Jawaharlal nehru

Biography
1. Born: November 14, 1889
Died: May 27, 1964
Achievements: Took active part in NonCooperation Movement, elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the citys chief executive, Presided over Congress annual session in Lahore in 1929 and passed a resolution demanding Indias independence, elected as Congress President in 1936, 1937, and 1946, became first Prime Minister of independent India, was one of the main architects of Non Aligned Movement.Jawaharlal Nehru, also known as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was one of the foremost leaders of Indian freedom struggle. He was the favourite disciple of Mahatma Gandhi and later on went on to become the first Prime Minister of India. Jawahar Lal Nehru is widely regarded as the architect of modern India. He was very fond of children and children used to affectionately call him Chacha Nehru.

Jawahar Lal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889. His father Motilal Nehru was a famous Allahabad based barrister. Jawaharlal Nehrus mothers name was Swaroop Rani. Jawaharlal Nehru was the only son of Motilal Nehru. Motilal Nehru has three daughters apart from Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehrus were Saraswat Brahmin of Kashmiri lineage.Jawaharlal Nehru received education in some of the finest schools and universities of the world. He did his schooling from Harrow and completed his Law degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. The seven years he spent in England widened his horizons and he acquired a rational and skeptical outlook and sampled Fabian socialism and Irish nationalism, which added to his own patriotic dedication.Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India in 1912 and started legal practice. He married Kamala Nehru in 1916. Jawahar Lal Nehru joined Home Rule League in 1917. His real initiation into politics came two years later when he came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi in 1919. At that time Mahatma Gandhi had launched a campaign against Rowlatt Act. Nehru was instantly attracted to Gandhis commitment for active but peaceful, civil disobedience. Gandhi himself saw promise and Indias future in the young Jawaharlal Nehru.

Nehru family changed its family according to Mahatma Gandhis teachings. Jawaharlal and Motilal Nehru abandoned western clothes and tastes for expensive possessions and pastimes. They now wore a Khadi Kurta and Gandhi cap. Jawaharlal Nehru took active part in the Non Cooperation Movement 19201922) and was arrested for the first time during the movement. He was released after few months.Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the citys chief executive. This proved to be a valuable administrative experience for stood him in good stead later on when he became the prime minister of the country. He used his tenure to expand public education, health care and sanitation. He resigned in 1926 citing lack of cooperation from civil servants and obstruction from British authorities.

From 1926 to 1928, Jawaharlal served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee. In 192829, the Congresss annual session under President Motilal Nehru was held. During that session Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose backed a call for full political independence, while Motilal Nehru and others wanted dominion status within the British Empire. To resolve the point, Gandhi said that the British would be given two years to grant India dominion status. If they did not, the Congress would launch a national struggle for full, political independence. Nehru and Bose reduced the time of opportunity to one year. The British did not respond.In December 1929, Congresss annual session was held in Lahore and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the President of the Congress Party. During that sessions a resolution demanding Indias independence was passed and on January 26, 1930 in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled free Indias flag. Gandhiji gave a call for Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. The movement was a great success and forced British Government to acknowledge the need for major political reforms.

When the British promulgated the Government of India Act 1935, the Congress Party decided to contest elections. Nehru stayed out of the elections, but campaigned vigorously nationwide for the party. The Congress formed governments in almost every province, and won the largest number of seats in the Central Assembly. Nehru was elected to the Congress presidency in 1936, 1937, and 1946, and came to occupy a position in the nationalist movement second only to that of Gandhi. Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested in 1942 during Quit India Movement. Released in 1945, he took a leading part in the negotiations that culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947.In 1947, he becamethe first Prime Minister of independent India. He effectively coped with the formidable challenges of those times: the disorders and mass exodus of minorities across the new border with Pakistan, the integration of 500odd princely states into the Indian Union, the framing of a new constitution, and the establishment of the political and administrative infrastructure for a parliamentary democracy.

Jawaharlal Nehru played a key role in building modern India. He set up a Planning Commission, encouraged development of science and technology, and launched three successive fiveyear plans. His policies led to a sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. Nehru also played a major role in developing independent Indias foreign policy. He called for liquidation of colonialism in Asia and Africa and along with Tito and Nasser, was one of the chief architects of the nonaligned movement. He played a constructive, mediatory role in bringing the Korean War to an end and in resolving other international crises, such as those over the Suez Canal and the Congo, offering Indias services for conciliation and international policing. He contributed behind the scenes toward the solution of several other explosive issues, such as those of West Berlin, Austria, and Laos.But Jawahar Lal Nehru couldnt improve Indias relations with Pakistan and China. The Kashmir issue proved a stumbling block in reaching an accord with Pakistan, and the border dispute prevented a resolution with China. The Chinese invasion in 1962, which Nehru failed to anticipate, came as a great blow to him and probably hastened his death. Jawaharlal Nehru died of a heart attack on May 27, 1964. .....

