Isaac newton

Biography
1. Isaac Newton was born at Woolthorpe, Lincolnshire, England on Christmas Day 1642. On that cold winter night, the sick, premature baby seemed unlikely to live. Gradually, however, he gained strength to survive. But Isaacs first few years were a struggle. His mother had become a widow two months before Isaac was born. Even with the help of her own mother, she had difficulty caring for Isaac in addition to running their farm while the Civil War in England raged around them.Several years later, his mother married the minister from nearby North Witham, but Isaac remained at Woolthorpe with his grandmother. As he grew, however, he visited his mother frequently. He eagerly read books from his stepfathers well stocked library, in addition to reading the Bible regularly.

Isaac attended school at Kings College in nearby Grantham. Rather than playing outdoor games as a boy, he preferred to make models of such things as windmills and carts. Not only were these in exactly the right proportions, but all of the moving parts actually worked.Isaacs mother was widowed for the second time when he was 14 years old. Isaac was taken out of school to run the family farm to support his mother and her three younger children. However, Isaac missed his studies greatly and his mother recognized this. When Kings College offered to waive tuition fees because of his ability and poor circumstances, Isaac returned and completed his schooling. Teachers and other students were impressed with the boys knowledge of the Bible. .....

Introduction
2. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642 1727), mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time. Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he attended school, he entered Cambridge University in 1661, he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. He remained at the university, lecturing in most years, until 1696. Of these Cambridge years, in which Newton was at the height of his creative power, he singled out 1665 1666 (spent largely in Lincolnshire because of plague in Cambridge) as the prime of my age for invention. During two to three years of intense mental effort he prepared Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) commonly known as the Principia, although this was not published until 1687.As a firm opponent of the attempt by King James II to make the universities into Catholic institutions, Newton was elected Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689, and sat again in 1701 1702. Meanwhile, in 1696 he had moved to London as Warden of the Royal Mint. He became Master of the Mint in 1699, an office he retained to his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1671, and in 1703 he became President, being annually re elected for the rest of his life. His major work, Opticks, appeared the next year, he was knighted in Cambridge in 1705.

As Newtonian science became increasingly accepted on the Continent, and especially after a general peace was restored in 1714, following the War of the Spanish Succession, Newton became the most highly esteemed natural philosopher in Europe. His last decades were passed in revising his major works, polishing his studies of ancient history, and defending himself against critics, as well as carrying out his official duties. Newton was modest, diffident, and a man of simple tastes. He was angered by criticism or opposition, and harboured resentment, he was harsh towards enemies but generous to friends. In government, and at the Royal Society, he proved an able administrator. He never married and lived modestly, but was buried with great pomp in Westminster Abbey.Newton has been regarded for almost 300 years as the founding examplar of modern physical science, his achievements in experimental investigation being as innovative as those in mathematical research. With equal, if not greater, energy and originality he also plunged into chemistry, the early history of Western civilization, and theology, among his special studies was an investigation of the form and dimensions, as described in the Bible, of Solomons Temple in Jerusalem. .....

Optics
3. In 1664, while still a student, Newton read recent work on optics and light by the English physicists Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke, he also studied both the mathematics and the physics of the French philosopher and scientist Ren? Descartes. He investigated the refraction of light by a glass prism, developing over a few years a series of increasingly elaborate, refined, and exact experiments, Newton discovered measurable, mathematical patterns in the phenomenon of colour. He found white light to be a mixture of infinitely varied coloured rays (manifest in the rainbow and the spectrum), each ray definable by the angle through which it is refracted on entering or leaving a given transparent medium. He correlated this notion with his study of the interference colours of thin films (for example, of oil on water, or soap bubbles), using a simple technique of extreme acuity to measure the thickness of such films. He held that light consisted of streams of minute particles. From his experiments he could infer the magnitudes of the transparent corpuscles forming the surfaces of bodies, which, according to their dimensions, so interacted with white light as to reflect, selectively, the different observed colours of those surfaces.

The roots of these unconventional ideas were with Newton by about 1668, when first expressed (tersely and partially) in public in 1672 and 1675, they provoked hostile criticism, mainly because colours were thought to be modified forms of homogeneous white light. Doubts, and Newtons rejoinders, were printed in the learned journals. Notably, the scepticism of Christiaan Huygens and the failure of the French physicist Edm? Mariotte to duplicate Newtons refraction experiments in 1681 set scientists on the Continent against him for a generation. The publication of Opticks, largely written by 1692, was delayed by Newton until the critics were dead. The book was still imperfect. the colours of diffraction defeated Newton. Nevertheless, Opticks established itself, from about 1715, as a model of the interweaving of theory with quantitative experimentation. .....

