Flowers

Iris Persica Persian Iris
1. A native of Persia. Flowers in February and March. Its beauty, early appearance, and fragrant blossoms, make it highly esteemed by all lovers of flowers, like the Hyacinth or Narcissus it will blow within doors in a water glass, but stronger in a small pot of sand, or sandy loam, a few flowers will scent a whole apartment it will also blossom in the open air, but requires warmth and shelter, it is propagated by offsets and seeds, the best flowering roots are imported from Holland, they bear forcing well, and hence this plant may be had to flower a full month or six weeks in succession. .....
Rudbeckia purpurea Purple Rudbeckia
2. This species differs from the other plants of the genus, in the colour of its outermost petals, which are long, narrow, purple, and pendulous, and not unaptly resemble small pieces of red tape. Notwithstanding it is a native of the warm climates Carolina and Virginia, it succeeds very well with us in an open border but, as Mr. Miller very justly observes, it will always be prudent to shelter two or three plants under a common hot bed frame in winter, to preserve the kind, because in very severe winters, those in the open air are sometimes killed. It flowers in July. As it rarely ripens its seeds with us, the only mode of propagating it, is by parting the roots, but in that way the plant does not admit of much increase. .....
Helleborus hyemalis Winter Hellebore or Aconite
3. Grows wild in Lombardy, Italy, and Austria, affects mountainous situations, flowers with us in February, and hence is liable to be cut off by severe frosts. Is propagated by offsets, which the roots send out in plenty. These roots may be taken up and transplanted any time after their leaves decay, which is generally by the beginning of June till October, when they will begin to put out new fibres, but as the roots are small and nearly the colour of the ground, so if care is not taken to search for them, many of the roots will be left in the ground. These roots should be planted in small clusters, otherwise they will not make a good appearance, for single flowers scattered about the borders of these small kinds are scarce seen at a distance, but when these and the Snowdrops are alternately planted in bunches, they will have a good effect, as they flower at the same time, and are much of a size. .....
Cyclamen Coum Round leavd Cyclamen
4. Grows wild in many parts of Italy and Germany, and is sometimes found with white flowers, if the season be mild, or the plants sheltered from the inclemency of the weather, this species will flower as early as February, or much earlier by artificial heat.
As it grows naturally in woods and shady places, it will thrive best in a mixture of bog earth and loam placed in a north border, if planted in the open border, it will require to be covered with a hand glass during winter, and in the spring, when in bloom, the more usual method with gardeners is to preserve them in pots in a common hot bed frame, the advantage of this method is that they may, at any time, be removed to decorate the parlour or the study.
The plants of this genus admit of but little increase by their roots, the best method of propagating them is by seed, which should be sown soon after they are ripe in boxes or pots, and covered about half an inch deep, placing them where they may have only the morning sun, till the beginning of September, when they may be removed to a warmer exposure. .....
Erythronium Dens Canis Dogs Tooth or Dogs Tooth Violet
5. Of this genus Mr. Miller makes two species, Linnaeus, perhaps with more propriety, only one, for breadth of leaves or colour of flowers can scarcely be considered as sufficient to constitute a specific difference.
It is found in the gardens with purple flowers of two different tints, also with white and yellow blossoms, grows naturally in Hungary and some parts of Italy, and blows in the open border at the beginning of April.
They are propagated by offsets from their roots. They love a shady situation and a gentle loamy soil, but should not be too often removed. They may be transplanted any time after the beginning of June, when their leaves will be quite decayed, till the middle of September, but the roots should not be kept very long out of the ground, for if they shrink it will often cause them to rot. The roots of these flowers should not be planted scattering in the borders of the flower garden, but in patches near each other, where they will make a good appearance. .....
Narcissus Minor Least Daffodil
6. We are not a little surprised that Mr. Miller should have taken no notice of the present species, as it must have been in the English gardens long before his time, being mentioned by Parkinson in his Garden of pleasant Flowers it is nearly related to the Pseudo Narcissus, but differs from it in many particulars except size, vid. Lin. Sp. Pl. and Parkinson above quoted.
Though its blossoms are not so large as those of the other species, yet when the roots are planted in a cluster, they make a very pretty shew, and have this advantage, that they flower somewhat earlier than any of the others.
Like the common Daffodil it propagates very fast by the roots, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation.
Though a native of Spain, it is seldom injured by the severity of our climate. .....
Cynoglossum Omphalodes Blue Navelwort
7. A native of Spain, Portugal, and Carniola, and an inhabitant of woods and shady situations, flowers in March and April in the autumn it puts forth trailing shoots, which take root at the joints, whereby the plant is most plentifully propagated, thrives best under a wall in a North border. .....
Helleborus Niger Black Hellebore or Christmas Rose
8. As our Publication seems likely to fall into the hands of such as are totally unacquainted with Botany, or botanical writings, it must plead as an apology for our often explaining many circumstances relative to plants, which may be well known to adepts in the science.
This plant derives its first name from the black colour of its roots, its second from its early flowering, and the colour of its petals, which though generally milk white on their first appearance, yet have frequently a tint of red in them, which increases with the age of the blossom and finally changes to green, in some species of Hellebore, particularly the viridis, the flower is green from first to last.
Black Hellebore grows wild on the Appenine and other mountains, preferring such as are rocky.
If the weather be unusually mild, it will flower in our gardens, in the open border, as early as December and January, it may indeed be considered as the herald of approaching spring.
Like most other alpine plants, it loves a pure air, a situation moderately moist, and a soil unmanured as the beauty of its flowers is apt to be destroyed by severe frosts, it should be covered during the winter with a hand glass, or if it be treated in the manner recommended for the round leavd Cyclamen, it may be had to flower in still greater perfection.
It is propagated by parting its roots in autumn neither this species nor the hyemalis thrive very near London. .....
Iris pumila Dwarf Iris
9. Gardeners, in former days, not having that profusion of plants to attend to and cultivate, which we can at present boast, appear to have been more solicitous in increasing generally the varieties of the several species, accordingly, we find in the Paradisus terrestris of the venerable Parkinson, no less than six varieties of this plant, most of which are now strangers to the Nursery Gardens. We may observe, that varieties in general not being so strong as the original plant, are consequently much sooner lost.
The Iris pumila grows wild in many parts of Hungary, affects open and hilly situations, and flowers in our gardens in the month of April, it is a very hardy plant, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation, is propagated by parting its roots in autumn. .....
Anemone Hepatica Hepatica or Noble Liverwort
10. Dillenius, Miller, and some other authors, make a distinct genus of the Hepatica Linnaeus unites it with the Anemone, observing, that though it differs from the Anemone in having a calyx, yet that calyx is at some distance from the flower, and partakes more of the Nature of an Involucrum, which is not uncommon to the Anemonies.
The Hepaticas, as Parkinson observes, flower soon after the winter Hellebore, and making their pride appear in winter, are the more welcome early guests.