Early years
2. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889, to a wealthy Kashmiri Brahmin family in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father Motilal Nehru was a renowned advocate and also an influential politician.The atmosphere in the Nehru family was different from that of other prominent families of that society. English was spoken and encouraged. His father, Motilal Nehru had appointed some English and Scottish teachers at home.For higher education, young Nehru was sent to Harrow school and then later to Cambridge University in England. After spending two years at the Inner Temple, London, he qualified as a barrister. During his stay in London, Nehru was attracted by the ideas of liberalism, socialism and nationalism. In 1912, he had returned to India and joined the Allahabad High Court Bar.Nehru was born to a family of Kashmiri Brahmans, noted for their administrative aptitude and scholarship, who had migrated to Delhi early in the 18th century. He was a son of Motilal Nehru, a renowned lawyer and one of Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhis prominent lieutenants. Jawaharlal was the eldest of four children, two of whom were girls. A sister, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, later became the first woman president of the United Nations General Assembly.Until the age of 16, Nehru was educated at home by a series of English governesses and tutors. Only one of these, a partIrish, partBelgian theosophist, Ferdinand Brooks, appears to have made any impression on him. Jawaharlal also had a venerable Indian tutor who taught him Hindi and Sanskrit. In 1905 he went to Harrow, a leading English school, where he stayed for two years. Nehrus academic career was in no way outstanding. From Harrow he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he spent three years earning an honours degree in natural science. On leaving Cambridge he qualified as a barrister after two years at the Inner Temple, London, where in his own words he passed his examinations with neither glory nor ignominy.Four years after his return to India, in March 1916, Nehru married Kamala Kaul, who came from a Kashmiri family settled in Delhi. Their only child, Indira Priyadarshini, was born in 1917, she would later (under her married name of Indira Gandhi) also serve as prime minister of India. .....
Education
3. At the age of 16, Nehru went to England to study at the prestigious Harrow School (Winston Churchills alma mater). Two years later, in 1907, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where in 1910 he took an honors degree in natural sciences botany, chemistry and geology. The young Indian nationalist also dabbled in history, literature and politics, as well as Keynesian economics, during his university days.In October of 1910, Nehru joined the Inner Temple in London to study law, at the insistence of his father. Jawaharlal Nehru was admitted to the bar in 1912, he was determined to take the Indian Civil Service exam, and use his education to fight against discriminatory British colonial laws and policies.By the time he returned to India, he had also been exposed to socialist ideas, which were popular amongst the intellectual class in Britain at the time. Socialism would become one of the foundation stones of modern India under Nehru. .....
Kamala his wife
4. Upon his return to India, Nehrus marriage was arranged with Kamala on 8 February, 1916. Brought up in a traditional Hindu Brahmin family, Kamala felt alienated amongst the progressive Nehrus. During the Non Cooperation movement of 1921, Kamala played a vital role. In Allahabad, she organized groups of women and picketed shops selling foreign cloth and liquor. On19 November, 1917 she gave birth to Indira Priyadarshini, popularly known as Indira Gandhi. Kamala died from tuberculosis in Switzerland while Jawaharlal Nehru was languishing in Indian prison. .....
Freedom Struggle
5. In 1916, Nehru participated in the Lucknow Session of the Congress. There, after a very long time, member of both the extremist and moderate factions of the Congress party had come. All the members equivocally agreed to the demand for swaraj (self rule). Although the means of the two sections were different, the motive was common freedom.In 1921 Nehru was imprisoned for participating in the first civil disobedience campaign as general secretary of the United Provinces Congress Committee. The life in the jail helped him in understanding the philosophy followed by Gandhi and others associated with the movement. He was moved by Gandhis approach of dealing with caste and untouchablity. With the passing of every minute, Nehru was emerging as a popular leader, particularly in Northern India.In 1922, some of the prominent members including his father Motilal Nehru had left the congress and launched the Swaraj Party. The decision, no doubt upset Jawahar but he rejected the possibility of leaving the Congress party. He was also elected as the president of the Allahabad municipal corporation in 1920. .....
European Tour
6. In 1926, he along with his wife Kamala and daughter India, traveled to the flourished European nations like Germany, France and the Soviet Union. Here, Nehru got an opportunity to meet various Communists, Socialists, and radical leaders from Asia and Africa. Nehru was also impressed with the economic system of the communist Soviet Union and wished to apply the same in his own country. In 1927, he became a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels, the capital city of Belgium.During the Guwahati Session in 1928, Mahatma Gandhi announced that the Congress would launch a massive movement if the British authority did not grant dominion status of India within next two years. It was believed that under the pressure of Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose, the deadline was reduced to one year. Jawaharlal Nehru criticized the famous Nehru Report prepared by his father Motilal Nehru in 1928 that favored the concept of a dominion status for India within the British rule.In 1930 Mahatma Gandhi advocated Nehru as the next president of the Congress. The decision was also an attempt to abate the intensity of communism in the Congress. The same year, Nehru was arrested for the violation of the Salt Law.In 1936, Nehru was reelected as the president of the Indian National Congress. Sources suggest that a heated argument between the classical and young leaders had taken place in the Lucknow Session of the party. The young and newgen leaders of the party had advocated for an ideology, based on the concepts of Socialism. .....
Nehru as PM
7. Fifteen years after the Guwahati Session, on 15 August, 1947, the congress succeeded to overthrow the influential British Empire. Nehru was recognized as the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was the first PM to hoist the national flag and make a speech from the ramparts of Lal Quila (Red Fort). The time had come to implement his ideas and construct a healthy nation.Following Gandhis assassination in 1948, Jawaharlal Nehru felt very much alone. All the time he would contemplate over the issues pertaining to the economic sector of the country. In the year 1949, Jawaharlal Nehru made his first visit to the United States, seeking a solution to Indias urgent food shortage. In 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru launched the countrys First FiveYear Plan emphasizing on the increase in the agricultural output. .....
Nehrus Foreign Policy
8. Jawaharlal Nehru was supporter of the antiimperialist policy. He extended his support for the liberation of small and colonized nations of the world. He was also one of the prominent architects of the NonAligment Movement. Following the policies of NAM, India decided stay away from being a part of the global bifurcation. .....
Controvery
9. In 1957, despite of the major victory attained the elections, the Nehru led central government faced rising problems and criticism. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 was viewed by many, as Nepotism. .....
Political apprenticeship
10. On his return to India, Nehru at first tried to settle down as a lawyer. But, unlike his father, he had only a desultory interest in his profession and did not relish either the practice of law or the company of lawyers. At this time he might be described, like many of his generation, as an instinctive nationalist who yearned for his countrys freedom, but, like most of his contemporaries, he had not formulated any precise ideas on how it could be achieved.Nehrus autobiography discloses his lively interest in Indian politics. His letters to his father over the same period reveal their common interest in Indias freedom. But not until father and son met Mahatma Gandhi and were persuaded to follow in his political footsteps did either of them develop any definite ideas on how freedom was to be attained. The quality in Gandhi that impressed the two Nehrus was his insistence on action. A wrong, Gandhi argued, should not only be condemned, it should be resisted. Earlier, Nehru and his father had been contemptuous of the run of contemporary Indian politicians, whose nationalism, with a few notable exceptions, consisted of interminable speeches and longwinded resolutions. Jawaharlal was also attracted by Gandhis insistence on fighting Great Britain without fear or hate.