Mathematics
4. In mathematics too, early brilliance appeared in Newtons student notes. He may have learnt geometry at school, though he always spoke of himself as self taught, certainly he advanced through studying the writings of his compatriots William Oughtred and John Wallis, and of Descartes and the Dutch school. Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics then studied, but is especially famous for his solutions to the contemporary problems in analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves (differentiation) and defining areas bounded by curves (integration). Not only did Newton discover that these problems were inverse to each other, but he discovered general methods of resolving problems of curvature, embraced in his method of fluxions and inverse method of fluxions, respectively equivalent to Leibnizs later differential and integral calculus. Newton used the term fluxion (from Latin meaning flow) because he imagined a quantity flowing from one magnitude to another. Fluxions were expressed algebraically, as Leibnizs differentials were, but Newton made extensive use also (especially in the Principia) of analogous geometrical arguments. Late in life, Newton expressed regret for the algebraic style of recent mathematical progress, preferring the geometrical method of the Classical Greeks, which he regarded as clearer and more rigorous.

Newtons work on pure mathematics was virtually hidden from all but his correspondents until 1704, when he published, with Opticks, a tract on the quadrature of curves (integration) and another on the classification of the cubic curves. His Cambridge lectures, delivered from about 1673 to 1683, were published in 1707. .....

The calculus priority dispute
5. Newton had the essence of the methods of fluxions by 1666. The first to become known, privately, to other mathematicians, in 1668, was his method of integration by infinite series. In Paris in 1675 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz independently evolved the first ideas of his differential calculus, outlined to Newton in 1677. Newton had already described some of his mathematical discoveries to Leibniz, not including his method of fluxions. In 1684 Leibniz published his first paper on calculus, a small group of mathematicians took up his ideas.

In the 1690s Newtons friends proclaimed the priority of Newtons methods of fluxions. Supporters of Leibniz asserted that he had communicated the differential method to Newton, although Leibniz had claimed no such thing. Newtonians then asserted, rightly, that Leibniz had seen papers of Newtons during a London visit in 1676, in reality, Leibniz had taken no notice of material on fluxions. A violent dispute sprang up, part public, part private, extended by Leibniz to attacks on Newtons theory of gravitation and his ideas about God and creation, it was not ended even by Leibnizs death in 1716. The dispute delayed the reception of Newtonian science on the Continent, and dissuaded British mathematicians from sharing the researches of Continental colleagues for a century. .....

Mechanics and gravitation
6. According to the well known story, it was on seeing an apple fall in his orchard at some time during 1665 or 1666 that Newton conceived that the same force governed the motion of the Moon and the apple. He calculated the force needed to hold the Moon in its orbit, as compared with the force pulling an object to the ground. He also calculated the centripetal force needed to hold a stone in a sling, and the relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its swing. These early explorations were not soon exploited by Newton, though he studied astronomy and the problems of planetary motion.Correspondence with Hooke (1679 1680) redirected Newton to the problem of the path of a body subjected to a centrally directed force that varies as the inverse square of the distance, he determined it to be an ellipse, so informing Edmond Halley in August 1684. Halleys interest led Newton to demonstrate the relationship afresh, to compose a brief tract on mechanics, and finally to write the Principia.

Book I of the Principia states the foundations of the science of mechanics, developing upon them the mathematics of orbital motion round centres of force. Newton identified gravitation as the fundamental force controlling the motions of the celestial bodies. He never found its cause. To contemporaries who found the idea of attractions across empty space unintelligible, he conceded that they might prove to be caused by the impacts of unseen particles.Book II inaugurates the theory of fluids. Newton solves problems of fluids in movement and of motion through fluids. From the density of air he calculated the speed of sound waves.Book III shows the law of gravitation at work in the universe. Newton demonstrates it from the revolutions of the six known planets, including the Earth, and their satellites. However, he could never quite perfect the difficult theory of the Moons motion. Comets were shown to obey the same law, in later editions, Newton added conjectures on the possibility of their return. He calculated the relative masses of heavenly bodies from their gravitational forces, and the oblateness of Earth and Jupiter, already observed. He explained tidal ebb and flow and the precession of the equinoxes from the forces exerted by the Sun and Moon. All this was done by exact computation.

Newtons work in mechanics was accepted at once in Britain, and universally after half a century. Since then it has been ranked among humanitys greatest achievements in abstract thought. It was extended and perfected by others, notably Pierre Simon de Laplace, without changing its basis and it survived into the late 19th century before it began to show signs of failing. See Quantum Theory, Relativity. .....

