food in India
Mirchi Bajji. The famous Hyderabadi style mirchi bajjis is a common snack or appetizer, stuffed green chili fritters. Though mirchi bajjis are found with different stuffings from at different regions in India but Hyderabadi style mirchi bajjis are the best one to .....
Tips for Success in Law School
Use memory to advantage. Unlike undergraduate school, the courses that one takes in law school need to be remembered because of the bar exam and legal practice. Cramming does not reinforce memory because the information never gets into your long term memory filing cabinet a .....
The Best Value Summer Destinations
MEXICO. Mexico has consistently received high ratings as a retirement destination. The warm climate, reasonable cost of living and cheaper property rates that the US bring it up to the third spot. .....
Bollywood Beautiful Queens
Madhuri Dixit. When she smiles I feel like crying with joy,its just so beautiful.She makes everyones heart go dhak dhak!Truly the epitome of feminity.One of the most mesmerizing beauties of Hindi cinema. The one and only one Most Iconic Bwood Beauty. Madhuri Dixit .....
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Successful teachers have a sense of humor. Humor and wit make a lasting impression. It reduces stress and frustration, and gives people a chance to look at their circumstances from another point of view. If you interviewed 1000 students about their favorite teacher, Ill bet 95% of them were h .....
Sydney
Bondi Beach. Bondi Beach or Bondi Bay is a popular beach and the name of the surrounding suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.Bondi Beach is located 7 km (4 mi) east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Waverley Council .....
Benefits of Apples
Decrease your risk of diabetes. Women who eat at least one apple a day are 28 percent less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who dont eat apples. Apples are loaded with soluble fibre, the key to blunting blood sugar swings. .....
Billiards Pool Game for Beginners
Angled Shots. Practicing straight shots can improve your technique, but easy shots like that rarely come along in actual games. So its time to get comfortable with angled shots.To improve your angled shots, keep the target ball close the pocket at first. Imagine a .....
Best Black Mehndi Designs
Designs 8. Here s another glamorous black mehndi design that will easily add to the beauty of the bride s hands on her special day. The alternating filled and empty rhombus patterns with intricately done minute and varied patterns looks extremely alluring and a .....
Most Amazing Fountains Around The World
Multimedia fountain Wroclaw Poland. The Wroc?aw Fountain is located in the historic Wroc?aw exhibition ground. It is next to the early modernist Centennial Hall and encircled within the Wroc?aw Pergola.Built in 2009 it is currently one of the largest operating fountains in Europe.The .....
Benefits of Almonds
Ideal Makeup Remover. Almond oil is a light and less greasy option that acts as an ideal makeup remover. Almond oil effectively opens the pores and ensures all makeup is properly removed. .....
Tips for Success in Law School
Review review review. Just because you dont have an exam until the end of the semester does not mean that you should wait until the reading period to begin your review. This is not undergraduate school. You cannot cram right before finals and get good grades. Therefore, m .....
Precautions while using Electrical Equipment
Get rid of dampness. Regularly check for any telltale signs of dampness, at and/or around your electrical boards. Such dampness can increase the risk factor while handling the wires and cables. Make sure that all the switches and cable circuits in your home are set up at .....
Healthy Shoulder
Warm up Your Shoulders. The shoulders are involved in a large variety of exercises and movements. Duh! So, it would only make sense that you warm them up appropriately before engaging in any activity, right? Im sure that you already warm them up before you do your should .....
Benefits of Beetroot
Beetroot juice is laxative and diuretic. Beetroot juice is laxative and diuretic, so excess consumption can cause intestinal or stomach upset. Different cultivars exist; red, orange yellow and white verities. The unique crimson red color of red beet is due to betalain pigments, such as beta .....
Largest Shopping Malls Of The World
Jamuna Future Park. Under construction in Dhaka, Bangladesh this mall will be the largest in South Asia at 4 million square feet.Jamuna Future Park (abbreviated JFP) is the largest shopping mall in South Asia, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was inaugurated on 6 Septem .....
Benefits of Artichoke
Liver Function and Fatty Foods. Bile produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder is what helps us digest fats and remove dangerous toxins. Cynarin in artichokes boosts bile production and is very beneficial to the health of your liver. Artichokes also contain the flavonoid .....
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
The Man of Steel. But the rulers of Junagadh and Hyderabad were plotting secretly to Join Pakistan.Patel sent an army under Brigadier Gurudayalsimha to the border of Junagadh to deal with Pakistan. The people of the state who wished to join India rebelled against the .....
Benefits of Grapes
Quercitin. This is another phytonutrient present in grapes that has been found to demonstrate antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Research also indicates that this particular property could lower the risks of developing a blood clot. .....
The Priciest Lego Sets On The Market Right Now
Imperial Shuttle 10212. No doubt one of the coolestStar WarsLego sets, theImperialShuttlewas designed so well it barely looks like Lego after you put together all 2,503 pieces. Once complete on its stand, the ship measures 28-inches tall (71cm) by 22-inches wide (57cm) with .....
The Summer Vacation Tips
Drive past the drivethru. If youre driving to your getaway, plan where and when youll be stopping for meals before hitting the road. Itll give you more flexibility when choosing a healthier restaurantor figuring out the best options. And of course, pack your own healthy snack .....
Success Tips For Life
Lay Your Energy Line. Creative teams juggle multiple projects at once. The constant streams of ideas lead to more ideas. As energy is spread across projects like peanut butter, prioritization is all but lost. Energy Lines are a simple way to prioritize and use design to g .....
Benefits of Lemon
Lemon Pepper. One of my favorite seasonings, and easy to make. Check out Lemon Pepper Seasoning by Simply Scratch. .....
Benefits of Cucumber
Calcium. Cucumber juice serves as a vegan-friendly source of calcium, an essential mineral. Hydroxyapatite, the mineral tissue that adds strength to your teeth and bones, contains calcium, and getting enough calcium helps retain your bone density. Your muscle .....
Automobile Racing
Touring car racing. Touring car racing is a style of road racing that is run with production derived race cars. It often features full contact racing due to the small speed differentials and large grids.The major touring car championships conducted worldwide are the V8 .....
Tips to successful Relationship
Compromise. Relationships are about not only taking, but also giving. If you find yourself not giving very much, or feeling resentful of how much you give and how little you receive back, you may be in an unequal relationship where one side is taking more than t .....
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