It is found wild in its single state, with red, blue, and white flowers, in the woods and shady mountains of Sweden, Germany, and Italy, the red variety with double flowers is the one most commonly cultivated in our gardens, the double blue is also not unfrequent, the single white is less common, and the double white Miller never saw, yet admits that it may exist spontaneously, or be produced from seed Parkinson mentions a white variety with red threads or stamina.
According to Miller, this plant delights in a loamy soil, and in an eastern position where it may have only the morning sun the single sorts are easily raised from seed, the double, increased by parting the roots, which ought to be done in March when they are in bloom, they should not be divided into very small heads these plants, if often removed and parted, are apt to die, but left undisturbed for many years, they will thrive exceedingly, and become very large roots. .....
Erica herbacea Herbaceous Heath
11. Since the days of Mr. Miller, who, with all his imperfections, has contributed more to the advancement of practical gardening than any individual whatever, our gardens, but more especially our green houses, have received some of their highest ornaments from the introduction of a great number of most beautiful Heaths the present plant, though a native of the Alps and mountainous parts of Germany, is of modern introduction here, what renders it particularly acceptable, is its hardiness and early flowering, its blossoms are formed in the autumn, continue of a pale green colour during the winter, and expand in the spring, flowering as early as March, especially if kept in a green house, or in a common hot bed frame, which is the more usual practice.
It may be propagated by seeds or cuttings, the latter is the most ready way of increasing this and most of the other species of the genus when the cuttings have struck root, they should be planted in a mixture of fresh loam and bog earth, either in the open border, under a wall, or in pots.
The name of herbacea, which Linnaeus has given to this plant, is not very characteristic, but it should be observed, that Linnaeus in this, as in many other instances, has only adopted the name of some older botanist, and it should also be remembered, that in genera, where the species are very numerous, it is no easy matter to give names to all of them that shall be perfectly expressive.
This species does not appear to us to be specifically different from the mediterranea. .....
Dodecatheon Meadia Meads Dodecatheon or American Cowslip
12. This plant grows spontaneously in Virginia and other parts of North America, from whence, as Miller informs us, it was sent by Mr. Banister to Dr. Compton, Lord Bishop of London, in whose curious garden he first saw it growing in the year 1709.
It is figured by Mr. Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina, among the natural productions of that country, who bestowed on it the name of Meadia, in honour of the late Dr. Mead, a name which Linnaeus has not thought proper to adopt as a generic, though he has as a trivial one.
It flowers the beginning of May, and the seeds ripen in July, soon after which the stalks and leaves decay, so that the roots remain inactive till the following spring.
It is propagated by offsets, which the roots put out freely when they are in a loose moist soil and a shady situation, the best time to remove the roots, and take away the offsets, is in August, after the leaves and stalks are decayed, that they may be fixed well in their new situation before the frost comes on. It may also be propagated by seeds, which the plants generally produce in plenty, these should be sown in autumn, soon after they are ripe, either in a shady moist border, or in pots, which should be placed in the shade, in the spring, the plants will come up, and must then be kept clean from weeds, and, if the season proves dry, they must be frequently refreshed with water nor should they be exposed to the sun, for while the plants are young, they are very impatient of heat, so that I have known great numbers of them destroyed in two or three days, which were growing to the full sun. These young plants should not be transplanted till the leaves are decayed, then they may be carefully taken up and planted in a shady border, where the soil is loose and moist, at about eight inches distance from each other, which will be room enough for them to grow one year, by which time they will be strong enough to produce flowers, so may then be transplanted into some shady borders in the flower garden, where they will appear very ornamental during the continuance of their flowers. .....
Coronilla Glauca Sea green or Day smelling Coronilla
13. This charming shrub, which is almost perpetually in blossom, and admirably adapted for nosegays, is a native of the south of France, and a constant ornament to our green houses.
Linnaeus has observed, that the flowers, which in the day time are remarkably fragrant, in the night are almost without scent.
It is propagated by sowing the seeds in the spring, either upon a gentle hot bed, or on a warm border of light earth when the plants are come up about two inches high, they should be transplanted either into pots, or into a bed of fresh earth, at about four or five inches distance every way, where they may remain until they have obtained strength enough to plant out for good, which should be either in pots filled with good fresh earth, or in a warm situated border, in which, if the winter is not too severe, they will abide very well, provided they are in a dry soil. .....
Primula Villosa Mountain Primula
14. Mr. Miller, in the Sixth Edition of the Abridgment of his Gardeners Dictionary, mentions only four Primulas, exclusive of the Auricula, the two first of which are named erroneously, and of the two last not a syllable is said either as to their place of growth or culture.
The plant here figured, has been introduced pretty generally into the Nursery Gardens in the neighboured of London within these few years Mr. Salisbury informs me, that a variety of this plant with white flowers, brought originally from the Alps of Switzerland, has for many years been cultivated in a garden in Yorkshire.
It is not noticed by Linnaeus Professor Jacquin, in his Flora Austriaca, has figured and described a Primula, which, though not agreeing so minutely as could be wished with the one we have figured, is nevertheless considered by some of the first Botanists in this country as the same species, he gives it the name of villosa, which we adopt, though with us it is so slightly villous as scarcely to deserve that epithet.
It varies in the brilliancy of its colours, flowers in April, and will succeed with the method of culture recommended for the Round Leaved Cyclamen. .....
Narcissus Jonquilla Common Jonquil
15. The fragrant Jonquil is a native of Spain, flowers in the open ground, about the latter end of April, or beginning of May, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation, but prefers, as most bulbs do, a fresh loamy earth, indeed such a soil is favourable to the growth of most plants, as being exempt from a variety of subterraneous insects, which are apt to infest ground which has been long cultivated.
It is found in the gardens with double flowers.
Our plant accords exactly with the description of Linnaeus, above quoted, but must be carefully distinguished from some others very similar to it. .....
Iris Variegata Variegated Iris
16. This species of Iris, inferior to few in point of beauty, is a native of the hilly pastures of Hungary, and flowers in our gardens in the month of May, and beginning of June. It is a hardy perennial, requires no particular treatment, and may be easily propagated by parting its roots in Autumn. .....
Cactus Flagelliformis Creeping Cereus
17. Grows spontaneously in South America, and the West Indies, flowers in our dry stoves early in June, is tolerably hardy, and will thrive even in a common green house, that has a flue to keep out the severe frosts.
It is superior to all its congeners in the brilliancy of its colour, nor are its blossoms so fugacious as many of the other species.
No plant is more easily propagated by cuttings, these Miller recommends to be laid by in a dry place for a fortnight, or three weeks, then to be planted in pots, filled with a mixture of loam and lime rubbish, having some stones laid in the bottom of the pot to drain off the moisture, and afterwards plunged into a gentle hot bed of Tanners bark, to facilitate their rooting, giving them once a week a gentle watering this business to be done the beginning of July.
It is seldom that this plant perfects its seeds in this country Miller relates that it has borne fruit in Chelsea gardens. .....