Alchemy and chemistry
7. Newton left a mass of manuscripts on the subjects of alchemy and chemistry, then closely related topics. Most of these were extracts from books, bibliographies, dictionaries, and so on, but a few are original. He began intensive experimentation in 1669, continuing till he left Cambridge, seeking to unravel the meaning that he hoped was hidden in alchemical obscurity and mysticism. He sought understanding of the nature and structure of all matter, formed from the solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles that he believed God had created. Most importantly in the Queries appended to Opticks and in the essay On the Nature of Acids (1710), Newton published an incomplete theory of chemical force, concealing his exploration of the alchemists, which became known a century after his death. .....
Historical and chronological studies
8. Newton owned more books on humanistic learning than on mathematics and science, all his life he studied them deeply. His unpublished classical scholia .....
Religious convictions and personality
9. Newton also wrote on Judaeo Christian prophecy, whose decipherment was essential, he thought, to the understanding of God. His book on the subject, which was reprinted well into the Victorian Age, represented lifelong study. Its message was that Christianity went astray in the 4th century AD, when the first Council of Nicaea propounded erroneous doctrines of the nature of Christ. The full extent of Newtons unorthodoxy was recognized only in the present century. but although a critic of accepted Trinitarian dogmas and the Council of Nicaea, he possessed a deep religious sense, venerated the Bible and accepted its account of creation. In late editions of his scientific works he expressed a strong sense of Gods providential role in nature. .....
Publications
10. Newton published an edition of Geographia generalis by the German geographer Varenius in 1672. His own letters on optics appeared in print from 1672 to 1676. Then he published nothing until the Principia (published in Latin in 1687, revised in 1713 and 1726, and translated into English in 1729). This was followed by Opticks in 1704, a revised edition in Latin appeared in 1706. Posthumously published writings include The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728), The System of the World (1728), the first draft of Book III of the Principia, and Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St John (1733). .....
Early life
11. Isaac Newton was born (according to the Julian calendar in use in England at the time) on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 (NS 4 January 1643), at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe by Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. He was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Born prematurely, he was a small child, his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19. Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. Newtons mother had three children from her second marriage. Although it was claimed that he was once engaged, Newton never married.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham which taught him Latin but no mathematics. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe by Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. Newton hated farming. Henry Stokes, master at the Kings School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top ranked student, distinguishing himself mainly by building sundials and models of windmills.In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, on the recommendation of his uncle Rev William Ayscough. He started as a subsizar paying his way by performing valets duties until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, which guaranteed him four more years until he would get his M.A. At that time, the colleges teachings were based on those of Aristotle, whom Newton supplemented with modern philosophers such as Descartes, and astronomers such as Galileo and Thomas Street, through whom he learned of Keplers work. He set down in his notebook a series of Quaestiones about mechanical philosophy as he found it. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his B.A. degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, Newtons private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics, and the law of gravitation. In April 1667, he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was not enforced in the restoration years and an assertion of conformity to the Church of England was sufficient. However, by 1675 the issue could not be avoided and by then his unconventional views stood in the way. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see Middle years section below).His studies had impressed the Lucasian professor, Isaac Barrow, who was more anxious to develop his own religious and administrative potential (he became master of Trinity two years later), and in 1669, Newton succeeded him, only one year after he received his M.A. .....

Apple incident
12. Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment, acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley, whose manuscript account of 1752 has been made available by the Royal Society) do in fact confirm the incident, though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newtons head. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newtons Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726.In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree.

It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse square proportion, to the Moon, however it took him two decades to develop the full fledged theory. The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the Moon to its orbit. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moons orbital period, and get good agreement. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it universal gravitation.Various trees are claimed to be the apple tree which Newton describes. The Kings School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmasters garden some years later. The staff of the [now] National Trust owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse fleshed cooking variety. .....

Laws of motion
13. In the Principia, Newton gives the famous three laws of motion, stated here in modern form.Newtons First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular, they may be at rest).Newtons Second Law states that an applied force, mathbf{F}, on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, mathbf{p}, with time. Mathematically, this is expressed asSince the law applies only to systems of constant mass, m can be brought out of the derivative operator. By substitution using the definition of acceleration, the equation can be written in the iconic formThe first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle, in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an objects state of motion. The SI unit of force is the newton, named in Newtons honour.

Newtons Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Another example is the recoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).Unlike Aristotles, Newtons physics is meant to be universal. For example, the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone.The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the objects momentum changes. Before Newton, it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the Sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the Sun. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia, this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted, and many scientists preferred Descartes theory of vortices. .....

Royal Mint
14. As Warden, and afterwards Master, of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felons being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task. Disguised as a habitu? of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself. For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newtons personal first edition of his Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time. Then he conducted more than 100 cross examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners. .....
Enlightenment philosophers
15. Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.

It was Newtons conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology. Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights, the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self interest to economic systems, and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newtons work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. .....

Effect on religious thought
16. Newton and Robert Boyles approach to the mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians. The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism, and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newtons discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a Natural Religion.The attacks made against pre Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyles mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyles ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles. These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. His spokesman, Samuel Clarke, rejected Leibniz theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for lorigine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism. But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newtons system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz. The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil. .....

