Guglielmo marconi

Biography
1. Born 25 April 1874
Died 20 July 1937 (heart failure)
Birthplace Bologna, Italy
Best known as Italian pioneer of wireless telegraphy
Guglielmo Marconi was an IrishItalian inventor and entrepreneur who popularized wireless telegraphy early in the 20th century. One of the founding fathers of radio communication, Marconi got interested in 1894 in the electromagnetic wave experiments by H. R. Hertz. Working at his fathers estate, Marconi devised a working receiver and in 1895 sent and received radio waves over greater and greater distances. When the Italian government showed little interest in his operation, Marconi went to England, where he founded his own wireless telegraph company in 1897. He was awarded a patent for tuned or syntonic telegraphy (patent no. 7777) and set about proving that wireless telegraphy could be a benefit to society as well as a profitable enterprise. By 1902 Marconi had established that wireless communication was possible even across the Atlantic Ocean, even though his claim of the first successful transatlantic signal (from England to Newfoundland, December of 1901) was never independently verified. For patents in the U.S., Marconi was in competition with Nikola Tesla, who held the first patents until the United States Patent Office reversed itself in 1904 and gave Marconi credit for the radio. Marconi was from a wellconnected family (his mother, Anne Jameson, was the granddaughter of the founder of the distillery that makes Jameson Irish whiskey) and was able to develop and finance an expansion of his businesses. During the first part of the 1900s his company patented several inventions, including what became the standard wireless receiver for many years. Marconi got rich and in 1909 shared the Nobel Prize for Physics (with Karl Ferdinand Braun).

An Italian patriot, Marconi served in the armed forces during World War I and directed Italys radio service; after the war he was an Italian delegate to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. During the 1920s he devoted his attention to short wave (microwave) communications (often working aboard his yacht Elettra) and became an active supporter and, later, member of Benito Mussolinis fascist government. Marconi was made a noble with the rank of marchese in 1929 and was given a state funeral after his death in 1937. .....

Synopsis
2. Born in Bologna, Italy, in 1874, Guglielmo Marconi was a Nobel Prizewinning physicist and inventor credited with the groundbreaking work necessary for all future radio technology. Through his experiments in wireless telegraphy, Marconi developed the first effective system of radio communication. In 1899, he founded the Marconi Telegraph Company. In 1901, he successfully sent wireless signals across the Atlantic Ocean, disproving the dominant belief of the Earths curvature affecting transmission. Marconi shared with Karl Braun the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics. He died in Rome in 1937. .....
Early Life and Education
3. Born on April 25, 1874, in Bologna, Italy, into a wealthy family, and educated largely at home, Guglielmo Marconi began experimenting with electromagnetics as a student at the Livorno Technical Institute. Incorporating the earlier findings of H.R. Hertz, he was able to develop a basic system of wireless telegraphy, for which he received his first patent in England. .....
Groundbreaking Work and Nobel Prize
4. Marconi founded the Londonbased Marconi Telegraph Company in 1899. Though his original transmission traveled a mere mile and a half, on December 12, 1901, Marconi sent and received the first wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean, from Cornwall, England, to a military base in Newfoundland. His experiment was significant, as it disproved the dominant belief of the Earths curvature affecting transmission.Beginning in 1902, Marconi worked on experiments that stretched the distance that wireless communication could travel, until he was finally able to establish transatlantic service from Glace Bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, to Clifden, Ireland. For his work with wireless communication, Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Braun in 1909. Not long after, Marconis wireless system was used by the crew of the RMS Titanic to call for assistance.

Marconi held several positions in the Italian Army and Navy during World War I, starting the war as a lieutenant in 1914 and finishing as a naval commander. He was sent on diplomatic missions to the United States and France. After the war, Marconi began experimenting with basic short wave radio technology. On his beloved yacht, Elettra, he conducted experiments in the 1920s proving the efficacy of the beam system for longdistance communication. (The next step would lead to microwave transmission.) By 1926, Marconis beam system had been adopted by the British government as a design for international communication.In addition to his groundbreaking research in wireless communication, Marconi was instrumental in establishing the British Broadcasting Company, formed in 1922. He was also involved in the development of radar. .....

