Galileo galilei

Synopsis
1. Born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy, Galileo Galilei was a mathematics professor who made pioneering observations of nature with longlasting implications for the study of physics. He also constructed a telescope and supported the Copernican theory, which supports a suncentered solar system. Galileo was accused twice of heresy by the church for his beliefs, and wrote books on his ideas. He died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642. .....
Early Life
2. Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa in the Duchy of Florence, Italy. He was the first of six children born to Vincenzo Galilei, a wellknown musician and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. In 1574, the family moved to Florence, where Galileo started his formal education at the Camaldolese monastery in Vallombrosa.

In 1583, Galileo entered the University of Pisa to study medicine. Armed with high intelligence and talent, he soon became fascinated with many subjects, particularly mathematics and physics. While at Pisa, Galileo was exposed to the Aristotelian view of the world, then the leading scientific authority and the only one sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church. At first, Galileo supported this view, like any other intellectual of his time, and was on track to be a university professor. However, due to financial difficulties, Galileo left the university in 1585 before earning his degree. .....

Academic Career
3. Galileo continued to study mathematics, supporting himself with minor teaching positions. During this time he began his twodecade study on objects in motion and published The Little Balance, describing the hydrostatic principles of weighing small quantities, which brought him some fame. This gained him a teaching post at the University of Pisa, in 1589. There Galileo conducted his fabled experiments with falling objects and produced his manuscript Du Motu (On Motion), a departure from Aristotelian views about motion and falling objects. Galileo developed an arrogance about his work, and his strident criticisms of Aristotle left him isolated among his colleagues. In 1592, his contract with the University of Pisa was not renewed.

Galileo quickly found a new position at the University of Padua, teaching geometry, mechanics and astronomy. The appointment was fortunate, for his father had died in 1591, leaving Galileo entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. During his 18year tenure at Padua, he gave entertaining lectures and attracted large crowds of followers, further increasing his fame and his sense of mission. .....

Controversial Findings
4. In 1604, Galileo published The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass, revealing his skills with experiments and practical technological applications. He also constructed a hydrostatic balance for measuring small objects. These developments brought him additional income and more recognition. That same year, Galileo refined his theories on motion and falling objects, and developed the universal law of acceleration, which all objects in the universe obeyed. Galileo began to express openly his support of the Copernican theory that the earth and planets revolved around the sun. This challenged the doctrine of Aristotle and the established order set by the Catholic Church.

July 1609, Galileo learned about a simple telescope built by Dutch eyeglass makers, and he soon developed one of his own. In August, he demonstrated it to some Venetian merchants, who saw its value for spotting ships and gave Galileo salary to manufacture several of them. However, Galileos ambition pushed him to go further, and in the fall of 1609 he made the fateful decision to turn his telescope toward the heavens. In March 1610, he published a small booklet, The Starry Messenger, revealing his discoveries that the moon was not flat and smooth, but a sphere with mountains and craters. He found Venus had phases like the moon, proving it rotated around the sun. He also discovered Jupiter had revolving moons, which didnt revolve around the earth.Soon Galileo began mounting a body of evidence that supported Copernican theory and contradicted Aristotle and Church doctrine. In 1612, he published his Discourse on Bodies in Water, refuting the Aristotelian explanation of why objects float in water, saying that it wasnt because of their flat shape, but instead the weight of the object in relation to the water it displaced. In 1613, he published his observations of sunspots, which further refuted Aristotelian doctrine that the sun was perfect. That same year, Galileo wrote a letter to a student to explain how Copernican theory did not contradict Biblical passages, stating that scripture was written from an earthly perspective and implied that science provided a different, more accurate perspective. The letter was made public and Church Inquisition consultants pronounced Copernican theory heretical. In 1616, Galileo was ordered not to .....