Geranium Reichardi Dwarf Geranium
18. This species of Geranium, so strikingly different from all others at present cultivated in our gardens, has been known for several years to the Nursery men in the neighbourhood of London, by the name of acaule, a name we should gladly have retained, had not Professor Murray described it in the 14th edition of Linnaeuss Systema Vegetabilium, under the name of Reichardi, a name he was disposed to give it in compliment to a French gentleman, who first discovered it in the island of Minorca, and introduced it into the gardens of France.
Linnaeus describes many of the Geraniums, as having only five antherae, though several of those he thus describes have to our certain knowledge ten, the five lowermost of which shedding their pollen first, often drop off, and leave the filaments apparently barren but in this species (with us at least) there never are more than five, but betwixt each stamen, there is a broad pointed barren filament or squamula, scarcely to be distinguished by the naked eye.
The usual and best practice is to make a green house plant of this species, though it has been known to remain in the open ground, during a mild winter, unhurt.
It continues to have a succession of blossoms during the greatest part of the summer, and may be propagated either by seed or parting its roots. .....
Hemerocallis Flava Yellow Day lily
19. This Genus has been called Hemerocallis, in English, Day Lily, from the short duration of its blossoms, but these are not quite so fugacious in this species as in the fulva.
It very rarely happens that Linnaeus, in his specific character of a plant, has recourse to colour, he has however in this instance, but this seems to arise from his considering them rather as varieties, than species. To us they appear to be perfectly distinct, and in addition to several other characters, the flava is distinguished by the fragrance of its blossoms.
This species is an inhabitant of Hungary and Siberia, and consequently bears our climate exceedingly well, it requires a moist soil, and a situation somewhat shady, and is easily propagated by parting its roots in autumn. .....
Geranium Peltatum Ivy Leaved Geranium
20. A native of Africa, as are most of our shewy Geraniums, is not so tender as many others, and may be propagated very readily from cuttings.
A leaf, having its foot stalk inserted into the disk or middle part of it, or near it, is called by Linnaeus, peltatum, hence the Latin trivial name of this plant. It may be observed, however, that some of the leaves have this character more perfectly than others.
The African Geraniums differ much from the European, in the irregularity of their Petals, but exhibit the character of the Class Monadelphia much better than any of our English ones, having their filaments manifestly united into one body, this species has only 7 filaments bearing antherae, but 3 barren ones may be discovered upon a careful examination, which makes it of the order Decandria. .....
Iris Versicolor Particoloured Iris
21. A native of Virginia, Maryland, and Pensylvania, has a perennial root, is hardy, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation, may be increased by parting its roots in autumn.
Our plant is the picta of Miller, and the versicolor of Miller is, we believe, the sibirica of Linnaeus.
This species has, for the most part, a stalk unusually crooked or elbowed, by which it is particularly distinguished. It flowers in June, as do most of this beautiful tribe. .....
Nigella Damascena Garden Fennel flower Love in a mist Devil in a Bush
22. Is an annual, and grows wild among the corn in the southern parts of Europe, varies with white and blue flowers, both single and double.
May be propagated by sowing their seeds upon a bed of light earth, where they are to remain (for they seldom succeed well if transplanted), therefore, in order to have them intermixed among other annual flowers in the borders of the Flower Garden, the seeds should be sown in patches at proper distances and when the plants come up, they must be thinned where they grow too close, leaving but three or four of them in each patch, observing also to keep them clear from weeds, which is all the culture they require. In July they will produce their flowers, and their seeds will ripen in August.
The season for sowing these seeds is in March, but if you sow some of them in August, soon after they are ripe, upon a dry soil and in a warm situation, they will abide through the winter, and flower strong the succeeding year, by sowing of the seeds at different times, they may be continued in beauty most parts of the summer. Millers Gard. Dict. ed. 6. 4to. .....
Tropaeolum Majus Greater Indian Cress or Nasturtium
23. The present plant is a native of Peru, and is said by Linnaeus to have been first brought into Europe in the year 1684, it is certainly one of the greatest ornaments the Flower Garden can boast it varies in colour, and is also found in the Nurseries with double flowers. The former, as is well known, is propagated by seed, the latter by cuttings, which should be struck on a hot bed. To have these plants early, they should be raised with other tender annuals, they usually begin to flower in July, and continue blossoming till the approach of winter the stalks require to be supported, for if left to themselves they trail on the ground, overspread, and destroy the neighbouring plants.
Elizabeth Christina, one of the daughters of Linnaeus, is said to have perceived the flowers to emit spontaneously, at certain intervals, sparks like those of electricity, visible only in the dusk of the evening, and which ceased when total darkness came on.
The flowers have the taste of water cress, with a degree of sweetness, which that plant does not possess, more particularly resident in the spur of the calyx or nectary, hence are sometimes used in sallads, and hence the plant acquires its name of Nasturtium. .....
Agrostemma Coronaria Rose Cockle or Campion
24. Grows spontaneously in Italy and Siberia, Linnaeus informs us that the blossom is naturally white, with red in the middle.
The single Rose Campion has been long an inhabitant of the English gardens, where, by its seeds having scattered, it is become a kind of weed. There are three varieties of this plant, one with deep red, another with flesh coloured, and a third with white flowers, but these are of small esteem, for the double Rose Campion being a finer flower, has turned the others out of most fine gardens. The single sorts propagate fast enough by the seeds, the sort with double flowers never produces any, so is only propagated by parting of the roots, the best time for this is in autumn, after their flowers are past, in doing of this, every head which can be slipped off with roots should be parted, these should be planted in a border of fresh undunged earth, at the distance of six inches, observing to water them gently until they have taken root, after which they will require no more, for much wet is injurious to them, as is also dung. After the heads are well rooted, they should be planted into the borders of the Flower Garden, where they will be very ornamental during the times of their flowering, which is in July and August. Millers Gard. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.
Miller, by mistake, calls this plant Caelirosa. .....
Dianthus Chinensis China or Indian Pink
25. This species, unknown to the older botanists, is a native of China, hence its name of China Pink, but, in the nurseries, it is in general better known by the name of Indian Pink.
Though it cannot boast the agreeable scent of many of its congeners, it eclipses most of them in the brilliancy of its colours, there are few flowers indeed which can boast that richness and variety found among the most improved varieties of this species, and as these are easily obtained from seed, so they are found in most collections, both single and double.
It is little better than an annual, but will sometimes continue two years in a dry soil, which it affects.
Attempts have been made to force it, but, as far as we have learned, with no great success. .....
Stapelia Variegata Variegated Stapelia
26. This very singular plant is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where it grows and flourishes on the rocks with the Stapelia hirsuta.
If these plants be kept in a very moderate stove in winter, and in summer placed in an airy glass case where they may enjoy much free air, but screened from wet and cold, they will thrive and flower very well, for although they will live in the open air in summer, and may be kept through the winter in a good green house, yet these plants will not flower so well as those managed in the other way. They must have little water given them, especially in winter.
It is very seldom that the variegata produces seed vessels in this country, Miller observes, in upwards of forty years that he cultivated it, he never saw it produce its pods but three times, and then on such plants only as were plunged into the tan bed in the stove.