Later Years
5. Marconi continued to experiment with radio technology in his native Italy until his death, on July 20, 1937, in Rome, from heart failure.1943, the U.S. Supreme Court declared Marconis radio patent invalid because work by other scientists, including Nikola Tesla, predated some of his findings. .....
Personal Life
6. Marconi married for the first time in 1905, to Beatrice OBrien, the daughter of Edward Donough OBrien, 14th Baron Inchiquin. He and Beatrice had three children a son, Giulio, and two daughters, Degna and Gioia before their union was annulled in 1927. That same year, Marconi wed Countess BezziScali of Rome, with whom he had one daughter, Elettra, named after his yacht. .....
Guglielmo Marconi in England
7. The 22yearold Marconi and his mother arrived in England in 1896 and quickly found interested backers, including the British Post Office. Within a year Marconi was broadcasting up to 12 miles and had applied for his first patents. A year later, he set up a wireless station on the Isle of Wight that allowed Queen Victoria to send messages to her son Prince Edward aboard the royal yacht.By 1899 Marconis signals had crossed the English Channel. The same year, Marconi traveled to the United States, where he gained publicity offering wireless coverage of the Americas Cup yacht race from off the coast of New Jersey. .....
Guglielmo Marconi and the Transatlantic S
8. Marconi began to work on improving his wireless for a transatlantic broadcast. Many physicists argued that radio waves traveled in straight lines, making it impossible for signals to be broadcast beyond the horizon, but Marconi believed they would follow the planets curvature. (In fact, the waves do travel in straight lines but bounce off the ionosphere, approximating a curve.) After failed attempts to receive a signal from England on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Marconi decided to try a shorter distance, from Cornwall to Newfoundland.The radio signal broadcast from Poldhu, Cornwall, was as powerful as Marconis team could make it at full power, the equipment sent out sparks a foot long. Some 2,100 miles away, atop Signal Hill in St. Johns, Marconi attached an antenna first to a balloon, which blew away, and then to a kite on a 500foot tether. On December 12, 1901, he picked up a faint threedot sequence the Morse Code letter s. .....
Guglielmo Marconi the Nobel Prize and Titanic
9. In 1909 Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with the German physicist Karl F. Braun, the inventor of the cathode ray tube. Marconis accolades were not without controversy many other men had claims (some dubious, some not) to the Father of Radio title. As early as 1895, the Russian physicist Alexander Popov was broadcasting between buildings, while in India Jagdish Chandra Bose was using radio waves to ring bells and trigger explosions. In 1901 the SerbianAmerican electrical pioneer Nikola Tesla said he had developed a wireless telegraph in 1893; in 1943 the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated four Marconi radio patents, citing Teslas prior work. As shipping companies realized the radio telegraphs usefulness for passenger communication, navigation reports and distress signals, Marconi Company radios operated by trained cadres of Marconi Men became standard equipment. When RMS Titanic struck an iceberg on April 14, 1913, its Marconi operator was able to summon RMS Carpathia to the scene to pick up 700 survivors. .....
Guglielmo Marconis Later Years and Legacy
10. For the next two decades, Marconi continued refining his inventions, experimenting with shortwave broadcasts and testing transmission distances aboard his 700ton yacht, Elettra. He returned to Italy, became a supporter of Benito Mussolini and annulled his first marriage to an Irish artist with whom he had four children to wed an Italian noblewoman. In 1935 he toured Brazil and Europe defending Mussolinis invasion of Abyssinia. He died two years later of a heart attack in Rome. In his honor, radio stations in America, England and Italy broadcast several minutes of silence. .....
Contributions and Achievements
11. Marconi was convinced that communication among people was possible via wireless radio signaling. He started conducting experiment in 1895 at his fathers home in Pontecchio, where he was soon able to send signals over one and a half miles. During this period, he also carried out simple experiments with reflectors around the aerial to concentrate the radiated electrical energy into a beam instead of spreading it in all directions.In 1896 Marconi traveled to England in order to get a patent for his apparatus. Later that year he was granted the worlds first patent for a system of wireless telegraphy. After successfully demonstrating the systems ability to transmit radio signals in London, on Salisbury Plain and across the Bristol Channel, he established the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited in July 1897. This company was renamed as Marconis Wireless Telegraph Company Limited in 1990.

In 1899 he established a wireless link between Britain and France across the English Channel. Further he established permanent wireless stations at The Needles, Isle of Wight, Bournemouth, and later at the Haven Hotel in Poole, Dorset. The following year he received his patent for tuned or systonic telegraphy.During December 1901 Marconi proved that wireless signals were unaffected by the curvature of the earth. He transmitted the first wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall and St, Johns, New Foundland, a distance of 2100 miles.The next year he demonstrated daylight effect relative to wireless communication and also he patented his magnetic detector, which was the standard wireless receiver for many years. In December he successfully transmitted the first complete message to Poldhu from stations at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia and Cape Cod Massachusetts.In 1905 and 1912 Marconi patented his horizontal directional aerial and patented a timed spark system for generating continuous waves respectively. .....

Later Life
12. In 1914, he took the position of a Lieutenant in the Italian Army. Later he was promoted to Captain and in 1916 was appointed as a Commander in the Navy, receiving his Italian Military Medal in 1919 for his war service. He also used his systems for the workings of the military. During this time he continued with his experiments, establishing the worlds first microwave radiotelephone link in 1932, and later introducing the microwave beacon for ship navigation.Marconi died in Rome on 20 July 1937 following a series of heart attacks. .....
Marconis childhood
13. Guglielmo Marconi was born on 25th April 1874 in Bologna in Northern Italy.Marconis, father, Guiseppe, was a widower and wealthy Italian. His mother came from a Scottish and Irish family of brewers and distillers, and she ran away from home to marry him.Marconis mother loved to travel and the young Guglielmo accompanied her on many of her trips. As a result the young Marconi received private tuition, this gave him further insight into some of the fundamental concepts he would require later. He later attended a school in Florence, but found his work difficult. Nevertheless Marconi still managed to progress to the Technical Institute of Leghorn where he was more successful, and developed an interest in physics.Unfortunately Marconi left the Institute without any formal qualifications. This displeased his father, but despite this he returned home and continued to perform various scientific experiments.Marconis mother was very loyal to her son, and she arranged that one of their neighbours, a noted physicist named Professor Righi acted as an adviser. It was through this contact that Marconis interest became focused on the newly discovered radio or Hertzian Waves. .....
Marconis wireless experiments
14. With Marconis interest fired with ideas of Hertzian Waves. He started by repeating the experiments of Heinrich Hertz who had discovered their existence. These experiments used a spark in a transmitting circuit to induce a second but smaller spark in a receiving circuit placed a short distance away.Like Hertz he only managed to achieve ranges of a few metres. Later he managed to improve the distance over which the spark could be detected by using a device called a coherer in the receiver. A Frenchman named Edouard Branly was the first to observe the effect behind the coherer and this was later improved and popularised by Oliver Lodge in its use for detecting Hertzian wave transmissions. .....
Move
15. History shows that Guglielmo Marconi was not deterred by his rejection, but in order to be able to exploit his idea he moved to England with his mother in February 1896.On their arrival, Marconi and his mother were met by his cousin, Henry JamesonDavies. He was an engineer himself, and gave the young Marconi an introduction to A.A. Campbell Swinton, Scottish consulting electrical engineer who was interested in communications and had been following some of the experiments performed by Hertz. As a result he had some connections who were of use to Marconi, introducing him to William Preece the Chief Engineer of the Post Office. Preece was keenly interested in wireless forms of communications and had performed a number of wireless experiments himself.Following up on his new introduction, Marconi undertook a number of demonstrations. The first was set up on the rooftops of two buildings in London in July of that year. Communication was successfully made over a distance of a few hundred yards. This impressed all that were present, especially because there were buildings in the line of transmission, and wireless communication was still very new and a great novelty.