Reaction by the Church
5. Church reaction against the book was swift, and Galileo was summoned to Rome. The Inquisition proceedings lasted from September 1632 to July 1633. During most of this time, Galileo was treated with respect and never imprisoned. However, in a final attempt to break him, Galileo was threatened with torture, and he finally admitted he had supported Copernican theory, but privately held that his statements were correct. He was convicted of heresy and spent his remaining years under house arrest. Though ordered not to have any visitors nor have any of his works printed outside of Italy, he ignored both. In 1634, a French translation of his study of forces and their effects on matter was published, and a year later, copies of the Dialogue were published in Holland. While under house arrest, Galileo wrote Two New Sciences, a summary of his lifes work on the science of motion and strength of materials. It was printed in Holland in 1638. By this time, he had become blind and in ill health. .....
Personal Life
6. In 1600, Galileo met Marina Gamba, a Venetian woman, who bore him three children out of wedlock: daughters Virginia and Livia, and son Vincenzo. He never married Marina, possibly due to financial worries and possibly fearing his illegitimate children would threaten his social standing. He worried the two girls would never marry well, and when they were older, had them enter a convent. His sons birth was eventually legitimized and he became a successful musician. .....
Law of the Pendulum
7. At age twenty, Galileo noticed a lamp swinging overhead while he was in a cathedral. Curious to find out how long it took the lamp to swing back and forth, he used his pulse to time large and small swings. Galileo discovered something that no one else had ever realized: the period of each swing was exactly the same. The law of the pendulum, which would eventually be used to regulate clocks , made Galileo Galilei instantly famous.

Except for mathematics, Galileo Galilei was bored with university. Galileos family was informed that their son was in danger of flunking out. A compromise was worked out, where Galileo would be tutored fulltime in mathematics by the mathematician of the Tuscan court. Galileos father was hardly overjoyed about this turn of events, since a mathematicians earning power was roughly around that of a musician, but it seemed that this might yet allow Galileo to successfully complete his college education. However, Galileo soon left the University of Pisa without a degree. .....

Mathematics
8. To earn a living, Galileo Galilei started tutoring students in mathematics. He did some experimenting with floating objects, developing a balance that could tell him that a piece of, say, gold was 19.3 times heavier than the same volume of water. He also started campaigning for his lifes ambition: a position on the mathematics faculty at a major university. Although Galileo was clearly brilliant, he had offended many people in the field, who would choose other candidates for vacancies. .....
Dantes Inferno
9. Ironically, it was a lecture on literature that would turn Galileos fortunes. The Academy of Florence had been arguing over a 100yearold controversy: What were the location, shape, and dimensions of Dantes Inferno Galileo Galilei wanted to seriously answer the question from the point of view of a scientist. Extrapolating from Dantes line that [the giant Nimrods] face was about as long And just as wide as St. Peters cone in Rome, Galileo deduced that Lucifer himself was 2,000 armlength long. The audience was impressed, and within the year, Galileo had received a threeyear appointment to the University of Pisa, the same university that never granted him a degree. .....
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
10. At the time that Galileo arrived at the University, some debate had started up on one of Aristotles laws of nature, that heavier objects fell faster than lighter objects. Aristotles word had been accepted as gospel truth, and there had been few attempts to actually test Aristotles conclusions by actually conducting an experiment.According to legend, Galileo decided to try. He needed to be able to drop the objects from a great height. The perfect building was right at handthe Tower of Pisa, 54 meters tall. Galileo climbed up to the top of the building carrying a variety of balls of varying size and weight, and dumped them off of the top. They all landed at the base of the building at the same time (legend says that the demonstration was witnessed by a huge crowd of students and professors). Aristotle was wrong.

However, Galileo Galilei continued to behave rudely to his colleagues, not a good move for a junior member of the faculty. Men are like wine flasks, he once said to a group of students. ...look at....bottles with the handsome labels. When you taste them, they are full of air or perfume or rouge. These are bottles fit only to pee into!Not surprisingly, the University of Pisa chose not to renew Galileos contract. .....

Necessity is the Mother of Invention
11. Galileo Galilei moved on to the University of Padua. By 1593, he was desperate in need of additional cash. His father had died, so Galileo was the head of his family, and personally responsible for his family. Debts were pressing down on him, most notably, the dowry for one of his sisters, which was paid in installments over decades (a dowry could be thousands of crowns, and Galileos annual salary was 180 crowns). Debtors prison was a real threat if Galileo returned to Florence.What Galileo needed was to come up with some sort of device that could make him a tidy profit. A rudimentary thermometer (which, for the first time, allowed temperature variations to be measured) and an ingenious device to raise water from aquifers found no market. He found greater success in 1596 with a military compass that could be used to accurately aim cannonballs. A modified civilian version that could be used for land surveying came out in 1597, and ended up earning a fair amount of money for Galileo. It helped his profit margin that 1) the instruments were sold for three times the cost of manufacture, 2) he also offered classes on how to use the instrument, and 3) the actual toolmaker was paid dirtpoor wages.