Nehru met Gandhi for the first time in 1916 at the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party) in Lucknow. Gandhi was 20 years his senior. Neither seems to have made any initially strong impression on the other. Nehru did not assume a leadership role in Indian politics, however, until his election as Congress president in 1929, when he presided over the historic session at Lahore (now in Pakistan) that proclaimed complete independence as Indias political goal. Until then the objective had been dominion status.Nehrus close association with the Congress Party dates from 1919 in the immediate aftermath of World War I. This period saw a wave of nationalist activity and governmental repression culminating in the Massacre of Amritsar in April 1919, 379 persons were reported killed and at least 1,200 wounded when the local British military commander ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of unarmed Indians assembled for a meeting.When, late in 1921, the prominent leaders and workers of the Congress Party were outlawed in some provinces, Nehru went to prison for the first time. Over the next 24 years he was to serve another eight periods of detention, the last and longest ending in June 1945, after an imprisonment of almost three years. In all, Nehru spent more than nine years in jail. Characteristically, he described his terms of incarceration as normal interludes in a life of abnormal political activity.

His political apprenticeship with the Congress lasted from 1919 to 1929. In 1923 he became general secretary of the party for two years and again, in 1927, for another two years. His interests and duties took him on journeys over wide areas of India, particularly in his native United Provinces, where his first exposure to the overwhelming poverty and degradation of the peasantry had a profound influence on his basic ideas for solving these vital problems. Though vaguely inclined toward socialism, Nehrus radicalism had set in no definite mold. The watershed in his political and economic thinking was his tour of Europe and the Soviet Union during 1926 .....

Imprisonment during World War II
11. When, at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, the viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, committed India to war without consulting the autonomous provincial ministries, the Congress Partys high command withdrew its provincial ministries as a protest. Congresss action left the political field virtually open to Jinnah and the Muslim League. Nehrus views on the war differed from those of Gandhi. Initially, Gandhi believed that whatever support was given to the British should be given unconditionally and that it should be of a nonviolent character. Nehru held that nonviolence had no place in defense against aggression and that India should support Great Britain in a war against Nazism, but only as a free nation. If it could not help, it should not hinder.In October 1940, Gandhi, abandoning his original stand, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one. Nehru was arrested and sentenced to four years imprisonment. After spending a little more than a year in jail, he was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. When the Japanese carried their attack through Burma (now Myanmar) to the borders of India in the spring of 1942, the British government, faced by this new military threat, decided to make some overtures to India. Prime Minister Winston Churchill dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the war Cabinet who was politically close to Nehru and also knew Jinnah, with proposals for a settlement of the constitutional problem. Crippss mission failed, however, for Gandhi would accept nothing less than independence.

The initiative in the Congress Party now passed to Gandhi, who called on the British to leave India, Nehru, though reluctant to embarrass the war effort, had no alternative but to join Gandhi. Following the Quit India resolution passed by the Congress Party in Bombay (now Mumbai) on August 8, 1942, the entire Congress working committee, including Gandhi and Nehru, was arrested and imprisoned. Nehru emerged from this his ninth and last detention only on June 15, 1945.Within two years India was to be partitioned and free. A final attempt by the viceroy, Lord Wavell, to bring the Congress Party and the Muslim League together failed. The Labour government that had meanwhile displaced Churchills wartime administration dispatched, as one of its first acts, a Cabinet mission to India and later also replaced Lord Wavell with Lord Mountbatten. The question was no longer whether India was to be independent but whether it was to consist of one or more independent states. While Gandhi refused to accept partition, Nehru reluctantly but realistically acquiesced. On August 15, 1947, India and Pakistan emerged as two separate, independent countries. Nehru became independent Indias first prime minister. .....