light and color
17. Not long after he donated his telescope to the Royal Society, Newton delivered a paper to that august body about his novel theory of light and colors. Using prisms and his usual very exacting experimental technique, Newton had discovered that sunlight is comprised of all the colors of the rainbow, which could not only be separated but recombined into white light.he most surprising and wonderful composition was that of Whiteness, he wrote. I have often with Admiration beheld that all the Colours of the Prisme being made to converge, and thereby to be again mixed .reproduced light, intirely [sic] and perfectly white. Though he made his experiments on light as early as 1666, when he was only 24 years old, he didnt publish his classic Opticks, which summarized his findings on light and color, until 1704. .....
Discovered calculus
18. When Newton began to muse on the problem of the motion of the planets and what kept them in their orbits around the sun, he realized that the mathematics of the day werent sufficient to the task. Properties such as direction and speed, by their very nature, were in a continuous state of flux, constantly changing with time and exhibiting varying rates of change. So he invented a new branch of mathematics, which he called the fluxions (later known as calculus). Calculus allowed him to draw tangents to curves, determine the lengths of curves, and solve other problems that classical geometry could not help him solve. Interestingly, Newtons masterwork, the Principia, doesnt include the calculus in the form that hed invented years before, simply because he hadnt yet published anything about it. But he did combine related methods with a very high level of classical geometry, making no attempt to simplify it for his readers. The reason was, he said, to avoid being baited by little Smatterers in Mathematicks. .....
Advanced early modern chemistry
19. Newton spent untold hours of his life practicing alchemy. Like other alchemists, he sought to turn base metals into gold, find a universal cure for disease, and secure the elixir of life, which promised perpetual youth and eternal life. In his garden shed outside his rooms at Trinity College, Cambridge, in the midst of phials and furnaces, mortars and pestles, Newton pored over ancient texts and performed endless experiments. Yet while he never found what he and other alchemists sought, and while he only published one short paper that grew out of his alchemical experiments (a two page speculation on acids), his work was not for naught. As the historian Jed Buchwald has said, As historians have shown in the last several decades, there was a much more profound element to the practice of alchemy which really makes it deserving of being called early modern chemistry. Through his meticulous efforts, Newton greatly furthered the practice and techniques of chemical science. .....
The Royal Society
20. In 1672, Newton became a member of the Royal Society a group of scientists committed to the experimental method. He presented one of his new telescopes to the Royal Society along with his findings on light. The Royal Society set up a committee led by physicist Robert Hooke to evaluate Newtons findings. Hooke was a scientist employed by the Royal Society to evaluate new inventions. However, Hooke had his own ideas on light and was slow to accept the truth of Newtons findings. This surprised and disappointed Newton, who even considered not circulating his discoveries in the future.While it is sometimes said that Newton was too sensitive to critical evaluation of his work, he was merely concerned that the time spent justifying past findings was preventing him from making new discoveries. .....
Political Interference
21. Isaac Newton lived at a time when politics, religion and education were not separated. King Charles II commanded that everyone who taught at places such as Trinity College, where Church of England ministers were trained, must themselves be ordained as Church of England ministers after seven years. This included people such as Newton who taught only mathematics and science, not theology.Although a devout Christian, Newton was not in full agreement with all the doctrines of the Church of England. Thus, his conscience would not allow him to accept ordination.He was also strongly opposed to political involvement in both religious matters and education. The only way for Newton to keep his job was for the king to make an exception in his case. Others who had previously asked for this had been refused.

So Newton headed south to London for six weeks to plead his case before the king. During his time in London, he became better acquainted with other scientists in the Royal Society. Those who had known him only through his letters defending his discoveries had mistaken his confidence in his work for arrogance. His impatience to get on with new work had been mistaken for bad temper. Now the scientists realized what a friendly and considerate person he was and they rallied to his aid. Fortunately, for Newton and for science, the king granted Newtons request to continue at Trinity College without being ordained. .....

Intended to become a minister
22. Isaac then went to Trinity College at Cambridge University with the intention of becoming a Church of England minister. Again, life was not easy for him. As he was unable to afford the tuition fees, he worked many hours each day serving meals and doing other jobs for the professors in order to pay his way. Isaacs knowledge of the Bible continued to impress those around him.At that time the ideas of the ancient Greek scholars still dominated what was taught in science, and recent scientific discoveries were largely ignored. This greatly annoyed Isaac Newton who firmly believed that ideas in science should be tested and only accepted if their usefulness could be demonstrated. He was committed to the experimental method of science.

Isaac graduated in 1665, shortly before an outbreak of Black Death swept through London. All universities were closed while the plague raged. During this time, Isaac returned to his familys farm, now run by his young half brother. He continued his study and research, working on the binomial theorem, light, telescopes, calculus and theology. After supposedly seeing an apple fall in the garden, he investigated gravity, but was unable to solve the puzzle until some years later. (It should be noted that some authorities question this apple story. They say that the first mention of it came through the antireligious French philosopher and skeptic, Voltaire, who reputedly heard it from Newtons grandniece.) .....

Nervous Breakdown
23. Isaac Newton represented Cambridge University as a Member of Parliament in 1689 and 1690. In 1690, his health failed. This illness was probably a nervous breakdown brought on by many years of working long hours and enduring too much stress. Eventually he fully recovered. For the next few years, Newton pursued his other great love studying the Bible. The books he wrote included Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel.In 1696, the government appointed Newton to the post of Warden of the Mint. He supervised the replacement of Englands old and damaged coins with those which were new and more durable, and even helped break up a counterfeiting ring.