As a result of the success of the first demonstration a further test was requested on Salisbury Plain at the beginning of September. This time representatives from the War Office and the Admiralty were also present. In view of the additional observers, Marconi used parabolic reflectors at the transmitter and receiver to show the directional properties of the waves. This was important to show that secrecy could be maintained during transmissions. The use of this technology limited the range to only about two and a half kilometres. Further tests six months later used balloons to raise the height of more conventional antennas. This time a range of over seven kilometres was achieved.The next demonstration was made to the press. This was very successful, partly because of the novelty of being able to communicate electrically without any intervening wires. The effect was also enhanced by the showmanship used in the performance as both transmitter and receiver were housed in black boxes. As a result Marconi became an instant celebrity.Up until this time the new Hertzian or radio waves used by Marconi had not been put to any real use. Then in 1897 it was decided to test the new system and see if it could provide a reliable link across various stretches of water. If this were successful it would save on the installation of expensive submarine cables. In some of the first of these tests across the Bristol Channel, Marconis system proved to be very successful, further enhancing his image. .....

Marconi opens for business
16. With the success of these tests interest in the possible uses of radio grew, and in July 1897 Marconi decided that he had to launch his own company. Named the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company Limited its foundation allowed him to borrow further money to allow further tests and development to be performed. With financial backing behind him he continued his developments and tests.Little was still understood about Wireless or Hertzian waves and therefore further tests were needed. In late 1897 Marconi erected masts over 40 metres high outside the Needles Hotel on the Isle of Wight. From here he made transmissions which he received on a boat which steamed up and down the Solent to test reception over the sea. From this site he managed to achieve a range of over 30 kilometres and also confirmed that transmissions could be reliably made over water. As evidence of this anyone visiting the Needles today can see a plaque in the car park commemorating the site of these transmissions.

With these further increases in range it was decided to attempt to make the first international radio link by transmitting across the English Channel. To achieve this, masts were set up at South Foreland and at Wimereux near Boulogne and the first successful international wireless transmissions were made in 1899. In view of its importance this test received a large amount of press coverage, and was very successful. However it also enabled new discoveries to be made because the transmissions were picked up over 130 kilometres away in Chelmsford. This discovery was very significant because until this time it was only thought that transmissions could be made over line of sight paths.The same year brought another success for Marconi. He received his first order from the British Navy. Up until this time he had spent large sums of money on research, but had received very few orders. If his company was to survive, then he needed more orders of this nature. .....

Marconi prepares for the Atlantic
17. The first stage of his preparation for a transatlantic transmission was for Marconi to convince his fellow directors that this test, which would have enormous expense associated with it would be worthwhile. Marconi faced a tough battle to convince them, but eventually he succeeded in gaining their reluctant agreement for this massive project.To enable the long range radio communications to be established, it was essential to choose the correct sites to provide the best chance of success. Sites were selected either side of the Atlantic at Poldhu in Cornwall and Cape Cod in Massachusetts.The Poldhu station was the first to be set up. A massive antenna consisting of a ring of twenty masts over sixty metres high was erected. This supported a cone of wires that formed the actual antenna.

One of Marconis assistants, a man named Vyvyan expressed concern over the design of the antenna. His reservations were dismissed, but unfortunately he was proved to be right as the whole structure collapsed in a gale.The antenna at Cape Cod was of the same design, and even became distorted in a strong breeze. Later it suffered the same fate as the one the other side of the Atlantic. By a strange quirk of fate one of the masts narrowly missed Marconis assistant Vyvyan. .....

Flemings transmitter
18. In order to meet the requirements for a transatlantic transmission, a totally new form of transmitter would be required. One with a far greater power generation capacity was needed.The task of designing and developing this new radio transmitter fell to Ambrose Fleming. He was Professor at University College London and a consultant to Marconis company.In Flemings transmitter an alternator charges the capacitor C1 through a circuit that is resonant at the alternator frequency. Sparkgap S1 discharges to create a higher frequency signal and the step up transformer then steps up the voltage to charge C2 to a much higher voltage. Spark gap C2 which is wider then discharges C2 through a circuit that is resonant at the radiated frequency to which the aerial is also tuned. .....
Marconi rebuilds the transatlantic stations
19. The collapse of the antennas at Poldhu and Cape Cod dealt a devastating blow to Marconi. He had invested enormous sums into the building of these two stations and their antennas.But Marconi did not let this setback defeat him. With typical resilience he set about the task of rebuilding. This time he made the Poldhu antenna smaller and more robust.He also decided to move the site of the American station to Newfoundland to shorten the distance of the path. At this location he decided the antenna would have to be kept as simple as possible consisting of a wire supported by kites or balloons this was no doubt in some degree due to the cost of rebuilding a full antenna system. This also meant that a transmission could only be made in one direction from England to Newfoundland.Tests commenced in December 1901 with the Poldu station transmitting the letter s consisting of three dots, for three hours every day. This letter was chosen for two reasons. The first was that it would be easy to recognise. The second was probably more important. The transmitter was a very new design and it could not be trusted to transmit dashes without the risk of a breakdown.