Achievements as prime minister
12. In the 35 years from 1929, when Gandhi chose Nehru as president of the Congress session at Lahore, until his death as prime minister in 1964, Nehru remained despite the debacle of the brief conflict with China in 1962 the idol of his people. His secular approach to politics contrasted with Gandhis religious and traditionalist attitude, which during Gandhis lifetime had given Indian politics a religious cast misleadingly so, for, although Gandhi might have appeared to be a religious conservative, he was actually a social nonconformist trying to secularize Hinduism. The real difference between Nehru and Gandhi was not in their attitude to religion but in their attitude to civilization. While Nehru talked in an increasingly modern idiom, Gandhi was harking back to the glories of ancient India.

The importance of Nehru in the perspective of Indian history is that he imported and imparted modern values and ways of thinking, which he adapted to Indian conditions. Apart from his stress on secularism and on the basic unity of India, despite its ethnic and religious diversities, Nehru was deeply concerned with carrying India forward into the modern age of scientific discovery and technological development. In addition, he aroused in his people an awareness of the necessity of social concern with the poor and the outcast and of respect for democratic values. One of the achievements of which he was particularly proud was the reform of the ancient Hindu civil code that finally enabled Hindu widows to enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property.

Internationally, Nehrus star was in the ascendant until October 1956, when Indias attitude on the Hungarian revolt against the Soviets brought his policy of nonalignment under sharp scrutiny. In the United Nations, India was the only nonaligned country to vote with the Soviet Union on the invasion of Hungary, and thereafter it was difficult for Nehru to command credence in his calls for nonalignment. In the early years after independence, anticolonialism had been the cornerstone of his foreign policy, but, by the time of the Belgrade conference of nonaligned countries in 1961, Nehru had substituted nonalignment for anticolonialism as his most pressing concern. In 1962, however, the Chinese threatened to overrun the Brahmaputra River valley as a result of a longstanding border dispute. Nehru called for Western aid, making virtual nonsense of his nonalignment policy, and China withdrew.

The Kashmir region claimed by both India and Pakistan remained a perennial problem throughout Nehrus term as prime minister. His tentative efforts to settle the dispute by adjustments along the ceasefire lines having failed, Pakistan, in 1948, made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Kashmir by force. In solving the problem of the Portuguese colony of Goa the last remaining colony in India Nehru was more fortunate. Although its military occupation by Indian troops in December 1961 raised a furor in many Western countries, in the hindsight of history, Nehrus action is justifiable. With the withdrawal of the British and the French, the Portuguese colonial presence in India had become an anachronism. Both the British and the French had withdrawn peacefully. If the Portuguese were not prepared to follow suit, Nehru had to find ways to dislodge them. After first trying persuasion, in August 1955 he had permitted a group of unarmed Indians to march into Portuguese territory in a nonviolent demonstration. Even though the Portuguese opened fire on the demonstrators, killing nearly 30, Nehru stayed his hand for six years, appealing meanwhile to Portugals Western friends to persuade its government to cede the colony. When India finally struck, Nehru could claim that neither he nor the government of India had ever been committed to nonviolence as a policy.Nehrus health showed signs of deteriorating not long after the clash with China. He suffered a slight stroke in 1963, followed by a more debilitating attack in January 1964. He died a few months later from a third and fatal stroke. .....