A good thing. Galileo needed the money to support his siblings, his mistress (a 21 year old with a reputation as a woman of easy habits), and his three children (two daughters and a boy). By 1602, Galileos name was famous enough to help bring in students to the University, where Galileo was busily experimenting with magnets.In Venice on a holiday in 1609, Galileo Galilei heard rumors that a Dutch spectaclemaker had invented a device that made distant objects seem near at hand (at first called the spyglass and later renamed the telescope). A patent had been requested, but not yet granted, and the methods were being kept secret, since it was obviously of tremendous military value for Holland. .....

Spyglass
12. Galileo Galilei was determined to attempt to construct his own spyglass. After a frantic 24 hours of experimentation, working only on instinct and bits of rumors, never having actually *seen* the Dutch spyglass, he built a 3power telescope. After some refinement, he brought a 10power telescope to Venice and demonstrated it to a highly impressed Senate. His salary was promptly raised, and he was honored with proclamations. .....
The Moon
13. If he had stopped here, and become a man of wealth and leisure, Galileo Galilei might be a mere footnote in history. Instead, a revolution started when, one fall evening, the scientist trained his telescope on an object in the sky that all people at that time believed must be a perfect, smooth, polished heavenly bodythe Moon. To his astonishment, Galileo Galilei viewed a surface that was uneven, rough, and full of cavities and prominences. Many people insisted that Galileo Galilei was wrong. Some of their arguments were very clever, like the mathematician who insisted that even if Galileo was seeing a rough surface on the Moon, that only meant that the entire moon had to be covered in invisible, transparent, smooth crystal. .....
Jupiter
14. Months passed, and his telescopes improved. On January 7, 1610, he turned his 30 power telescope towards Jupiter, and found three small, bright stars near the planet. One was off to the west, the other two were to the east, all three in a straight line. The following evening, Galileo once again took a look at Jupiter, and found that all three of the stars were now west of the planet, still in a straight line.

Observations over the following weeks lead Galileo to the inescapable conclusion that these small stars were actually small satellites that were rotating about Jupiter. If there were satellites that didnt move around the Earth, wasnt it possible that the Earth was not the center of the universe? Couldnt the Copernican idea of the Sun at the center of the solar system be correct. .....

The Starry Messenger
15. Galileo Galilei published his findingsas a small book titled The Starry Messenger. 550 copies were published in March of 1610, to tremendous public acclaim and excitement. .....
Saturn
16. And there were more discoveries via the new telescope: the appearance of bumps next to the planet Saturn (Galileo thought they were companion stars; the stars were actually the edges of Saturns rings), spots on the Suns surface (though others had actually seen the spots before), and seeing Venus change from a full disk to a sliver of light.

For Galileo Galilei, saying that the Earth went around the Sun changed everything since he was contradicting the teachings of the Church. While some of the Churchs mathematicians wrote that his observations were clearly correct, many members of the Church believed that he must be wrong.In December of 1613, one of the scientists friends told him how a powerful member of the nobility said that she could not see how his observations could be true, since they would contradict the Bible. The lady quoted a passage in Joshua where God causes the Sun to stand still and lengthen the day. How could this mean anything other than that the Sun went around the Earth. .....