This plant may be propagated without seeds, as it grows fast enough from slips, treatment the same as that of the Creeping Cereus, which see.
It takes its name of Stapelia from Stapel, a Dutchman, author of some botanical works, particularly a Description of Theophrastuss plants. .....
Convolvulus Tricolor Small Convolvulus or Bindweed
27. This species has usually been called Convolvulus minor by gardeners, by way of distinguishing it from the Convolvulus purpureus, to which they have given the name of major. It is a very pretty annual, a native of Spain, Portugal, and Sicily, and very commonly cultivated in gardens.
The most usual colours of its blossoms are blue, white, and yellow, whence its name of tricolor, but there is a variety of it with white, and another with striped blossoms.
The whole plant with us is in general hairy, hence it does not well accord with Linnaeuss description. It is propagated by seeds, which should be sown on the flower borders in the spring, where the plants are to remain they require no other care than to be thinned and weeded. .....
Passiflora Cerulea Common Passion Flower
28. The Passion Flower first introduced into this country was the incarnata of Linnaeus, a native of Virginia, and figured by Parkinson in his Paradisus Terrestris, who there styles it the surpassing delight of all flowers the present species, which, from its great beauty and superior hardiness, is now by far the most common, is of more modern introduction, and, though a native of the Brasils, seldom suffers from the severity of our climate, flowering plentifully during most of the summer months, if trained to a wall with a southern aspect, and, in such situations, frequently producing ripe fruit, of the size and form of a large olive, of a pale orange colour.
This most elegant plant may be propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings, foreign seeds are most to be depended on, they are to be sown in the spring, on a moderate hot bed, and when the plants are grown to the height of two or three inches, they are to be carefully taken up, and each planted in a separate small pot, filled with good loam, then plunged into a moderate hot bed, to forward their taking new root, after which they should be gradually inured to the common air the younger the plants the more shelter they require, and if ever so old or strong, they are in danger from severe frosts. The layers and cuttings are to be treated in the common way, but seedling plants, if they can be obtained, are on many accounts to be preferred. .....
Reseda Odorata Sweet scented Reseda or Mignonette
29. Mignonette grows naturally in Egypt, it was unknown to the older Botanists, Miller says he received the seeds of it from Dr. Adrian Van Royen, Professor of Botany at Leyden, so that it is rather a modern inhabitant of our gardens.
The luxury of the pleasure garden is greatly heightened by the delightful odour which this plant diffuses, and as it is most readily cultivated in pots, its fragrance may be conveyed to the parlour of the recluse, or the chamber of the valetudinarian, its perfume, though not so refreshing perhaps as that of the Sweet Briar, is not apt to offend on continuance the most delicate olfactories.
Being an annual it requires to be raised yearly from seed, when once introduced on a warm dry border it will continue to sow itself, and grow very luxuriantly, flowering from June to the commencement of winter, but as it is desirable to have it as early as possible in the spring, the best way is either to sow the seed in pots in autumn, securing them through the winter in frames, or in a greenhouse, or to raise the seeds early on a gentle hot bed, thinning the plants if they require it, so as to have only two or three in a pot. .....
Lilium Chalcedonicum Chalcedonian Lily
30. This species is best known in the nurseries by the name of the Scarlet Martagon, but as it is not the Martagon of Linnaeus, to avoid confusion it will be most proper to adhere to the name which Linnaeus has given it.
It is a native not only of Persia, but of Hungary, Professor Jacquin, who has figured it in his most excellent Flora Austriaca, describes it as growing betwixt Carniola and Carinthia, and other parts of Hungary, but always on the tops of the largest mountains.
It varies in the number of its flowers, from one to six, and the colour in some is found of a blood red.
Authors differ in their ideas of its smell Jacquin describing it as disagreeble, while Scopoli compares it to that of an orange.
It flowers in June and July, and is propagated by offsets, which it produces pretty freely, and which will grow in almost any soil or situation.
The best time for removing the roots is soon after the leaves are decayed, before they have begun to shoot. .....
Jasminum Officinale Common Jasmine or Jessamine
31. There is an elegance in the Jasmine which added to its fragrance renders it an object of universal admiration.
It grows naturally at Malabar, and in several parts of India, yet has been long inured to our climate, so as to thrive and flower extremely well, but never produces any fruit in England. It is easily propagated by laying down the branches, which will take root in one year, and may then be cut from the old plant, and planted where they are designed to remain it may also be propagated by cuttings, which should be planted early in the autumn, and guarded against the effects of severe frosts.
When these plants are removed, they should be planted either against some wall, pale, or other fence, where the flexible branches may be supported. These plants should be permitted to grow rude in the summer, otherwise there will be no flowers, but after the summer is past, the luxuriant shoots should be pruned off, and the others must be nailed to the support.
There are two varieties of this with variegated leaves, one with white, the other with yellow stripes, but the latter is the most common these are propagated by budding them on the plain Jasmine, they require to be planted in a warm situation, especially the white striped, for they are much more tender than the plain, and in very severe winters their branches should be covered with mats or straw to prevent their being killed. Millers Gard. Dict. .....
Mesembryanthemum Dolabriforme Hatchet leavd Fig Marigold
32. Though many Latin names of plants, as Geranium, Hepatica, Convolvulus, &,c. are more familiar to the ear, and more generally used than their English ones, yet Mesembryanthemum though used by some, appears too long to be generally adopted, its English name of Fig marigold is doubtless to be preferred.
The Fig marigolds are a very numerous tribe, chiefly inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope, no less than thirty three species are figured in that inestimable work the Hortus Elthamensis of Dillenius. As most of these plants grow readily from slips, or cuttings, and require only the shelter of a common greenhouse, and as they recommend themselves to our notice, either from the extreme singularity of their foliage, the beauty of their flowers, or the peculiarity of their expansion, so they are a favourite class of plants with many.
The present species is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and is particularly distinguished by having leaves somewhat resembling a hatchet, whence its name, it is as hardy as most, and flowers as freely, but its blossoms fully expand in the evening and night only.
It is very readily propagated by cuttings. .....
Aster Tenellus Bristly leavd Aster
33. Most of the numerous species of this genus flower about Michaelmas, hence their vulgar name of Michaelmas Daisy, a name exceptionable not only on account of its length, but from its being a compound word. Aster, though a Latin term, is now so generally received, that we shall make no apology for adopting it.
We are indebted to North America for most of our Asters, but the present species, which is omitted by Miller, and is rather a scarce plant in this country, though not of modern introduction, being figured by Plukenet and described by Ray, is a native of Africa, and, like a few others, requires in the winter the shelter of a greenhouse.
It is particularly distinguished by having very narrow leaves with short bristles on them, and by its blossoms drooping before they open.
It is a perennial, flowers in September and October, and may be propagated by slips or cuttings.
The plant from whence our drawing was made, came from Messrs. Gordon and Thompsons Nursery, Mile End. .....