Assessment
13. While assertive in his Indianness, Nehru never exuded the Hindu aura and atmosphere clinging to Gandhis personality. Because of his modern political and economic outlook, he was able to attract the younger intelligentsia of India to Gandhis movement of nonviolent resistance against the British and later to rally them around him after independence had been gained. Nehrus Western upbringing and his visits to Europe before independence had acclimatized him to Western ways of thinking. Throughout his 17 years in office, he held up democratic socialism as the guiding star. With the help of the overwhelming majority that the Congress Party maintained in Parliament during his term of office, he advanced toward that goal. The four pillars of his domestic policies were democracy, socialism, unity, and secularism. He succeeded to a large extent in maintaining the edifice supported by these four pillars during his lifetime.Nehrus only child, Indira Gandhi, served as Indias prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 to 1984. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi, was prime minister from 1984 to 1989. .....
Politics and the Independence Struggle
14. Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India in August of 1912, where he began a halfhearted practice of law in the Allahabad High Court. Young Nehru disliked the legal profession, finding it stultifying and insipid.He was much more inspired by the 1912 annual session of the Indian National Congress (INC), however, the INC dismayed him with its elitism. Nehru joined a 1913 campaign led by Mohandas Gandhi, in the start of a decadeslong collaboration. Over the next few years, he moved more and more into politics, and away from law.During the First World War (191418), most upper class Indians supported the Allied cause even as they enjoyed the spectacle of Britain humbled. Nehru himself was conflicted, but came down reluctantly on the side of the Allies, more in support of France than of Britain.More than 1 million Indian and Nepalese soldiers fought overseas for the Allies in World War I, and about 62,000 died. In return for this show of loyal support, many Indian nationalists expected concessions from Britain once the war was over, but they were to be bitterly disappointed. .....
Call for Home Rule
15. Even during the war, as early as 1915, Jawaharlal Nehru began to call for Home Rule for India. This meant that India would be a selfgoverning Dominion, yet still considered a part of the United Kingdom, much like Canada or Australia.Nehru joined the All India Home Rule League, founded by family friend Annie Besant, a British liberal and advocate for Irish and Indian selfrule. The 70yearold Besant was such a powerful force that the British government arrested and jailed her in 1917, prompting huge protests. In the end, the Home Rule movement was unsuccessful, and it was later subsumed in Gandhis Satyagraha Movement, which advocated complete independence for India.Meanwhile, in 1916, Nehru married Kamala Kaul. The couple had a daughter in 1917, who would later go on to be Prime Minister of India herself under her married name, Indira Gandhi. A son, born in 1924, died after just two days. .....
Declaration of Independence
16. The Indian nationalist movement leaders, including Jawaharlal Nehru, hardened their stance against British rule in wake of the horrific Amritsar Massacre in 1919. Nehru was jailed for the first time in 1921 for his advocacy of the noncooperation movement. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Nehru and Gandhi collaborated ever more closely in the Indian National Congress, each going to prison more than once for civil disobedience actions.In 1927, Nehru issued a call for complete independence for India. Gandhi opposed this action as premature, so the Indian National Congress refused to endorse it.As a compromise, in 1928 Gandhi and Nehru issued a resolution calling for home rule by 1930, instead, with a pledge to fight for independence if Britain missed that deadline. The British government rejected this demand in 1929, so on New Years Eve, at the stroke of midnight, Nehru declared Indias independence and raised the Indian flag. The audience there that night pledged to refuse to pay taxes to the British, and to engage in other acts of mass civil disobedience.Gandhis first planned act of nonviolent resistance was a long walk down to the sea to make salt, known as the Salt March or Salt Satyagraha of March 1930. Nehru and other Congress leaders were skeptical of this idea, but it struck a chord with the ordinary people of India and proved a huge success. Nehru himself evaporated some sea water to make salt in April of 1930, so the British arrested and jailed him again for six months. .....
Nehrus Vision for India
17. During the early 1930s, Nehru emerged as the political leader of the Indian National Congress, while Gandhi moved into a more spiritual role. Nehru drafted a set of core principles for India between 1929 and 1931, called the Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy, which was adopted by the All India Congress Committee. Among the rights enumerated were freedom of expression, freedom of religion, protection of regional cultures and languages, abolition of untouchable status, socialism, and the right to vote.As a result, Nehru is often called the Architect of Modern India. He fought hardest for the inclusion of socialism, which many other Congress members opposed. During the later 1930s and early 1940s, Nehru also had almost sole responsibility for drafting the foreign policy of a future Indian nationstate. .....
Partition and Prime Ministership
18. The British released Nehru from prison after the war was over in Europe, and he immediately began to play a key role in negotiations over the future of India. Initially, he vigorously opposed plans to divide the country along sectarian lines into a predominantlyHindu India and a predominantlyMuslim Pakistan, but when bloody fighting broke out between members of the two religions, he reluctantly agreed to the split.After the Partition of India, Pakistan became an independent nation led by Jinnah on August 14, 1947, and India became independent the following day under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru embraced socialism, and was a leader of the international nonaligned movement during the Cold War, along with Nasser of Egypt and Tito of Yugoslavia.As Prime Minister, Nehru instituted widespread economic and social reforms that helped India reorganized itself as a unified, modernizing state. He was influential in international politics as well, but could never solve the problem of Kashmir and other Himalayan territorial disputes with Pakistan and with China. .....
Sino Indian War of 1962
19. In 1959, Prime Minister Nehru granted asylum to the Dalai Lama and other Tibetan refugees from Chinas 1959 Invasion of Tibet. This sparked tensions between the two Asian superpowers, which already had unsettled claims to the Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh areas in the Himalaya Mountain range. Nehru responded with his Forward Policy, placing military outposts along the disputed border with China, beginning in 1959.On October 20, 1962, China launched a simultaneous attack at two points 1000 kilometers apart along the disputed border with India. Nehru was caught off guard, and India suffered a series of military defeats. By November 21, China felt that it had made its point, and unilaterally ceased fire. It withdrew from its forward positions, leaving the division of land the same as before the war, except that India had been driven from its forward positions across the Line of Control.

Indias force of 10,000 to 12,000 troops suffered heavy losses in the SinoIndian War, with almost 1,400 killed, 1,700 missing, and nearly 4,000 captured by the Peoples Liberation Army of China. China lost 722 killed and about 1,700 wounded. The unexpected war and humiliating defeat profoundly depressed Prime Minister Nehru, and many historians claim that the shock may have hastened his death. .....