In 1701, Newton began another short term as parliamentarian. Two years later he was elected president of the Royal Society. His re election to that position every year for the rest of his life showed the high esteem in which he was held by fellow scientists. Now that he had returned to science, Newton published his earlier work on light. His book, Optiks, contained both his own findings and suggestions for further research. His country officially recognized his work in 1705 when he became the first person to receive a knighthood for scientific achievement. .....

Royal Opposition
24. After 1685, Newton again encountered the problem of a monarch who tried to mingle politics, religion and education. The new king, James II, wanted Trinity College to award unearned degrees to those whose religious beliefs agreed with his own. Because they would not do this, Newton and eight other teachers from Trinity College were brought before the High Court on trumped up charges. Although the charges were rightfully dismissed, the episode had been a great strain on the men.

Isaac Newtons times of hardship and struggle throughout his lifetime did not produce bitterness. Instead, Newtons own words show that this brought him closer to God. Trials are medicines which our gracious and wise physician gives because we need them, and the proportions the frequency and weight of them to what the case requires. Let us trust his skill and thank him for the prescription. .....

Death
25. By the end of his life, Newton was one of the most famous men in England, his pre eminence in matters scientific unchallenged. He had also become a wealthy man, he invested his substantial income wisely, and had enough to make sizable gifts to charity and leave a small fortune behind in his will. Whether he was happy is another question. He had never made friends easily, and in his later years his peculiar combination of pride, insecurity, and distraction seems to have interfered with his relationships. He never married, and lived as the monk of science, having channeled all his sexual energy into his work. His only close relationships with women were familial. with his niece, with whom he lived for some years, and much earlier, with his mother, who had died in 1679. Around 1700 he had briefly courted a wealthy widow, but nothing came of it. .....
Tom Cruise
A list Star. His next film, Risky Business (1983), grossed $65 million. It also made Cruise a highly recognizable actor thanks in no small part to a memorable scene of the young star dancing in his underwear.In 1986, after a two year hiatus, the budding actor rel .....
World Flags
Micronesia Federated States of. light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern; blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean, the stars represent the four island groups of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap .....
Gifts Your Favorite Coffee
Mug and coffee gift set. Naturally, no coffee gift list would be complete without a product by Starbucks. For our list, we picked this attractive coffee gift set that contains 1 Ceramic Travel Mug With Lid, 1 Ceramic Mug, 1 Starbucks Caffe Verona Ground Coffee and 1 Peppermi .....
Xmas Celebration Ideas
Get what you really want gift game. Have each person bring a wrapped gift for himself. Gifts are all mixed up and passed out. Everyone opens one gift, then must guess who bought it. Have a list of everyone at the party so people can write down their guesses. Whoever has the most correc .....
Annoying Habits You Should Avoid Doing in Public
Mind what you say. Critics call it, the degradation of modern language. Our conversation is often full of phrases such as like, you know, but, actually to mention a few. Its a fairly common habit and most people are aware of how dumb and unconvincing these methods .....
Benefits of Kale
Digestion. Kale is high in fiber and water content, both of which help to prevent constipation and promote regularity and a healthy digestive tract. The form of vitamin K in kale is K1, which is different than vitamin K2. K2 is found in fermented soy foods and .....
SuperFood
Parsley. Parsley is an excellent source of vitamins A, C, and K, as well as a good source of iron and folate. If eaten in quantities appropriate for a vegetable rather than a spice, it can provide calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, beta-carotene .....
Top Cricket Bowlers of all Time
Curtly Ambrose. 98 Test matches; 405 wickets; 20.99 average; 8 45 BBI; 54.5 strike rate Another tremendous bowler follows at No. 39, as West Indian Curtly Ambrose takes his place in this list. Incredibly consistent on any surface, Ambrose exploited the .....
Simple Science
Bicycle Tires. General Properties of Gases: We know very well that we cannot put more than a certain amount of water in a tube, but we know equally well that the amount of air which can be pumped into a bicycle or automobile tire depends largely upon our muscular e .....
Benefits of Tomatoes
Treats Acne. Vitamin A and C are commonly found in many acne treating medicines and ointments. The high acidic content in tomatoes helps to treat rashes and acne. Vitamin A and C are commonly found in many acne treating medicines and ointments. The high acidic co .....
Flowers
Rudbeckia purpurea Purple Rudbeckia. This species differs from the other plants of the genus, in the colour of its outermost petals, which are long, narrow, purple, and pendulous, and not unaptly resemble small pieces of red tape. Notwithstanding it is a native of the warm climates Caro .....
Xmas Toys