Browallia Elata Tall Browallia
34. Of this genus there are only two species, both natives of South America, the elata, so called from its being a much taller plant than the demissa, is a very beautiful, and not uncommon stove or green house plant, it is impossible, by any colours we have, to do justice to the brilliancy of its flowers.
Being an annual, it requires to be raised yearly from seed, which must be sown on a hot bed in the spring, and the plants brought forward on another, otherwise they will not perfect their seeds in this country. Some of these may be transplanted into the borders of the flower garden which are warmly situated, where, if the season prove favourable, they will flower and ripen their seeds, but, for securitys sake, it will be prudent to keep a few plants in the stove or green house.
As these plants have not been distinguished by any particular English name, Miller very properly uses its Latin one, a practice which should as much as possible be adhered to, where a genus is named in honour of a Botanist of eminence. .....
Crepis Barbata Bearded Crepis or Purple eyed Succory Hawkweed
35. Grows spontaneously in the south of France, about Montpelier, also, in Spain, Italy, Sicily, and elsewhere in the south of Europe is one of the most common annuals cultivated in our gardens. It begins flowering in July, and continues to blossom till the frost sets in.
No other care is necessary in the cultivation of this species than sowing the seeds in the spring, in little patches, on the borders where they are to remain, thinning them if they prove too numerous.
Miller calls this species bœ,tica, and improperly describes the centre of the flower as black, as also does Herman in all the specimens we have seen, it has evidently been of a deep purple colour, or, as Linnaeus expresses it, atropurpurascens. .....
Lilium Bulbiferum Orange Lily
36. The common orange or red Lily is as well known in the English gardens as the white Lily, and has been as long cultivated here. This grows naturally in Austria and some parts of Italy. It multiplies very fast by offsets from the roots, and is now so common as almost to be rejected, however, in large gardens these should not be wanting, for they make a good appearance when in flower if they are properly disposed, of this sort there are the following varieties
The orange Lily with double flowers,
The orange Lily with variegated leaves,
The smaller orange Lily.
These varieties have been obtained by culture, and are preserved in the gardens of florists. They all flower in June and July, and their stalks decay in September, when the roots may be transplanted and their offsets taken off, which should be done once in two or three years, otherwise their branches will be too large, and the flower stalks weak. This doth not put out new roots till towards spring, so that the roots may be transplanted any time after the stalks decay till November. It will thrive in any soil or situation, but will be strongest in a soft gentle loam, not too moist. Mill. Dict.
Bears the smoke of London better than many plants.
Varies with and without bulbs on the stalks. .....
Chironia Frutescens
37. Of the genus Chironia, ten species are enumerated in Prof. Murrays last edition of the Syst. Vegetab. of Linnaeus, exclusive of the Chironia Centaurium which we first added to this genus in the 42d number of the Flora Londinensis.
Of these, the frutescens is the most shewy, and therefore the most cultivated.
It is a native of different parts of Africa.
The flowers are produced from June to autumn, and the seeds ripen in October. This plant should be placed in an airy glass case in winter, where it may enjoy a dry air, and much sun, but will not thrive in a warm stove, nor can it be well preserved in a common greenhouse, because a damp moist air will soon cause it to rot.
The seed of this plant should be sown in small pots filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot bed, sometimes the seeds will lie a long time in the ground, so that if the plants do not appear the same season, the pots should not be disturbed, but preserved in shelter till the following spring, and then plunged into a fresh hot bed, which will bring up the plants in a short time if the seeds are good. When the plants are fit to remove, they should be transplanted into small pots, four or five in each pot, then plunged into a moderate hot bed, where they must have a large share of air in warm weather, when they have obtained some strength, they must be gradually inured to the open air, when exposed abroad, they should be mixed with such plants as require little water, placed in a warm situation, and screened from heavy rains, which are apt to rot them. The cuttings of this sort take root if properly managed. .....
Viburnum Tinus
38. We scarcely recollect a plant whose blossoms are so hardy as those of the Laurustinus, they brave the inclemency of our winters, and are not destroyed but in very severe seasons.
The beauties of this most charming shrub can be enjoyed by those only who cultivate it at some little distance from town, the smoke of London being highly detrimental to its growth.
It is a native of Portugal, Spain, and Italy.
Botanists enumerate many varieties of the Laurustinus, and so considerably do some of these differ, that Miller has been induced to make two species of them, which he distinguishes by the names of Virburnum Tinus and V. lucidum, the last of these is the most ornamental, and at the same time the most tender, there are some other trifling varieties, besides those, with variegated leaves, or the gold and silver striped.
It is only in very favourable situations that these shrubs ripen their seeds in England, hence they are most commonly propagated by layers, which readily strike root Miller says, that the plants raised from seeds are hardier than those produced from layers.
It thrives best in sheltered situations and a dry soil. .....
Franklins Tartar
39. The Carnation here exhibited is a seedling raised by Mr. Franklin, of Lambeth Marsh, an ingenious cultivator of these flowers, whose name it bears we have not figured it as the most perfect flower of the kind, either in form or size, but as being a very fine specimen of the sort, and one whose form and colours it is in the power of the artist pretty exactly to imitate.
The Dianthus Caryophyllus or wild Clove is generally considered as the parent of the Carnation, and may be found, if not in its wild state, at least single, on the walls of Rochester Castle, where it has been long known to flourish, and where it produces two varieties in point of colour, the pale and deep red.
Flowers which are cultivated from age to age are continually producing new varieties, hence there is no standard as to name, beauty, or perfection, amongst them, but what is perpetually fluctuating, thus the red Hulo, the blue Hulo, the greatest Granado, with several others celebrated in the time of Parkinson, have long since been consigned to oblivion, and it is probable, that the variety now exhibited, may, in a few years, share a similar fate, for it would be vanity in us to suppose, that the Carnation, by assiduous culture, may not, in the eye of the Florist, be yet considerably improved.
To succeed in the culture of the Carnation, we must advert to the situation in which it is found wild, and this is observed to be dry and elevated, hence excessive moisture is found to be one of the greatest enemies this plant has to encounter, and, on this account, it is found to succeed better, when planted in a pot, than in the open border, because in the former, any superfluous moisture readily drains off, but, in guarding against too much wet, we must be careful to avoid the opposite extreme.
To keep any plant in a state of great luxuriance, it is necessary that the soil in which it grows be rich, hence a mixture of light loam, and perfectly rotten horse or cow dung, in equal proportions, is found to be a proper compost for the Carnation. Care should be taken that no worms, grubs, or other insects, be introduced with the dung, to prevent this, the dung, when sifted fine, should be exposed to the rays of the sun, on a hot summers day, till perfectly dry, and then put by in a box for use, still more to increase the luxuriance of the plants, water it in the spring and summer with an infusion of sheeps dung.
The Carnation is propagated by seeds, layers, and pipings, new varieties can only be raised from seed, which, however, is sparingly produced from good flowers, because the petals are so multiplied, as nearly to exclude the parts of the fructification essential to their production.