The weather in Newfoundland was bad for these tests. On the first two days kites were lost because of the strength of the wind. A third kite was tried, but this moved rapidly in the wind causing the resonance of the antenna to change rapidly, and it was not possible to counteract this with the receiver tuning sufficiently fast.In order to be able to detect the signals under these difficult conditions Marconi reverted to an untuned circuit and what was called a selfrestoring coherer. Despite its name this was not a coherer at all, but an early example of a detector that operated by rectifying the signal in the same basic manner as diode detectors do in amplitude modulation, AM receivers. This was used with a sensitive telephone earpiece to enable Marconi to listen to the signals.Despite these difficulties, Marconi was convinced that he could hear the signals. He asked his assistant Kemp to confirm this which he did. Marconis notebook indicates that he heard signals at 12.30 pm, 1.10 and at 2.20 on 12 December 1901.The weather worsened and with no sign of a letup in the conditions an elated Marconi released the information to the press despite the fact that he had no independent witness, nor any instrumental record. This news was received enthusiastically by the press, although the scientific community was more sceptical. They thought he might have mistaken static cracks for the Poldhu transmissions. .....

Further Atlantic transmissions
20. While Marconi genuinely believed that he had heard the radio signals from Poldu, they were so weak that it would not have been possible to send a full message across the Atlantic. Unfortunately Marconi was not allowed to repeat the experiment because the local telegraph company exerted its rights to a monopoly and forced him to close his station there.Again Marconi had to move, and this time he set up a new radio communications station on Cape Breton Island. When the station entered service it was difficult to assess its performance because propagation conditions were varying so widely. However it was found that increasing the wavelength improved the performance. As the wavelengths were already of the order of 2000 metres this meant that even larger radio antennas were necessary.The transatlantic project was costing the company vast sums of money, and despite the problems it was decided that it was necessary to use it to bring in some finance. To achieve this, a news transmission service was introduced in conjunction with the Times newspaper. Messages were sent across the Atlantic and it meant that news could be received more quickly than by other methods. However this service only lasted for nine days as the aerial on Cape Breton Island collapsed.

Accordingly Marconi returned to his idea of providing services to ships to gain some revenue, and instigated a service to provide news to liners crossing he Atlantic.To try to resolve the problem with antennas, Marconi experimented with new antennas at Poldhu. Whilst he was doing this he noticed that a wire on the ground pointing towards Glace Bay gave a stronger signal than his other antennas. Further development resulted in the inverted L antenna used to this day.With the introduction of this antenna it was possible to maintain a better level of service even if it was still painstakingly slow to send messages across the Atlantic without errors. .....

Further transmissions
21. The main area of business for Marconis company was to provide communications systems for ships. With the transatlantic link established more ships took the Marconi system on board. The first commercial installation on a merchant ship was completed in 1900, and by 1902 seventy ships had Marconi systems on board.The initial long distance transmissions had been made using very long wavelengths, typically in excess of 2000 metres. Then in the early 1920s the short wave bands were starting to be exploited. Many professionals including Marconi started to experiment with these bands carrying out many experiments.

With proof that the short wave bands could provide reliable communication over long distances the British Government decided that it needed to install an Imperial Wireless Network. The Marconi Company approached the British Government and offered to link up the Empire with short wave stations in England, Canada, India, South Africa and Australia. As the technology was very new and there was a high risk of failure the Government insisted that Marconi bore all the risk of failure. Once installed the system was very successful, and very reliable. .....

Marconi 7777 patent
22. One of Marconis most famous inventions was that of tuning. The famous Marconi 7777 patent for Improvements in Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy was granted on 26 April 1901. It arose out of the need to separate signals from each other because one of the major problems Marconi faced was that of interference between different transmitting stations. Using the concept behind the Marconi 7777 patent tuning of the transmitter, receiver and antenna enabled interference to be considerably reduced.The new invention was based in part on earlier work by Sir Oliver Lodge where Lodge had tuned the sending and receiving aerials. Lodge was unhappy as he felt it infringed his work and litigation followed. However the 7777 patent gave Marconi a significant edge over the competition Using concept of the patent allowed simultaneous transmissions on different frequencies something which was revolutionary in these early days of radio communications.The result was that radio communications stations close to one another were able to operate with reduced levels of interference and as a result ranges could be increased. .....
Magnetic detectors
23. The coherer had long been used but was a particularly insensitive element within the overall radio communications system. It needed a very large spark discharge to cohere. As a result new forms of detector were investigated and after much work Marconi patented the magnetic detector as an invention.From around 1902 ships that had Marconi radio communications equipment installed on them used the magnetic detector. It provided a higher level of sensitivity, better discrimination of interference, and faster signalling speeds.The magnetic detector had been developed by Marconi from an original experimental detector that had been used by Rutherford in 1985 as part of his radio communications experiments. .....
Marconi business growing pains
24. The business model Marconi used for his radio communications equipment was to charge a rental fee. This also included the fees for the use of a trained radio operator and the use of the Marconi shore based stations. In this way he did not infringe the monopoly held at that time by the British General Post Office.This arrangement also enabled the company to restrict competition as users with equipment from competitors could not use the shore stations except for emergency communications.With the Marconi company possessing a large number of strategically located stations, this provided a strong incentive for ships to use the Marconi equipment rather than that of a competitor.There was a growing call for international cooperation and legislation in view of the degree of chaos on the radio bands with some operators even deliberately jamming or interfering with the transmissions of others. International agreements were drawn up and it became necessary for all radio communications stations to be licensed by the various countries of origin.