Magformers Magnets In Motion Medium Gear Set. Get your creativity moving with the simple snap of a magnet. Fit the rotation blocks into the open square blocks. Fit your gears, big or small, onto the rotation blocks. Connect the gears together by the teeth, add a few swirly image plates, snap t .....
Rules to play Croquet
Wired. If an opponent causes the striker ball to be blocked by a wicket or stake wired when the striker wishes to shoot at a ball it is alive on, the striker may move his her ball a mallet heads length or up to 9 inches in any direction from its wired pos .....
Benefits of Gooseberry
Regulates Acid Levels in the Stomach. Regular consumption of amla is very good for your stomach, as it balances the acids levels of stomach and thus improving digestion. Gooseberries supply other vitamins and minerals that offer health benefits. Ensminger reports that gooseberries contai .....
Tips to Improve Your Life
Drop Ideas That Fail. Ideas are a commodity. Being able to execute them well is what creates success. Hanging on to an idea, even after it his proven to be ineffective is the downfall of many aspiring entrepreneurs. .....
Jogging Tips and Guidelines
Dont start too fast. Runners who are new to speedwork sometimes make the mistake of running way too hard and fast for every interval. You should put in a good effort, but dont run so fast that your breathing and heart rate are totally out of control. Try to run your inte .....
World Carnival
Food and Wine Classic Aspen Colorado. This event features wine tasting, cooking demonstrations, featured speakers, as well as a cooking competition. Held annually in June, the event is considered the kickoff to the Aspen summer season. .....
Pink Lakes of the World
Crane Beach Barbados. At Crane Beach you ll enjoy one of the finest beaches and outdoor recreation destinations on the East Coast. With its clean inviting water miles of shoreline and mesmerizing views Crane Beach has been a favorite with the ocean loving public for .....
Stylish Hair
Curly Twist. Hair type: Hair Type required: Long or medium dry hairItems:Hair Spray, Bobby pins Description:a. Take 2 inch wide section of your hair from either side of the parting and tuck them back with bobby pins. Loosen them a bit.b. Take a section of hair f .....
Best Tourist Spots in the World
Everland Gyeonggi Do South Korea. Home to the world .....
Tips to get ready for xmas
Warnings. Dont drink too much rum ,Use care when burning candles,Get an adult to help you with Christmas tree lights and baking cookies,Do not leave the tree lit while unattended.,Check Christmas bulbs, wiring, etc. to make sure they are hazard free,If you h .....
Deadliest Diseases in human history
Yellow fever. Transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes, these days Yellow Fever occurs most often in South America and Africa, and WHO estimates that of the 200,000 new cases each year, roughly 30,000 die. .....
Precautions while using Computer and Laptops
Checking the Fan. Overheating problems can be caused by the laptop fan not working properly. Always check the laptop manufacturers online support and your warranty information. It may be possible to download software to test your laptop fan. .....
Benefits of Cucumber
Control pests. Place slices of cucumbers in containers around the garden to control slugs and pest of the area. The chemical in these vegetables releases a scent which wards of the pests and insects. Cucumbers are an excellent source of vitamin K and molybdenum. Th .....
Ways to be a Daredevil on Your Vacation
Swing at the End of the World in Ecuador. Located near the active Tungurahua volcano in Banos de Agua Santa, Ecuador, the Swing at the End of the World is made from no more than a wooden plank and sturdy ropes, and offers spectacular views from more than 1 and a half miles high. .....
Amazing Dances Around The World
Ballroom dancing. Although mainly popular in Latin America, where most of the well known dances originated from, it is now nonetheless gaining quite a following all over the world. Examples of these are the cha cha, tango and foxtrot. Although you are basically requir .....
Play Cricket
Appeals If the fielders believe a batsman is out. they may ask the umpire Hows That?, commonly shouted emphatically with arms raised, before the next ball is bowled. The umpire then decides whether the batsman is out. Strictly speaking, the fielding side must appeal for all dismissals, including obv .....
Hanuman Chalisa
Hanuman 9. Suukssma Ruupadhari Siyahi Dikhaavaa | Vikatt Ruup Dhari Lamka Jaraavaa || Hanuman you are a magician. You can become a small monkey in front of Sita, but assumed a huge form to burn Lanka. .....
Best Peacock Mehndi Designs
Designs 6. A peacock inspired tattoo design for all of those who love tattoo mehndis. Tattoo mehndi is a great way to add some colour without pain and as they are not permanent, you can remove them once you get bored of them. This mehndi tattoo is done with bla .....
Jumping Jacks
Warning. Jumping jacks are a high impact aerobic activity. As with any new physical fitness program, consult your physician before starting a new exercise regimen. If you experience pain at any point while doing jumping jacks, stop the exercise immediately. .....
New Mehandi Designs
Mehandi Design 15. This is apt for occasions like Karva Chauth and engagement parties. On the day of engagement, the whole attention will be on your hands so this pattern will be apt for the day. .....
Benefits of Bananas
Relieve from constipation. Pectin found in Bananas, help to alleviate constipation and improves bowel function. Improve your mood and reduce PMS symptoms by eating a banana, which regulates blood sugar and produces stressrelieving relaxation. .....