The seed must be sown in April, in pots or boxes, very thin, and placed upon an East border.
In July, transplant them upon a bed in an open situation, at about four inches asunder, at the end of August transplant them again upon another bed, at about ten inches asunder, and there let them remain till they flower shade them till they have taken root, and in very severe weather in winter, cover the bed with mats over some hoops.
The following summer they will flower, when you must mark such as you like, make layers from, and pot them. Elliss Gardeners Pocket Calendar.
The means of increasing these plants by layers and pipings, are known to every Gardener.
Such as wish for more minute information concerning the culture, properties, divisions, or varieties, of this flower, than the limits of our Work will admit, may consult Millers Gard. Dict. or the Florists Catalogues.
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Trillium Sessile
40. Of this genus there are three species, all of which are natives of North America, and described by Miller, in his Gardeners Dictionary, where the genus is called American Herb Paris, but as the Paris and Trillium, though somewhat similar in the style of their foliage, are very different in their parts of fructification, we have thought it most expedient to anglicise Trillium, it being to the full as easily pronounced as Geranium, and many other Latin names now familiar to the English ear.
This species takes itstrivial name of sessile, from the flowers having no footstalk, but sitting as it were immediately on the end of the stalk.
The figure here exhibited was taken from a plant which flowered in my garden last spring, from roots sent me the preceding autumn, by Mr. Robert Squibb, Gardener, of Charleston, South Carolina, who is not only well versed in plants, but indefatigable in discovering and collecting the more rare species of that country, and with which the gardens of this are likely soon to be enriched.
It grows in shady situations, in a light soil, and requires the same treatment as the Dodecatheon and round leavd Cyclamen. We have not yet had a fair opportunity of observing whether this species ripens its seeds with us though of as long standing in this country as the Dodecatheon, it is far less common, hence one is led to conclude that it is either not so readily propagated, or more easily destroyed. .....
Calceolaria Pinnata
41. There being no English name to this plant, we have adopted that of Slipper wort, in imitation of Calceolaria, which is derived from Calceolus, a little shoe or slipper.
This species of Calceolaria is one of the many plants introduced into our gardens, since the time of Miller it is an annual, a native of Peru, and, of course, tender though by no means a common plant in our gardens, it is as easily raised from seed as any plant whatever. These are to be sown on a gentle hot bed in the spring, the seedlings, when of a proper size, are to be transplanted into the borders of the flower garden, where they will flower, ripen, and scatter their seeds, but being a small delicate plant, whose beauties require a close inspection, it appears to most advantage in a tan stove, in which, as it will grow from cuttings, it may be had to flower all the year through, by planting them in succession.
This latter mode of treatment is used by Mr. Hoy, Gardener to his Grace of Northumberland, at Sion House, where this plant may be seen in great perfection. .....
Camellia Japonica
42. This most beautiful tree, though long since figured and described, as may be seen by the above synonyms, was a stranger to our gardens in the time of Miller, or at least it is not noticed in the last edition of his Dictionary.
It is a native both of China and Japan.
Thunberg, in his Flora Japonica, describes it as growing every where in the groves and gardens of Japan, where it becomes a prodigiously large and tall tree, highly esteemed by the natives for the elegance of its large and very variable blossoms, and its evergreen leaves, it is there found with single and double flowers, which also are white, red, and purple, and produced from April to October.
Representations of this flower are frequently met with in Chinese paintings.
With us, the Camellia is generally treated as a stove plant, and propagated by layers, it is sometimes placed in the greenhouse, but it appears to us to be one of the properest plants imaginable for the conservatory. At some future time it may, perhaps, not be uncommon to treat it as a Laurustinus or Magnolia the high price at which it has hitherto been sold, may have prevented its being hazarded in this way.
The blossoms are of a firm texture, but apt to fall off long before they have lost their brilliancy, it therefore is a practice with some to stick such deciduous blossoms on some fresh bud, where they continue to look well for a considerable time.
Petiver considered our plant as a species of Tea tree, future observations will probably confirm his conjecture.
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Cistus Incanus
43. Few plants are more admired than the Cistus tribe, they have indeed one imperfection, their petals soon fall off this however is the less to be regretted, as they in general have a great profusion of flower buds, whence their loss is daily supplied. They are, for the most part, inhabitants of warm climates, and affect dry, sheltered, though not shady, situations.
The present species is a native of Spain, and the south of France, and being liable to be killed by the severity of our winters, is generally kept with green house plants.
It may be propagated either by seeds, or cuttings, the former make the best plants. .....
Cyclamen Persicum
44. Linnaeus in this, as in many other genera, certainly makes too few species, having only two, Miller, on the contrary, is perhaps too profuse in his number, making eight. The ascertaining the precise limits of species, and variety, in plants that have been for a great length of time objects of culture, is often attended with difficulties scarcely to be surmounted, is indeed a Gordian Knot to Botanists.
Our plant is the Cyclamen persicum of Miller, and has been introduced into our gardens long since the European ones, being a native of the East Indies, it is of course more tender than the others, and therefore requires to be treated more in the style of a green house plant.
It is generally cultivated in pots, in light undunged earth, or in a mixture of loam and lime rubbish, and kept in frames, or on the front shelf of a green house, where it may have plenty of air in the summer, but guarded against too much moisture in the winter.
May be raised from seeds in the same manner as the round leaved Cyclamen already figured in this work, p. n. 4.
Flowers early in the spring, and is admirably well adapted to decorate the parlour or study.
Varies with fragrant flowers, and the eye more or less red. .....
Crocus Vernus
45. Linnaeus considers the Crocus, or Saffron of the shops, which blows invariably in the autumn, and the spring Crocus, with its numerous varieties (of which Parkinson, in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers, enumerates no less than twenty seven) as one and the same species, other Botanists have considered them as distinct, particularly Prof. Jacquin, whose opinion on this subject we deem the most decisive.
We have figured the yellow variety, which is the one most commonly cultivated in our gardens, though according to the description in the Flora Austriaca, the Crocus vernus, in its wild state, is usually purple or white.
The cultivation of this plant is attended with no difficulty, in a light sandy loam, and dry situation, the roots thrive, and multiply so much as to require frequent reducing, they usually flower about the beginning of March, and whether planted in rows, or patches, on the borders of the flower garden, or mixed indiscriminately with the herbage of the lawn, when expanded by the warmth of the sun, they produce a most brilliant and exhilirating effect.
The most mischievous of all our common birds, the sparrow, is very apt to commit great depredations amongst them when in flower, to the no small mortification of those who delight in their culture, we have succeeded in keeping these birds off, by placing near the object to be preserved, the skin of a cat properly stuffed a live cat, or some bird of the hawk kind confined in a cage, might perhaps answer the purpose more effectually, at least in point of duration.