The Pandits Legacy
20. Many observers expected Parliament member Indira Gandhi to succeed her father, even though he had voiced opposition to her serving as Prime Minister for fear of dynastism. Indira turned down the post at that time, however, and Lal Bahadur Shastri took over as the second prime minister of India.Indira would later become the third prime minister, and her son Rajiv was the sixth to hold that title. Jawaharlal Nehru left behind the worlds largest democracy, a nation committed to neutrality in the Cold War, and a nation developing quickly in terms of education, technology and economics. .....
Death
21. Nehrus party was reelected to the majority in 1962, but with smaller percentages of the vote than before. His health began to fail, and he spent a number of months in Kashmir during 1963 and 1964, trying to recuperate.Nehru returned to Delhi in May of 1964, where he suffered a stroke and then a heart attack on the morning of May 27. He died that afternoon. .....
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Quaint cape. It looks small but can host a bunch. When Kelly McKenna and her then husband bought the Duxbury, Mass., house in 1991, they had dreams of a head to toe reno. But it wasnt until 2010 that Kelly, a financial executive, had saved up enough money and dec .....
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April Ryan The Longest Journey 1999 to 2006. Aprils not just an artsy girl she can also shift between worlds, which makes for a long and exciting journey (hence the title). Shes also the fulfillment of like, four different prophesies. So thats awesome. .....
Benefits of Dill Seeds
Therapeutic usage. The essential oil .....
Valentines Day for Kids
Complete Peter Rabbit Library. If Samuel Whiskers and Mr. Tod are not yet household names, then this set of 23 hardcover books seems like a perfect addition to the bookshelves. .....
Mind Blowing Beauty Tricks
How to clean your makeup brushes. Keep your investment in tiptop shape by cleaning your makeup brushes the right way. .....
Popular Easy to Grow House Plants
Arrowhead Vine. Syngoniums are fast growing vines that grow to about 3 ft. Easy to grow plant for bright indirect light or light shade. Allow rich, well draining soil to dry before watering. Pinch tips to induce bushiness. Green, copper, and variegated varieties are .....
Xmas Lights
Window Box Chic. Fill a window box with greenery studded with lights to glitter in the icy air all season long. For a nontraditional spin on the look, incorporate color by adding blue or pink Christmas lights. .....
Best Used Luxury Cars
Infiniti EX35. NADA used 2012 retail price: $23,725 original sticker price $35,800. Infinitis sporty compact crossover SUV is both stylish and sporty, with added luxury that makes for a comfortable cabin. A 3.5 liter V6 engine delivers impressive acceleration, and .....
Baby Friendly Decorations Ideas
Eye catching photos. Are those eyes following you? Quirky stick on peepers poke out of a photocopied portrait of author Edgar Allan Poe. The black and white photocopy pops behind an inexpensive crafts store green mat and black frame. Any scary print a witch, ghost, or .....
Biggest things in the World
Giant Pineapple. What better way to celebrate the juicy wonder of the pineapple than with a giant version of the fruit? On the outskirts of Bathurst, South Africa, a 16.7 metre high pineapple dominates the skyline. This land is pineapple country and inside the massiv .....
Ranking The Best Fighters In The World
Cornelius Bundrage. IBF Junior Middleweight Titleholder 30 4 (18) Last Year s Ranking: Unranked Status Report: Laugh all you want, but this fact remains: We put Cory Spinks at 48 last year. And in August, K9, if you can stand it, blew him out of the ring (KO 5). We do .....
Most Useless Inventions Ever
Hair Hat. This is supposed to give men who are balding some extra hair on top.However this is not the way to go, the hat is not fooling anyone.Also, what man wants to have hair that looks like carpeting.It seems like being bald would be a better alternative.Be .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Superstar Ingredients Invest in the best. Although costly, essential oil of rose is one of the most effective oils for soothing thinning, sensitive skin, especially after menopause. Rose oil also has an effect on the emotions— aromatherapists value it for lifting mood, releasing nervous tens .....
Benefits of Papayas
Boosting the immunity system. Papaya also helps in boosting the immunity system of our body. The presence of Betacarotene in papaya is required for the proper functioning and boosting of the immune system. Papaya also prevents the body from recurrent ear infections, cold and flu. .....
Why One Should Visit Kashmir
Gulmarg. Gulmarg (Meadow of Flowers), India is version of a ski resort, is situated less than two hours drive east of Srinagar. The season runs from mid December to mid March. If youare not into skiing, you may still want to let the gondola whisk you more tha .....
Ideas to Improve your Life
Quit complaining. Dont be like the howling dog, always howling and never doing anything. Stop complaining about your problems and work on them instead. .....
Benefits of Pomelos
Regulate blood pressure levels. The blood pressure may be the pressure on the blood inside the arteries. It really is created mainly through the shrinkage of the heart muscle. Its dimension is documented simply by two numbers. The very first (systolic pressure) is calculated as soo .....
The Coolest Cars at Goodwoods
FORD MUSTANG. The new Ford Mustang will be the first model ever to be sold in Europe, and the German registered example on Fords stand is one of the first in the country. We took it out for a spin at the Moving Motor Show and found even the 2.3 litre Ecoboost was .....
Makeover Tips for Cheeks
People with fairer skin have cool undertones and should use mauve or pink colors. Use a medium sized round brush, swirl it in your blush on and dust off any excess powder. Smile widely and brush it lightly in circular motion on the apples of the cheeks. This gives a slightly blushed and glowing look which is great for the day. If .....
Healthy Knee
Get your glutes firing. This is another area that not nearly enough of us are addressing, as most who have patello-femoral pain are only worried about isolating the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO). In research by Ireland et al. (1), they found that athletes with patello-femo .....
Benefits of Apricots
Skin Disorders. Apricot oil is good for skin care. It is quickly absorbed by the skin and does not keep the skin oily after it is applied. Apricots are not just useful for maintaining the smooth and shiny appearance of the skin; it also aids in treating a number of .....