As a result, on 1 January 1905 radio communication within Great Britain came under the control of the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1904. All radio communications stations were licensed including the shore stations which were given a licence for eight years.Under the terms of the agreement telegraph messages or Marconigrams could be sent to and from the ships at sea and then relayed through the standard land based telegraph system operated by the British General Post Office or GPO.Ultimately the government owned GPO required that the shore stations were sold to them, and this meant that Marconi had to further improve his commercial offerings. .....

Transmitter improvements
25. Early transmitter technology used a spark discharge connected to an aerial to provide the signal. Today this seems a particularly crude form of radio communications technology. Marconi had noted that the technology had been in use for a number of years and needed improving to ensure the continued development of the overall radio communications technology.One of the key issues was that once the spark was struck, and remained conductive, the radio frequency energy created by the spark transferred from the spark circuit to the antenna and back many times with much of the RF energy being absorbed in the spark rather than being radiated.In addition to this the signal was very broadband in nature and also gave a very rough sound in the operators headphones.To improve the overall efficiency of these early radio communications transmitters, Marconi invented a system whereby the spark was struck and extinguished in a more controlled manner using a studded disc to vary the length of the spark.

As each stud on the wheel came towards the stationary electrode, the gap narrowed and the spark struck. As it then moved away the length of the spark increased and eventually it extinguished.This development or invention had a number of advantages. Firstly, the signal received by the operator had a far more musical note and was easier to copy. Secondly the extinction of the spark was timed to occur as the reflected power was returned from the aerial circuit. As the oscillations from the spark were unable to return to the now extinguished spark, the oscillations reduced slowly increasing the efficiency and also reducing the signal bandwidth.The result was that Marconi introduced the system onto his transatlantic transmitters in 1907 thereby increasing the reliability, although in reality, messages often needed to be transmitted several times to prevent errors. .....