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Leucojum Vernum
46. The blossoms of the Leucojum and Galanthus, or Snow Drop, are very similar at first sight, but differ very essentially when examined, the Snow Drop having, according to the Linnaean description, a three leaved nectary, which is wanting in the Leucojum, the two genera then being very distinct, it becomes necessary to give them different names, we have accordingly bestowed on the Leucojum the name of Snow Flake, which, while it denotes its affinity to the Snow Drop, is not inapplicable to the meaning of Leucojum.
As the spring Snow Flake does not increase so fast by its roots, as the Snow Drop, or even the summer Snow Flake, so it is become much scarcer in our gardens, it may, indeed, be almost considered as one of our plantae rariores, though at the same time a very desirable one.
It does not flower so soon by almost a month, as the Snow Drop, but its blossoms, which are usually one on each foot stalk, sometimes two, are much larger, and delightfully fragrant.
It is found wild in shady places and moist woods in many parts of Germany and Italy. The most proper situation for it is a north or east border, soil a mixture of loam and bog earth, but by having it in different aspects, this, as well as other plants, may have its flowering forwarded or protracted, and, consequently, the pleasure of seeing them in blossom, considerably lengthened.
In a favourable soil and situation, it propagates tolerably fast by offsets. .....
Amaryllis Formosissima
47. A native of South America according to Linnaeus, first known in Europe in 1593, figured by Parkinson in 1629, and placed by him among the Daffodils, stoves and green houses were then unknown, no wonder therefore it did not thrive long.
Is now become pretty common in the curious gardens in England, and known by the name of Jacobaea Lily, the roots send forth plenty of offsets, especially when they are kept in a moderate warmth in winter, for the roots of this kind will live in a good green house, or may be preserved through the winter under a common hot bed frame, but then they will not flower so often, nor send out so many offsets as when they are placed in a moderate stove in winter. This sort will produce its flowers two or three times in a year, and is not regular to any season, but from March to the beginning of September, the flowers will be produced, when the roots are in vigour.
It is propagated by offsets, which may be taken off every year, the best time to shift and part these roots is in August, that they may take good root before winter, in doing of this, there should be care taken not to break off the fibres from their roots. They should be planted in pots of a middling size, filled with light kitchen garden earth, and, if they are kept in a moderate degree of warmth, they will produce their flowers in plenty, and the roots will make great increase. .....
Narcissus Triandrus
48. The present species of Narcissus is considered by the Nursery men near London as the triandrus of Linnaeus, which it no doubt is, though it does not accord in every particular with his description his triandrus is white, ours is pale yellow, but colour is not in the least to be depended on, for it is found to vary in this as in all the other species, his triandrus he describes as having in general only three stamina, whence the name he has given it, ours, so far as we have observed, has constantly six, three of which reach no further than the mouth of the tube, a circumstance so unusual, that Linnaeus might overlook it without any great impeachment of his discernment, he says, indeed, that it has sometimes six perhaps, the three lowermost ones may, in some instances, be elongated so as to equal the others, if he had observed the great inequality of their length, he would certainly have mentioned it.
This species is found wild on the Pyrenean mountains, was an inhabitant of our gardens in the time of Parkinson (who has very accurately described it, noticing even its three stamina) to which, however, it has been a stranger for many years it has lately been re introduced, but is as yet very scarce. Our figure was taken from a specimen which flowered in Mr. Lees Nursery at Hammersmith.
It grows with as much readiness as any of the others of the genus, and flowers in March and April.
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Soldanella Alpina
49. Of this genus there is at present only one known species, the alpina here figured, which is a native of Germany, and, as its name imports, an alpine plant.
Its blossoms are bell shaped, of a delicate blue colour, sometimes white, and strikingly fringed on the edge.
It flowers usually in March, in the open ground, requires, as most alpine plants do, shade and moisture in the summer, and the shelter of a frame, in lieu of its more natural covering snow, in the winter, hence it is found to succeed best in a northern aspect will thrive in an open border, but is more commonly kept in pots.
May be increased by parting its roots early in autumn. .....
Iris Sibirica
50. This species of Iris is a native of Germany and Siberia, and is distinguished from those usually cultivated in our gardens by the superior height of its stems, and the narrowness of its leaves, from which last character it is often, by mistake, called graminea, but the true graminea is a very different plant.
The Iris sibirica is a hardy perennial, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation, but grows most luxuriantly in a moist one, and flowers in June.
Is propagated most readily, by parting its roots in autumn. .....
Narcissus Major
51. The present species of Daffodil is the largest of the genus, and bears the most magnificent flowers, but, though it has long been known in this country, it is confined rather to the gardens of the curious.
It is a native of Spain, and flowers with us in April. As its roots produce plenty of offsets, it is readily propagated.
It approaches in its general appearance very near to the Narcissus Pseudo Narcissus, but differs in being a much taller plant, having its leaves more twisted, as well as more glaucous, its flowers (but especially its Nectary) much larger, and its petals more spreading, and these characters are not altered by culture.
It answers to the bicolor of Linnaeus in every respect but colour, and we should have adopted that name, had not the flowers with us been always of a fine deep yellow, we have therefore taken Bauhins name as the most expressive.
It varies with double flowers.
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Gentiana Acaulis
52. Plants growing in mountainous situations, where they are constantly exposed to strong blowing winds, are always dwarfish, in such situations, the present plant has no stalk, whence its name acaulis, but cultivated in gardens it acquires one.
Most of the plants of this family are beautiful, and, cultivated in gardens, in brilliancy of colour none exceed the present species.
As most Alpine plants do, this loves a pure air, an elevated situation, and a loamy soil, moderately moist, it is however somewhat capricious, thriving without the least care in some gardens, and not succeeding in others, at any rate it will not prosper very near London.
It flowers usually in May, and sometimes in the autumn.
Is propagated by parting its roots at the close of summer, but Miller says, the strongest and best plants are produced from seed. .....
Cineraria Lanata
53. In the beauty of its blossoms, this species of Cineraria, lately introduced from Africa, by far eclipses all the others cultivated in our gardens, its petals exteriorly are of a most vivid purple, interiorly white, this change of colour adds much to the brilliancy of the flower.
What renders this plant a more valuable acquisition to the green house, is its hardiness, its readiness to flower, and the facility with which it may be propagated.
It flowers early in the spring, and, by proper management, may be made to flower the whole year through, it is sometimes kept in the stove, and may be made to flower earlier by that means, but it succeeds better in a common green house, with no more heat than is just necessary to keep out the frost, indeed it may be preserved in a common hot bed frame through the winter, unless the weather prove very severe.
Certain plants are particularly liable to be infested with Aphides, or, in the vulgar phrase, to become lousy, this is one the only way to have handsome, healthy, strong flowering plants, is to procure a constant succession by cuttings, for there is no plant strikes more readily, these should be placed in a pot, and plunged into a bed of tan. .....
Anemone Sylvestris
54. Parkinson very accurately notices the striking characters of this species of Anemone, which are its creeping roots, its large white flowers standing on the tops of the flower stalks, which sometimes grow two together, but most commonly singly, the leaves on the stalk, he observes, are more finely divided than those of the root, and its seeds are woolly.