Heresy Charges
17. Galileo Galilei was a religious man, and he agreed that the Bible could never be wrong. However, he said, the interpreters of the Bible could make mistakes, and it was a mistake to assume that the Bible had to be taken literally.This might have been one of Galileos major mistakes. At that time, only Church priests were allowed to interpret the Bible, or to define Gods intentions. It was absolutely unthinkable for a mere member of the public to do so.And some of the Church clergy started responding, accusing him of heresy. Some credits went to the Inquisition, the Church court that investigated charges of heresy, and formally accused Galileo Galilei. This was a very serious matter. In 1600, a man named Giordano Bruno was convicted of being a heretic for believing that the earth moved about the Sun, and that there were many planets throughout the universe where lifeliving creations of Godexisted. Bruno was burnt to death.However, Galileo was found innocent of all charges, and cautioned not to teach the Copernican system. 16 years later, all that would change. .....
The Final Trial
18. The following years saw Galileo move on to work on other projects. With his telescope he watched the movements of Jupiters moons, wrote them up as a list, and then came up with a way to use these measurements as a navigation tool. There was even a contraption that would allow a ship captain to navigate with his hands on the wheel. That is, assuming the captain didnt mind wearing what looked like a horned helmet.As another amusement, Galileo started writing about ocean tides. Instead of writing his arguments as a scientific paper, he found that it was much more interesting to have an imaginary conversation, or dialogue, between three fictional characters. One character, who would support Galileos side of the argument, was brilliant. Another character would be open to either side of the argument. The final character, named Simplicio, was dogmatic and foolish, representing all of Galileos enemies who ignored any evidence that Galileo was right. Soon, he wrote up a similar dialogue called Dialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World. This book talked about the Copernican system.

Dialogue was an immediate hit with the public, but not, of course, with the Church. The pope suspected that he was the model for Simplicio. He ordered the book banned, and also ordered the scientist to appear before the Inquisition in Rome for the crime of teaching the Copernican theory after being ordered not to do so.Galileo Galilei was 68 years old and sick. Threatened with torture, he publicly confessed that he had been wrong to have said that the Earth moves around the Sun. Legend then has it that after his confession, Galileo quietly whispered And yet, it moves.Unlike many less famous prisoners, he was allowed to live under house arrest in his house outside of Florence. He was near one of his daughters, a nun. Until his death in 1642, he continued to investigate other areas of science. Amazingly, he even published a book on force and motion although he had been blinded by an eye infection. .....

Copernican system
19. In Galileos lifetime, all celestial bodies were thought to orbit the Earth. Supported by the Catholic Church, teaching opposite of this system was declared heresy in 1615.Galileo, however, did not agree. His research including his observations of the phases of Venus and the fact that Jupiter boasted moons that didnt orbit Earth supported the Copernican system, which (correctly) stated that the Earth and other planets circle the sun.In 1616, he was summoned to Rome and warned not to teach or write about this controversial theory. But in 1632, believing that he could write on the subject if he treated it as a mathematical proposition, he published work on the Copernican system. He was found guilty of heresy, and was placed under house arrest for the remaining nine years of his life. .....
Death and Legacy
20. Galileo died in Arcetri, near Florence, Italy, on January 8, 1642, after suffering from a fever and heart palpitations. But in time, the Church couldnt deny the truth in science. In 1758, it lifted the ban on most works supporting Copernican theory, and by 1835 dropped its opposition to heliocentrism altogether.

In the 20th century, several popes acknowledged the great work of Galileo, and in 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret about how the Galileo affair was handled. Galileos contribution to our understanding of the universe was significant not only in his discoveries, but in the methods he developed and the use of mathematics to prove them. He played a major role in the scientific revolution and, deservedly so, earned the moniker The Father of Modern Science. .....