Marconis father
26. Marconis father Guiseppe was much older than his mother and in 1904 Guiseppe died.The time when he died was an important time for Guglielme Marconi, and in addition to this the young Marconi was very focussed on his long distance radio communications business that was experiencing difficult times. It took up all of his time and thought because although he was a leader in technology, radio communications was a new area and was only giving a very small return on the huge investments made.As a result, Guglielmo did not attend the funeral in Bologna a decision he much regretted later. .....
Marconi marries
27. In many ways, Marconi was a very eligible bachelor. Twice he became engaged to American girls while he was on one of his many transatlantic voyages to test out or monitor the progress of his radio communications equipment.When he eventually married, it was on 16 March 1905 to a nineteen year old Irish girl named Beatrice OBrien who was known as Bea for short. Although she was the daughter of late 13th Lord lnchiquin, a descendant of Brian Boru, warrior king of Ireland, the family was poor.Beas family was Anglican (Protestant) and initially disapproved of Marconi because he was not from an aristocratic line, but as he was not a practising Catholic he became accepted, his motherinlaw calling him Marky.Although smitten with Bea, the business pulled him away on many occasions even their honeymoon was curtailed so he could return. .....
Titanic journey narrowly avoided
28. Marconi was a frequent transatlantic traveller in support of all the transatlantic radio communications links. In view of their status and frequent travel, they had been invited to be guests on the illfated maiden voyage of the new prestige liner.However Marconi himself had to transfer to an earlier sailing to enable him to meet his business commitments leaving Bea to travel on the Titanic.Fortunately at the last moment Bea had to cancel her place because their two and a half year old son was taken ill. Marconi and his wife had four children, three girls and one son. Of these, their first daughter, Luicia only lived a few months. Their other two daughters were named Degna and Gioia, and their son was Vittorio.Despite the fact that Bea frequently travelled with her husband their relationship was on a downward trend. Marconi always put his radio communications business first and this placed a considerable strain on their marriage. .....
Honours and rejections
29. With the many successes of Marconis radio communications business he received many honours. The greatest of these was in 1909 when he was presented with the Nobel Prize in physics which shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun, who had modified Marconis transmitters to increase their range and practicality.In July 1914, Marconi was honoured in Britain by King George V with the honorary title of Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order. However as war was declared his situation changed considerably. Being an Italian he was treated as an alien because Italy was diplomatically linked to Germany.After a time Marconi was able to move to Rome and as he was now over forty, the minimum age, he was able to take up his seat on the Italian Senate having been appointed as a Senator in the spring of that year.Later when Italy entered the war on the allies side he was able to return to Britain where he served as a radio communications consultant. Initially he was given the rank of Lieutenant, later being promoted to LieutenantCommander in the navy. .....
Marriage breakup and a new start
30. In 1924 Marconis marriage to Bea broke up. With Marconis devotion to his business, life had never made his marriage easy.Nevertheless a few years after the breakup Marconi married an Italian named Cristina BezziScali. It was not easy to arrange the marriage because Marconi was a divorcee and she was a Catholic. Also around this time, Marconi himself became a Catholic.Then in 1930, a daughter was born to the couple. She was named Elettra and was their only child. .....
Microwaves and Papal links
31. Although at this stage of his life, Marconi was taking less of a day to day interest in the technology and business affairs of his company he never fully retired.With new radio communications technology becoming available, he was able to investigate the use of very short wavelength signals. In particular he was interested in whether it was possible to establish two way radio communications links over paths that were beyond the line of sight.As Cristina was the daughter of a Vatican official, Marconi established a radio communications link between the Vatican City and Castel Gandolfo, the summer residence for the Pope. .....
Marconi and radar
32. Marconi was by nature a practical engineer and a visionary who saw the applications for his radio communications technology. When addressing a meeting of American radio engineers in New York, in June 1922, Marconi foresaw a new type of radio technique that would emit radio signals, and then detect any reflections. This he described could be used to detect ships at sea.Development was undertaken by Marconis company in marine location and direction finding equipment. Later in Britain in 1935 Robert WatsonWatt of the UK government Radio Research Laboratory undertook the first successful groundtoair test involving radio detection. This proved the concept of what would ultimately be termed radar in detecting aircraft.Later developments of the technique involved the Marconi company and the British government asked the Marconi company to design and manufacture the transmitting antenna arrays used for the first five Chain Home radar stations which were to protect the Thames Estuary and approaches to London in the event of war. .....
Marconi and television
33. Not only was Marconi involved with radar, but he also took an interest in the growing technology of television. He supported the EMI high definition (for the time) system.The Marconi company became heavily involved in television during 1934. The company worked with EMI Ltd in a venture to develop a high definition television system based using electronic scanning with images displayed on a cathode ray tube.This system was a rival to the mechanical system being developed by John Logie Baird, who had produced the first 30line images nine years earlier using a rotating disc. Baird had undertaken many tests using the system and had even sent images across the Atlantic. However the EMIMarconi system was far more flexible and could be developed to provide a much more effective system and it eventually won over the Baird one. .....
Marconis death
34. In the last ten years of his life, Marconi suffered a number of heart attacks. Marconi was more also involved with politics and the interests of his native Italy. With the worsening political situation in Europe, this brought a considerable strain on Marconi.In 1937 his health worsened. Sadly, the night before his daughter Elettras seventh birthday his wife was away. Marconi had been due to meet with Mussolini, who he said never listened to him, and privately dislike. He did not trust the fascists, but out of loyalty to the King, served his country on the senate. Marconi had to cancel the meeting as he was not feeling well and he stayed in their Rome apartment.Sadly Marconi died that during the night around 3.45am on 20 July 1937 at the age of just 63.All transmitters around the globe were silenced for two minutes as a mark of respect on the day after Marconi died. Such was the stature of Marconi, he was often called the Father of Radio. .....
Tallest Building In The World
One World Trade Center USA. The 104 storey structure stands on the northwest corner of the 16 acre World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. Its spire reaches a symbolic height of 1,776 ft (541m) in reference to the United States Declaration of Independence.One World Trade Ce .....
Most Prettiest Faces In The World
Shakira. Hips Do not Lie. Now that is a track that never goes old. Even though she has delivered many hits after. Her music has brought joy to many and that alone is a good enough reason to admire her. But when you throw in all her tireless work for education .....
Candle Sticks