Rules to play Horseshoes
Length of the game. The length of a game shall be determined before play begins. There are two options: 1. Point Limit The game shall be played to a predetermined number of points. 40 points is the suggested amount. The first contestant to reach (or exceed) that amoun .....
Rules to play Lacrosse
After each goal. A faceoff in lacrosse is similar to a faceoff in hockey, except that the two lacrosse players get down on their hands and knees and position their sticks parallel to each other. They then vie for the ball when the referee blows his whistle. .....
Greatest Oscar Moments
Ubiquitous Crystal. The Moment The dominant host of modern times made his name with a regular running gag in which hes inserted into footage from nominated films. Why Its Great New hosts often struggle to find their identity but Crystal succeeds by imposing his on the .....
Benefits of Turnips
Digestive Health. Turnip greens are high in fiber which helps support the bodys digestive system. Some research suggests that glucosinolates may also help the stomach process bacteria like Helicobacter pylori. This root vegetable usually sold bunched or topped. In the .....
Worlds Biggest Islands
Palawan Philippines. Palawan, officially the Province of Palawan, is an island province of the Philippines that is located in the MIMAROPA region. It is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. .....
Fastest Trains In The World
BRITISH RAIL CLASS 373 EUROSTAR UK. Operating speed: 300 km/h, Capacity: 335 km/h The British Rail Class 373 Eurostar travels between London, Paris and Brussels, running under the English Channel, with a stop at Disneyland Paris. It also operates seasonal routes to Avignon and the Fren .....
Management Mantras
Innovation. Each one of us likes to do something different and new, everyone has a tremendous potential, we just need to get an opportunity and some support to get there. Explore the potential in each of your team member and give a task which is not a routine a .....
Popular Men Deodorant Brands
Burberry Brit. Burberry Brit by Burberry for Men, Refreshing Deodorant Stick by Burberry. .....
Weird Insects
Fig Wasps. Truly the Sad Keanu of the insect world, the male fig wasp never gets to venture beyond his tiny home. Born from eggs laid inside flowers within the fleshy, hollow receptacle of a fig, the male wasps have but one purpose in their short lives: to proc .....
Simple Science
Where does Yeast come From. Fermentation: The microscopic plants which we call yeast are widely distributed in the air, and float around there until chance brings them in contact with a substance favorable to their growth, such as fruit juices and moist warm batter. Under the f .....
Latest Blouse Design
Backless Saree Blouse Designs. Backless blouse design can be worn by those who can carry it with confidence, grace and charm.This simple U cut blouse design has a slim string on either side.The ends of the strings have pearl beads, which decorate the smooth back of the wearer.The .....
Benefits of Apricots
How to choose good apricots. Apricots are available mostly in summer. In the winter, they are imported from other countries. When you are at the supermarket, buying apricots, make sure that you look for fruits that have a rich, orange colouring. Avoid the ones that look pale or .....
Rules to play Curling
Hammer. Last rock or last stone advantage in an end is called the hammer. Before the game, teams typically decide who gets the hammer in the first end either by chance (such as a coin toss), by a draw to the button contest, where a representative of each tea .....
What to Eat in Maharashtra
Mango pickle. Mango pickle refers to a variety of pickles prepared using mango. This is a very popular pickle in South Asia and India. These sometimes spicy pickles are also available commercially. .....
Precautions while using Centrifuge
During centrifugation. During centrifugation 1 Close lids at all times during operation. Never open a centrifuge until the rotor has stopped. 2 Do not exceed safe rotor speed. 3 The operator should not leave the centrifuge until full operating speed is attained and the mac .....
Amazing Things to do New Years
Moon Shadow Malibu CA. Few places in the world scream .....
Hug Day
free hugs. Make posters, signs, and tshirts that say, free hugs. Its best to do this with a friend, just to be safe. .....
Best Romantic Places In India
Nainital. Take a romantic trip to the higher lands of Nainital, the alluring Lake District. Amidst pristine surroundings, cosy up with your partner as the weather of the region plummets. Have a peaceful experience as you take a boat ride by the pear shaped la .....
Sachin 100
Century 44. Match : India Vs New ZealandVenue : Sardar Patel Stadium, Motera, Ahmedabad : Year 1999In the same tour of 1999, India posted a score of 500 in the first innings. Thanks to Sachin's power packed performance as he reached his double hundred score of 2 .....
Benefits of Sapodilla fruits
Inflammation. Sapodilla or even chikoo is abundant with tannins therefore it has the capacity in lessening the soreness within the body. The unripe fruit has a hard surface and white pulp due to its high content of latex. The latex content reduces as the fruit rip .....
Ranking The Best Fighters In The World
Ulises Solis. Junior Flyweight 32 2 2 (21) Last Year s Ranking: 56 Status Report: You probably thought Solis was going to disappear after his KO loss to Brian Viloria in April 2009. Nope. After four straight wins .....
Precautions while using Earphones