Unstable Countries In The World
Central African Republic. Ever since its independence from France in 1960 the Central African Republic has been a hotbed of violence and turmoil. The UN has described it as being in a state of permanent crisis. .....
Indoor Plant Care
Zebra plant. This zebra houseplant is known for its large shiny leaves and dark green foliage deeply veined in white or yellow, reminiscent of zebra stripes. Their brightly colored flowers and bracts make for a prized display. They're usually pretty small at the .....
Selfie Ideas
Show Your Sense of Humor. Serious self portraits are hard to take. Its very easy to miss the mark. It takes a lot practice.Instead, approach your next selfie with a healthy dose of levity. Being funny is easier to pull off because theres a certain universality about humor. Fu .....
Chinese New Year
Traditional food. A reunion dinner, named as Nian Ye Fan, is held on New Years Eve during which family members gather for celebration. The venue will usually be in or near the home of the most senior member of the family. The New Years Eve dinner is very large and sum .....
Most Luxurious Hotels in the World
Burj Al Arab Hotel Dubai. Since it was built, this hotel represents the symbol of modern Dubai. Other than the fabulous design that you have never seen before anywhere in the world, what makes this hotel distinct from all the other ones is the extraordinary service. This hote .....
Ratan Tata
Succession again. The same retirement rule that saw some of JRDs satraps leave the group will mandate Tatas retirement as well. Some people have suggested that the retirement policy should not apply to the chairman, Tata said in his interview on the website. I have al .....
Best Valentines Day Gifts
6 Handmade Sweet Berries Spa Bath Bombs From BRUBAKER. If you want to pamper your partner, draw them hot bath and present them with these adorable bath bombs. While she luxuriates in the tub, make her a romantic dinner, and strew the bedroom with rose petals. By the time she gets out of the tub, shell be .....
Benefits of Oregano
Antibacterial Punch. Oregano oil in many specialty and health food shops for this very reason. Oregano contains thymol and carvacrol, two oils which have remarkable bacteria fighting power. In fact, researchers recently discovered that oregano is a better treatment for g .....
Akbar
Personality and assessment. Akbar maintained a luxurious and brilliant court at which elaborate ceremonies emphasized his distance from other men, though he was careful to cultivate public opinion outside court circles. Every morning at dawn he stood at an open window to be see .....
Worlds Biggest Islands
Flores Indonesia. Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 Square kilometre extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. The population was 1,831,000 in the 2010 census and the largest town is Maumere. .....
What to Eat in Gujarat
Doodhpak. Rice pudding made by boiling rice with milk and sugar, and flavoured with cardamom, raisins, saffron, cashews, pistachios, or almonds. It is typically served as a dessert. Doodhpak is a dessert dish, a kind of rice pudding made from milk, rice, saff .....
Xmas Food Ideas
Roasted Parsnips and Carrots in Caramel. Enhance the flavour of root vegetables with our recipe for roasted parsnips and carrots in caramel with plenty of thyme. .....
Tips To Prepare a Government Job Interview
Subscribe to Employment News and Other Relevant Newspapers. You should always remain updated for a Government job that you want to go for. Hence subscribe employment news and other newspaper for latest updates. .....
Astrology
Friendship Compatibility between Aries and Aquarius. Aries and Aquarius - Friendship Compatibility Profile : When Aries and Aquarius form a friendship, the combination of Aquarian vision and Aries action tends to make them a highly creative pair. Their partnership is anything but static, and, while it .....
Flowers
Goodenia Lvigata. In the Autumn of 1792, Samuel Tolfrey Esq. most kindly invited me to inspect a vast number of the natural productions of Botany Bay, in his possession, collected with great assiduity, and brought over in high preservation by Captain Tench, among othe .....
Forever Young Naturally Eating
Green Essentials Ban fresheners. Studies show air inside the home is two to five times more polluted than outdoor air. Don’t add to it with artificial fragrances, especially those in block fragrances (they may contain camphor, linked with disorders of the nervous system). Avoid also .....
Myth About Animal
A healthy dogs nose is cold and wet. A dry nose can be caused by poor air circulation in a room, or even just by the dog sitting in the sun A dogs nose can change from dry to wet and back to dry several times a dayThe temperature of your dogs nose typically fluctuates during the day, ra .....
The Most Difficult Languages To Learn In The World
Korean. Korean is the official language of North and South Korea and is spoken by over 80 million people around the world. .....
Healthy Skin
Open Pores are Preferred. Closed pores means less absorption of product. For maximum benefit, preface your nighttime skincare regimen by opening your pores. The best way to do this is to take a wash cloth or hand towel, soak it in hot water, and then let it rest on your face .....
What to Eat in Sikkim
Kodo ka Roti. Kodo ko roti is typical pancake prepared from finger millet locally called Kodo which is served with different varieties if pickles.Mix finger millet flour-sugar with 1 cup of lukewarm water and knead to make a thick paste. Heat ghee in a frying pan .....
Benefits of Rambutan fruits
Rambutan is rich in sugar. Rambutan is rich in sugar. Most of it is fructose and sucrose, but contains very little calories, only 60 calories in each piece. There is an abundance of vitamin C in rambutan, including potassium, iron, vitamin A, and a little calcium, magnesium, s .....
Weird Birds
Birds of Paradise. There are more than three dozen species in the family Paradisaeidae, more commonly known as the birds of paradise. Most are distinguished by striking colors and bright plumage of yellow, blue, scarlet, and green. These colors distinguish them as some .....
Cartoon Characters
Mickey Mouse. The beloved mouse with a character to cuddle to bits. He will always be someone in our minds. .....
Dreams That Forever Changed Society