Bullish harami cross. Definition This pattern consists of a black body and a small white body that is completely inside the range of the black body. If an outline is drawn for the pattern it looks like a pregnant woman. This is not a coincidence. .....
Tips to success in Online Business
Social Media Works. It might be overrated lately, I agree, but social media really works. As an observer of the online phenomenon in the last ten years I can tell you for sure that this IS a revolution. Much slower than its perceived or presented, but there is a real sh .....
Home Makeover Ideas
Mix Up the Seating. Seating shouldn t be limited to club chairs and sofas. Utilize benches, ottomans, and odd side chairs to accommodate more people. .....
Most Beautiful Flowers on Earth
poppy. A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants, often grown for their colorful flowers. One species of poppy, Papaver somniferum, produces edible seeds, and is also the source of .....
Simply Mocktails
Carribean Delight. Ingredients:Serving for Two :lemon Juice Rose Syrup 2 cups of Orange Juice 2 tender Coconuts' Water (chilled) Receipe: In a pitcher, mix together coconut water, lemon juice, organge juice, and rose syrup, add some ice cubes and serve it chilled. You .....
Kitchen Design Ideas
Matching Decor . An island the owner designed to match the kitchen s custom alder wood cabinetry stands out in this California home. The island top is Carrara marble; the counters are soapstone. .....
Tips to succeed in Work
Know your merits. Know your strengths and weaknesses. If you think you deserve a position or promotion, claim it. .....
Benefits of Apples
Detoxify your liver. Were constantly consuming toxins, whether it is from drinks or food, and your liver is responsible for clearing these toxins out of your body. Many doctors are skeptical of fad detox diets, saying they have the potential to do more harm than good. Lu .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Daily Facial Care. Skin tone and texture often alter during and after menopause—you might notice an unfamiliar tightness, red patches and other signs of sensitivity. A careful daily facial care routine can minimize the effects of hormone changes. .....
Most Popular New Years Resolutions
Eat healthier. Sometimes included in the weight loss resolution, healthier eating is another praiseworthy vow we often make. Keeping it can be particularly difficult because many people have absolutely wrong and unsuitable diet and eating habits. Increasing the dai .....
Benefits of Bitter Gourd
Description. The bitter melon (also known as bitter gourd) looks like a cucumber but with ugly gourd like bumps all over it. As the name implies, this vegetable is a melon that is bitter. There are two varieties of this vegetable: One grows to about 20 cm long, i .....
Benefits of Nutmeg
Pain Relief. Nutmeg is also an effective sedative. In fact, nutmeg is a staple in ancient Chinese medicine. The Chinese used the spice to treat inflammation and abdominal pain. Use nutmeg if you are suffering from aching joints, muscle pain, arthritis, sores and .....
Body Language
Nose scratching. Nose-scratching while speaking is a warning sign, unless the person genuinely has an itchy nose. Often exhibited when recounting an event or incident. .....
Major Wars Of 20th Century
Guinea Bissau Coup. Years 1998 1999 Battle deaths 1,700 The conflict over government in Guinea Bissau was triggered by the dismissal by President Viera of General Ansumane Mane. The latter formed a military junta, Military Junta for the Consolidation of Democracy, Pea .....
Benefits of Cucumber
Connective tissues building. The excellent source of silica contributes to the proper construction of connective tissues in our body as in the bones, muscles, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. The cucumber contains alkaline-forming minerals and is an excellent source of vitamin .....
Forever Young Naturally Eating
What to Eat When Waist watching. Enjoying a treat early in the day seems to have less effect on the waistline. Alternatively, do more exercise to keep your waist in check. .....
Fall Crafts for Kids
Pumpkin Seed Fall Craft. Do not get rid of pumpkin seeds, keep them to make this simple Pumpkin Seed Fall Craft. .....
Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhi fights racial discrimination. Right since his arrival, Gandhi began to feel the pinch of racial discrimination in South Africa. Indian community was ignorant and divided and therefore unable to fight it. In connection with his case, Gandhi had to travel to Pretoria. He was travel .....
Forever Young Naturally Exercise
Breathing Essentials Rebalancing breath. Sit upright, either on a chair or cross-legged, with hands resting palm upward on your thighs, elbows and shoulders relaxed. Watch your breathing. Placing the tips of your right thumb and fingers together, take a breath in through your nose. At the s .....
Suryakant Tripathi Nirala
Life Style horoscope. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala is more inward than most. If Suryakant Tripathi Nirala were to appear in front of a large group of people, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala would suffer from stage phobia. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala is ?best motivated when Suryakant .....
Digital Marketing Trends
Customer experience trumps all. Customer experience is the number one initiative for most digital marketers. 22% stated it was the single most exciting opportunity of the year. .....
Benefits of Sapodilla fruits
Increase Eye Quality. The very first Benefit of Sapodilla Fruit is can easily increasing eye quality and provides you with nutritious eye, why? Simply because Sapodilla consists of High Vitamin A content, and also in line with the research, Vitamin A content on Sapodilla .....
Benefits of Lemon
Lemon twists and ice cubes. Brighten your drinks by putting twists of the peel into ice cubes. Perfect for summer parties. Use a vegetable peeler (like this) or knife to make long strips, cutting away from the white pith which can be quite bitter. Again, these can be frozen. .....
Ayurvedic Medicine
Pomegranate. Pomegranate (E), Anar (fruit) (H), Anardana (seeds) (H):This beautiful red fruit is famed for its taste as well as being a fertility symbol. It specifically balances an acidic digestion, nourishes the heart and balances levels of oestrogen.Digestion .....
Converted Homes Made From The Most Unlikely Spaces
Seashell. Okay, okay, its not a REAL seashell. Its still ridiculously cool. .....
What to Eat in Himachal Pradesh
Malapua. Malapua is an pancake served as a dessert or a snack. which is also served to Jagannath in his Sakala Dhupa (Morning food served to the lord). It is During Paush Sankranti, Malapuas are prepared in Bengali homes. Malapuas along with mutton curry is s .....
Benefits of Tamarind
As a Cooling Drink. To a glass of water add 10 grams of tamarind and blend it in when soft. Strain, add sugar to taste and drink. This is an excellent cooling drink. .....
Why One Should Visit Kashmir
Nishat Garden. Nishat Garden, located on the banks of the beautiful Dal Lake, is one of the largest Mughal gardens. Known as the garden of bliss, this garden was designed in 1633 AD by the brother of Nur Jahan, Asaf Khan. Nishat Bagh as laid out now is a broad casc .....
Rules to play Yo Yo
Winding. When starting to yo yo winding is probably the first thing you will learn. At first it is easiest to just wind the string around the yo yo with your yo hand whilst holding the yo yo with your free hand. With ball bearing yo yos you may need to place .....
Precautions while using Pesticides
Emergency. Try to determine what the person was exposed to and what part of the body was affected before you take action, since taking the right action is as important as taking immediate action. If the person is unconscious having trouble breathing, or having .....
Baby Care Tips
Play tunes. Forget the dubious theory that music makes a baby smarter, and concentrate on the fact that it s likely to calm him. The Baby Einstein tapes saved us. .....
The Best Selling Cars in the World