Risk from excessive sound level. People who have to listen in a noisy environment, whether they are factory workers, sports commentators having to hear above the noise of a crowd, musicians trying to hear a backing track against the sound of a rock band, or camera operators trying t .....
Essential Tips For Job Success
A Job Interview Success. Congratulations All that networking, cover letter writing, resume proofing, and volunteering have finally paid off and youve got yourself an interview. Now you need to be prepared to make the most of this opportunity you worked so hard to create an .....
Epic Travel Destinations
Learn the Way of the Ninja Japan. Ninjas were the covert agent of feudal Japan. Over time, their way has been almost lost to time but Tokyo is home to some of the few remaining ninja sensei, including one who took on 13 Yakuza members at once and came out on top. While the training m .....
Beautiful Reasons to Visit Australia
DARLING HARBOUR. Located adjacent to the Sydney city center, the harbor is a large recreational and pedestrian friendlyarea that is home to a number of major public facilities and attractions. .....
Amazing Animals
Happy Halloween. If you prefer your creatures of the night to be cute rather than cuddly, have we got the critter for you. This is an aye aye, a species of nocturnal lemuroriginally found only in Madagascar. The aye aye is a harmless omnivore with one long, spindly f .....
Biggest things in the World
Largest Lobster. The World s Largest Lobster. One of the most photographed attractions in New Brunswick, Shediac sGiant Lobster, is ageing gracefully, even very gracefully, and we plan to celebrate its 25thAnniversary in style! Shediac is recognized the world over as .....
Animal Themed Nail Art Designs
Colorful owl nails. You can also draw owls in different colors on all your nails to get a colorful look as shown above. .....
How to Be Chill
The mindfulness revolution. What is it? Buddhists have been meditating using the mindful technique for more than 2,000 years, but over the past five years the trend for living mindfully has become inescapable. Mindfulness is a form of meditation that encourages devotees to live .....
Precautions while using WhatsApp
Do not share pics. Do not share your pics in chat rooms as they can be misused. Identity theft is a grave issue and can have dangerous repercussions. .....
Best Places to Celebrate Xmas
Boston Massachusetts. A city boasting of strong American history, Boston decks out in holiday cheer with over 2,800 working gas lamps, trees wrapped in white lights, topped with the impressive Christmas tree located in front of Faneuil Hall. .....
Tips to get ready for Foreign Trip
Make a List With What You Need. This is very important make this list early on, so you can add as the time gets closer. You want to take everything you will absolutely need, but you do not want o pack dead weight.Here is how I go about my list. I start with my head and go down each .....
XMas Bucket List
Favourite Beer Wine And Whiskey. It always amazes me how many people (most) that stock up on copious amounts of liquor and ale over the festive season, I mean sure, back in the 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s the stores may close for a longer period of time but nowadays the supermarkets want .....
Kissing Facts That May Shock You
Fact 25. The mouth is full of bacteria. When two people kiss, they exchange between 10 million and 1 billion bacteria. .....
Benefits of Star Anise
Rich in Shikimic Acid. Star anise is the primary source of shikimic acid a plant based compound that is the precursor to oseltamivir an antiviral medication that is marketed as Tamiflu according to an article in a 2011 issue of Alternative Medicine Studies. Although shi .....
Benefits of Lime
Supports the Immune System. Limes and their juice are very high in vitamin C. Slightly less than 1/4 cup of lime juice, or about 50 grams, provides 15 milligrams of vitamin C 20 percent of the 75 milligram recommended daily value for women. Vitamin C is an antioxidant nutrient .....
Benefits of Elderberry
Glucoproteins. Plant lectins that have antiviral properties, protecting the cells from being infected by the cold and flu viruses. The analysis included 80 individuals who had daily elderberry juice enriched with elderberry blossom and berry powder extracts, togeth .....
Sign Of Pregnancy
Headaches. Not every woman has problems with headaches during pregnancy, but for some this is the very first tell tale sign of pregnancy. Headaches during early pregnancy are thought to be caused by hormonal changes as well as changes in a womans blood volume. .....
Tips to succeed in Study
Attend classes regularly. Be an active learner. Attend lectures regularly and participate whenever possible. The interaction will help you to remember more than if you sit passively in class, dreaming of other things. .....
Amazing Halloween Makeup Ideas For Women
Spaghetti Brain. Nothing creepier than spaghetti for your brain! Lace it with sauce for the bloody effect! Spend maximum time on the headdress and walk around with ketchup dripping off your clothes for the gory effect. Your trick o treat will garner a lot of laughs, .....
Lazy Girl Nail Art Ideas
Design 2. This chic design is deceptively easy. .....
The Most Beautiful Bays
Ha Long Bay Vietnam. With hundreds of green topped islands Ha Long (literally descending dragon ) Bay offers an unforgettable view of limestone karst pillars. .....
Nails Art Designs
Alternate the Colours. Alternating nail polish colors on each finger or painting each finger with a different color is sure to grab attention. It is simple and needs very less effort. .....
Chourishi Systems