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Largest Zoos in the World
Edinburgh Zoo. This was the first zoo in the world to house and breed penguins along with being the first in Britain to house koalas and giant pandas. The vision of Edinburgh Zoois to not only cater to tourists but to actively participate in breeding programs of en .....
Best Beaches
Fraser Island Australia. Perched on the sunny Queensland coast 161 miles (259 kilometers) northeast of Brisbane, Fraser Island is the worlds largest sand island and home to a wonderful beach. This World Heritage Site is an ecologists dream, with 640 square miles (1,664 squar .....
Benefits of Broccoli
How to Select. Choose broccoli with floret clusters that are compact and not bruised. They should be uniformly colored, either dark green, sage or purple green, depending upon variety, and with no yellowing. In addition, they should not have any yellow flowers blos .....
Foods to fuel your workout
Apples. Add peanut butter for extra protein and a controlled energy release. .....
Benefits of Gooseberry
Digestion. Alma is very high in fiber, like most fruits. Fiber adds bulk to the stool and helps food move through the bowels and keeps your bowel movements regular. This reduces the chances of constipation, and fiber can also bulk up loose stools and reduce dia .....
Most Powerful Cities On Earth
Seoul. Seoul makes up almost a quarter of South Koreas GDP despite occupying less than 1% of its land. This financial megacity is home to some of the worlds largest brands such as Samsung, Kia, and LG. .....
Abraham Lincoln
Childhood. Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Thomas was a strong and determined pioneer who found a moderate level of prosperity and was well respected in the community. The couple had .....
Wedding
Individual Traits. Individual traits that influence marital satisfaction or dissatisfaction include a persons personality, attitudes, and skills , Larson identifies difficulty coping with stress, dysfunctional beliefs , excessive impulsiveness , extreme self-conscious .....
Benefits of Maizes
Genitourinary Problems. Being a diuretic and urinary demulcent, infusion or decoction of corn silk, when taken, helps to soothe the irritation in the bladder and along the genitourinary tract which causes frequent burning and painful urination in cases of:or Cystitis (chrom .....
Greatest Concept Cars Ever
Lotus Hot Wheels. Haters say that those who appreciate a good car never really grew up. If thats the case, then were going to absolutely love the Lotus Hot Wheels concept from 2007. As a 1:5 scale model designed by Lotus for the toy car maker, unless you are incredibl .....
Benefits of Hair Straightening
Use the Straightener. From the section of hair that is hanging down, separate a strip that is approximately two or three centimetres wide. Clamp the iron to this strip near the roots, and gently and smoothly pull the iron down toward the tips. Repeat this process across t .....
Forever Young Naturally Exercise
Hand and Foot Mobility Ankle circling. Holding a wall with your right hand, bend your left knee to lift the leg slightly. Imagine your big toe is a pen and draw a circle the size of a plate on the floor without moving the rest of your leg. Isolate the movement in the ankle joint. Work in .....
Weird English Movie Names
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Hunter S. Thompsons odd and mindbending time in Las Vegas comes to full life in Terry Gilliams adaptation of the classic, Gonzo-Journalist novel. The book is a little bit of non-fiction, a little bit of fiction and a hell of a lot of rambling monolog .....
Bodyweight Exercises
Dolphin Push Up. Start out in dolphin pose (think down-dog with elbows on the floor). Lean forward, lowering the shoulders until the head is over the hands. Pull up the arms and return to the starting position. (No ocean necessary.) .....
100 Places to visit in India
Gold Temple Vellore. A gorgeous sight in the city of Vellore is the Gold Temple, also known as the Mahalakshmi temple. The temple is located in Sripuram Park, which lies at the foot of a hill range in Malaikodi. The temple has a coating of real gold, with intricate carvi .....
What to Eat in Punjab
Edible mushroom. Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye). They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epig .....
Benefits of Iceberg lettuce
Romaine lettuce. As deep green and long leaves. It has a crisp texture and a deeper taste than the other varieties. A good source of vitamins A, C, B1 and B2, and folate. Lettuce should be kept moist by wrapping it in a slightly damp paper towel or zip top bag. This .....
Daily Health Tips
Fruit for Healthy Teeth and Gums. Chewing unripe guava is an excellent tonic for teeth and gums. It stops the bleeding from gums due its styptic effect and richness in vitamin C. Chewing its tender leaves also helps in curing bleeding from gums and keeps the teeth healthy. A decoctio .....
Tips to succeed in Business
Focus. Related to discipline is focus the ability to tune out noise that can distract you from your goal. That noise could be people who doubt you, busywork, doing too much social networking, or perhaps worst of all, the noise inside of your own head of sel .....
Naturally Beautiful
Get rid of skin tanning. For removing tan, make a paste using turmeric with a little raw milk and lemon juice and apply it on the skin. Leave it for 5-10 minutes. Wash off with cold water. .....
Benefits of Jalapeno
Cooking with Jalapenos. Jalapeno peppers aren t only for nachos. They are versatile enough to complement both savory and sweet dishes. Add jalapenos to plain yogurt, mashed avocados or hummus for a spicy dip. Try them in a favorite curry or stir fry dish, or toss them into .....
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