Ford Focus. The new Ford Focus, now virtually the same in markets around the world, is part of the U.S. carmakers One Ford global strategy. Ford sold 919,000 of them this year. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Essential Toothcare Treating mouth ulcers. Gargle with salt water, add 1–2 ml myrrh tincture to a glass of water and rinse. Eat bio-yogurt daily. If a mouth ulcer does not clear up within two weeks, have it checked by your doctor. .....
The Beautiful World Heritage Sites
PORTOVENERE CINQUE TERRE AND THE ISLANDS ITALY. In 1997 Portovenere Cinque Terre and the Islands (Palmaria Tino and Tinetto) were designated as a World Heritage Site. Terraced extensively for the cultivation of vines and olive trees Portovenere Cinque Terre and the Islands are known as much for fo .....
How to Play Soccer For Beginners
How to Receive or Trap a Soccer Ball Without Pressure. Ok, let me tell you straight away that this step and the next one, are the MOST IMPORTANT STEPS in this guide. They lay the foundation of a good soccer player. Without learning the skill taught by these steps , everything else can fall out of place.R .....
Ranking The Best Fighters In The World
Felix Sturm. WBA Middleweight Titleholder 34 2 1 (14) Last Year s Ranking: 81 Status Report: Fans of Sturm will lament his relatively low placement here; they shouldn .....
Cutest Short Hairstyles
HALLE BERRY. An early adopter of the short and sassy look, Halle knows the power of the pixie. Snag her spikes by smoothing a mix of gel and texturizing cream through towel dried hair. Apply from roots to ends and blow dry, using fingertips to direct the hair up .....
How To Do Nail Art At Home
Bow Nail Art Design. You can do this design using Dotting tools and Nail stickers. Another great Nail art design for Parties. .....
Ideas to Boost Business
Use A Two Step Approach. a. Offer complimentary business related information to potential customers. Step 1: Offer a free fact sheet to customers that shows your expertise. Step 2: Add these customers to your mailing list and mail to them often. .....
Unbelievable Facts About Alcohol
Big lads are not necessarily the biggest drinkers. A beer belly might mean you have consumed a lot in the past, but it doesnotmean you can automatically handle more alcohol in one go than someone slimmer. In fact, a lean person will be less affected by booze because water rich muscle tissues absorb a .....
Benefits of Cereals
What is a Breakfast Cereal. Breakfast cereal is actually the packaged breakfast food available in almost all commercial food stores. These types of cereals are sometimes eaten cold or else mixed with milk or water and then fruits are added for extra nutrition and taste. Corn f .....
Best Airlines in the World
Delta. Delta Air Lines is the preferred choice of many Americans who appreciate the company s commitment to quality and customer service. In fact following a successful pilot project, this year Delta announced their commitment to ensure domestic passengers .....
The Summer Vacation Tips
Save space for treats. Visiting France? Itd be a sin not to try out some crepes. And thats just fine. On days youll beindulging more than usual, try to keep other meals and snacks on the healthy side. .....
Weird Olympic Sports
Jumping for joy. When it comes to trampolining, precise technique and perfect body control are vital for success, with judges delivering marks for difficulty, execution and time of flight, minus penalties, Olympic officials say. .....
Hairstyles To Compliment Your Saree
Braid Bun. The braided bun is very impressive and promises to look elegant. .....
Daily Health Tips
The Sweet Honey Cure for Overweight. Ingestion of honey is an excellent home remedy for obesity. It mobilises the extra deposited fat in the body and puts it into circulation which is utilised as energy for normal functions. One should start with small quantity of about 10 grams to be t .....
Men Like in Women
Strong. One of the best things men like in women, a quality like no other, a virtue that no woman of today could live without strength. You don?t have to lose your best damsel in distress act, in fact, you can even let him ?save? you once in a while, but h .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Tightlining. What is tightlining? Its a way of applying your liner right in between your lashes. This is a great way to appear as though youre not wearing any makeup at all, yet adding a little bit of color and definition to your eyes, and making the base of your .....
Most Beautiful Flowers on Earth
stokroos hollyhock. Most Beautiful Flowers on Earth .....
What to Eat in Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Moong Daal. The use of whole green gram or moong is very common in day-to-day gujarati fare. Khatta moong is a lovely recipe that features cooked moong simmered with curds and spices. The use of curds bestows a unique, sumptuous feel to this recipe. Garlic-lover .....
Play Hockey
Stick handling. Hockey players must be able to control, pass, push, stop and hit the ball with a hockey stick. This is known as stick work, or stick handling. Keeping the ball under close control is called dribbling. The head of a hockey stick has a rounded side (th .....
Rules to play Kickball
Running. Runners must stay within the base line. No sliding or running into a fielder. No contact is allowed .....
Healthy Elbow
Avoid repeated cortisone injections. By now studies have confirmed that not only do steroid injections provide only shortterm relief, they can directly damage tendons, increasing risk of rupture. .....
Benefits of Mangoes
Alkalizes the Whole Body. The tartaric acid, malic acid, and a trace of citric acid found in the fruit help to maintain theandalkali reserveandof the body. Mango fruit is rich in preandbiotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyandphenolic flavonoid antioxidant compoun .....
Benefits of Cantaloupe
Trengthens the Immune System. Cantaloupe is rich in Vitamin C which boosts immunity by stimulating the white blood cells in the body. WBCs are considered as the body .....
Learn to Swim
Practice kicking your legs. Whether floating on your back or still holding on to the side of the pool, practice kicking to maintain balance while you're swimming. .....
Simple Tricks To Make Your Hair Grow Faster
Rogaine for Hair Growth. Rogaine (minoxidil) is widely famous as the only non prescription hair growth treatment. It is a topical treatment that stimulates hair growth and also prevents hair loss. Rogaine is safe for application for both men and women. You can easily buy Rog .....
Help Save the Environment
Contact your government officials. Call or email your congressional representatives and local officials. Ask them to support environmental conservation and renewable energy. .....
Precautions while using Kitchen Equipments
Dont use extension cords. You can obtain a junction box that has built in GFI ground fault interrupters . This will allow you extra plug in space and the GFI will kick in if there is a power shortage. Helps avoid water electrical shock accidents. .....
Healthy Teeth
Limit acidic drinks like soft drinks. Food acids soften tooth material and dissolve the minerals in tooth enamel, causing holes (cavities or caries). In severe cases, teeth may be eaten right down to the gum. .....
Ways Technology Makes You Stupid
And youre much more forgetful than you used to be. Millennials are actually more likely to forget what day it is or where they put their keys than people over the age of 55, according to a 2013 Trending Machine survey. In a press release for the survey, family and occupational therapist Patricia Gute .....
Sydney
Port Jackson. Port Jackson, also called Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea (part of the South Pacific Ocean).It is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. .....
Unhealthy Habits That Will Cost You Dearly
Not Drinking Enough Water. Another habit that we fail to keep a check on is the amount of water we consume through the day. Having anything less than 3 to 4 litres is a recipe for disaster as your bodyneeds that much waterto function at its optimum level. Do this for just a fe .....
Healthy Lips
Coastal Classic Creations Canyon Lipstick. This warm, reddish brown lip hue contains USDA certified organic ingredients and has the lowest hazard rating possible in the Skin Deep Database. $22 and only .....
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