Positive Change Through Nonviolent Resistance. Mohandas KaramchandGandhiwas the primary leader of Indias liberation movement against British rule. His non violent approach to civil disobedience and simple living have influenced oppressed people groups all over the world. The summary of his convic .....
World Flags
Belgium. three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the vertical design was based on the flag of France; the colors are those of the arms of the duchy of Brabant (yellow lion with red claws and tongue on a black field) .....
Beautiful Reasons to Visit Australia
DARLING HARBOUR. Located adjacent to the Sydney city center, the harbor is a large recreational and pedestrian friendlyarea that is home to a number of major public facilities and attractions. .....
Step to finding your perfect man
Ask around. Blind dates dont always end horribly. Some of your friends know you better than you know yourself. If they claim that their cousin in the perfect fit for you, it might be true. Some people are born matchmakers. It doesnt hurt to give him a chance. Yo .....
Benefits of Ugli fruits
Ugli Curd for Cheesecake Topping or for Jam. A wonderful refreshing cold souffl of Ugli tangelo and lemon. This is a must for citrus lovers and a great desert to serve when entertaining. Ugli is apt for daily consumption and must be consumed to reap the associated health benefits. This magical .....
Amazing Animals
Dedicated Mama. If you think gestating one baby is tough, try 3,000. The squid Gonatus onyxcarries around her brood of 2,000 to 3,000 eggs for up to nine months. Thesquid moms have their arms full: While carrying their eggs, they re stuck swimming with their fins an .....
Connaught Place
Dinning In Connaught Place. Connaught place comprises of three circles inner, outer and middle circles.Food lovers and gourmets find the place an ultimate destination which has variety and quality to offer.The outer circle would give a wonderful spree of restaurants and cafes. .....
School Lunch Tips
Heat up soup or pasta in the morning and pack it in a thermos to stay warm. No waiting in line to microwave it later. Just keep in mind that you may want to preheat the thermos and heat the food hotter than you normally would so that it stays warm until lunch time. Here are some helpful tips. .....
Reasons You Should Brush Your Teeth
Low birth weight. Antibodies to the bacterial infection in the mother have been found in the umbilical cord and placental blood of the baby after delivery. Not only does this mean complications at birth, but it can lead to numerous other issues as well. Unfortunately .....
Benefits of Cherry
protection from glucose intolerance. cherries (Cornus mas) and evaluate their beneficial effects on fat accumulation and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice fed a highfat diet. They fed mice with ahighfat diet for 4 weeks and then a highfat diet containing anthocyanins and ursolic acid f .....
Fitness Stretching
Lower Trunk Flexor Stretch Front Lying Position. Lower-Trunk Stretches: Method:Lie facedown on the floor. Place both hands palms down; fingers point forward by each hip. Slowly arch the back, contracting the buttocks. Continue arching the back and lift your head and chest off the floor.Affected Bod .....
Valentines Day Flowers
Matched Blooms Arrangement. Make a less expensive bloom seem more impressive by grouping flowers of the same or similar shades in one vase. We wrapped plain cylinders with colored burlap and edged them with narrow velvet ribbon. .....
Benefits of Pumpkins
Tips for Preparing Pumpkin Seeds. While most stores sell pumpkin seeds, it is fun and easy to make your own. To do so, first remove the seeds from the pumpkin s inner cavity and wipe them off with a paper towel if needed to remove excess pulp that may have stuck to them. Spread them .....
Benefits of Dates
Fresh vs Dried. The fresh dates are available soft, semisoft or dry. The dry fresh date is not the same as the dried date. A dry date simply contains less moisture than a soft date. Fresh dates, if kept in an airtight container, stay fresh for up to 8 months if kept .....
Worst Animated Movies Of All Time
Disco Worms. No one is really sure why this movie was made in the first place. None of the voices for the worms sync up to the mouth movements, along with the moves of their bodies. The story line is one that falls behind and leaves a lot to be desired when you w .....
Make Up Tips
Use Yellow Tinted Powder. Yellow tinted powder is better than shimmery or translucent powders for pictures. The other powders will reflect the light, leaving you with a shine. They may also leave you looking washed out in pictures. Im sure neither of these looks are what you .....
Rules to play Bobsleigh
Competition. The first organized competition in the sport was held on the Cresta Run on January 5, 1898, with fivepassenger sleds with two of the passengers being women. For better steering, they were equipped with four runners, positioned on axles much like the .....
Simple Science
How Light Travels. Light: We never expect to see around a corner, and if we wish to see through pinholes in three separate pieces of cardboard, we place the cardboards so that the three holes are in a straight line. When sunlight enters a dark room through a small open .....
SuperFood
Cinnamon. Cinnamon is one of the most popular herbs and spices. In one study, eating a gram of cinnamon per day appeared to reduce fasting blood glucose concentration and improve the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cinnamon is also rich i .....
Healthy and Delicious Summer Snacks
Frozen Grapes. Toss a few handfuls of grapes in the freezer for an extrarefreshing summer treat. An entire cup contains only 62 calories. .....
Cool Gifts College Students
A weekender bag. All your college friends will probably be headed in different directions after graduation. A nice weekender bag will have you ready to visit them constantly. .....
Valentines Day Lyrics
I Wanna Dance With Somebody. George Merrill and Shannon Rubicam wrote How Will I Know for Houston. Asked to submit another song, they sent Waiting for a Star to Fall, and when the answer was no, they recorded it themselves as Boy Meets Girl. Encouraged to try again, it only took .....
Benefits of Avocado
Growing indoors. Avocados are grown from pits indoors. This is often done by removing the pit from a ripe, unrefrigerated avocado. The pit is then stabbed with three or four toothpicks, about one third of the way up. The pit is placed in a jar or vase containing tepi .....
Benefits of Ginger
Good for Dry and Brittle Hair. Ginger is great for dry and brittle hair as it contains vitamins, zinc and phosphorus which impart sheen to your hair. .....
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