Miller describes it as having little beauty, and therefore but seldom planted in gardens, it is true, it does not recommend itself by the gaudiness of its colours, but there is in the flowers, especially before they expand, a simple elegance, somewhat like that of the Snowdrop, and which affords a pleasing contrast to the more shewy flowers of the garden.
It flowers in May, and ripens its seeds in June.
It will grow in almost any soil or situation, is propagated by offsets from the root, which it puts out most plentifully, so as indeed sometimes to be troublesome. Is a native of Germany.
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Geranium Striatum
55. This species is distinguished by having white petals, finely reticulated with red veins, and the corners of the divisions of the leaves marked with a spot of a purplish brown colour, which Parkinson has long since noticed.
Is said by Linnaeus to be a native of Italy, is a very hardy plant, flowers in May and June, and may be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, or by seed, prefers a loamy soil and shady situation. .....
Geranium Lanceolatum
56. This elegant and very singular species of Geranium appears to have been first cultivated in this country, its introduction was attended with circumstances rather unusual. Mr. Lee, Nurseryman of the Vineyard, Hammersmith, in looking over some dried specimens in the Possession of Sir Joseph Banks, which he had recently received from the Cape of Good Hope, was struck with the singular appearance of this Geranium, no species having before been seen in this country with spear shaped leaves, on examining the specimens attentively, he perceived a few ripe seeds in one of them, those he solicited, and obtained, and to his success in making them vegetate, we are indebted for the present species.
The shape of the leaf readily suggested the name of lanceolatum, an epithet by which it has been generally distinguished in this country, and which, from its extreme fitness, we have continued, notwithstanding young Professor Linnaeus has given it that of glaucum, though, at the same time, his illustrious father had distinguished another species by the synonymous term of glaucophyllum.
This species rarely ripens its seeds with us, and is therefore to be raised from cuttings, which however are not very free to strike.
It has been usual to keep it in the stove, but we have found by experience, that it succeeds much better in a common green house, in which it will flower during the whole of the summer. Small young plants of this, as well as most other Geraniums, make the best appearance, and are therefore to be frequently obtained by cuttings. .....
Papaver Orientale
57. Most of the plants of this tribe are distinguished by the splendour of their colours, most of them also are annuals, in gaiety of colour none exceed the present species, but it differs in the latter character, in having not only a perennial root, but one of the creeping kind, whereby it increases very much, and by which it is most readily propagated.
Though a native of the East, as its name imports, it bears the severity of our climate without injury, flowers in May, and as its blossoms are extremely shewy, it gives great brilliancy to the flower garden or plantation, prefers a dry soil.
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Iris Spuria
58. Some plants afford so little diversity of character, that an expressive name can scarcely be assigned them, such is the present plant, or Linnaeus would not have given it the inexpressive name of spuria, nor we have adopted it.
This species is distinguished by the narrowness of its leaves, which emit a disagreeable smell when bruised, by the colour of its flowers, which are of a fine rich purple inclining to blue, and by its hexangular germen.
It is a native of Germany, where, as Professor Jacquin informs us, it grows in wet meadows, is a hardy perennial, thrives in our gardens in almost any soil or situation, flowers in June, and is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn. .....
Mesembryanthemum Bicolorum
59. Contrary to the Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme, lately figured in this work, this species expands its flowers in the day time, and that only when the sun shines powerfully on them, on such occasions, the blossoms on the top of the branches being very numerous, exhibit a most splendid appearance.
It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, flowers in July, and is most readily propagated by cuttings.
Like most of the Cape plants, it requires the shelter of a green house during the winter. .....
Lathyrus Odoratus
60. There is scarcely a plant more generally cultivated than the Sweet Pea, and no wonder, since with the most delicate blossoms it unites an agreeable fragrance.
Several varieties of this plant are enumerated by authors, but general cultivation extends to two only, the one with blossoms perfectly white, the other white and rose coloured, commonly called the Painted Lady Pea.
The Sweet Pea is described as a native of Sicily, the Painted Lady Variety as an inhabitant of Ceylon, they have both been introduced since the time of Parkinson and Evelyn.
It is an annual, and not a very tender one, seedling plants sown in Autumn frequently surviving our winters.
As it is desirable to have this plant in flower for as great a length of time as possible, to have them early, we must sow them in the Autumn, either in pots or in the open border, if sown in pots, they can the more readily be secured from any severe weather, by placing them in a hot bed frame, a common practice with gardeners who raise them for the London markets, in which they are in great request others again should be sown early in the spring, and the sowings repeated every month, they grow readily in almost any soil or situation, and by this means may be had to flower most of the year through.
If sown in pots, care must be taken to water them frequently.
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Iris Ochroleuca
61. Of the several species of Iris cultivated in our gardens, this excels in point of height, we have taken our English name therefore from this character, and not from the term ochroleuca, which, if translated, would be too expressive of the colour of the blossoms of the Iris Pseudacorus, with which the ochroleuca has some affinity in point of size as well as colour.
Notwithstanding Mr. Millers description of his orientalis accords very badly with that of Linnaeuss ochroleuca, they have been generally considered in this country as one and the same plant, distinguished by the name of Pocockes Iris, Dr. Pococke being the person who, according to Miller, in his time first introduced it from Carniola (by inadvertence spelt Carolina, in the 6th 4to edition of the Dictionary). There are grounds, however, for suspecting some error in the habitat of this plant, for had it grown spontaneously in Carniola, it is not probable that Scopoli would have omitted it in his Flora Carniolica.
Leaving its place of growth to be more accurately ascertained hereafter, we shall observe, that it appears perfectly naturalized to this country, growing luxuriantly in a moist rich soil, and increasing, like most of the genus, very fast by its roots. It flowers later than most of the others. .....
Centaurea Glastifolia
62. Assumes the name of glastifolia from the similitude which the leaves bear to those of the Isatis tinctoria, or Woad, Glastum of the old Botanists.
In this plant we have an excellent example of the Folium decurrens and Calyx scariosus of Linnaeus, the leaves also exhibit a curious phenomenon, having veins prominent on both their sides, the scales of the calyx are moreover distinguished by a beautiful silvery appearance, which it is difficult to represent in colours.
It is a native of the East, as well as of Siberia, flowers with us in July, in the open border, and is readily propagated by parting its roots in autumn, which are of the creeping kind requires no particular treatment.
Miller, in the last 4to edition of his Dictionary, enumerates a Cent. glastifolia, but his description in detail, by no means accords with the plant. .....
Fragaria Monophylla
63. The first mention made of this Strawberry, we find in Duchesnes Histoire naturelle des Fraisiers, where we have its complete history, and from which we learn, that it was originally raised by him at Versailles, in the Year 1761, from seeds of the Wood Strawberry.
From France this plant has been conveyed to most parts of Europe, how it has happened we know not, but it is certainly very little known in this country in the 14th edit of the Syst. Veg. of Linnaeus, it appears as a species under the name of monophylla, originally imposed on it by Duchesne, Linnaeus, however, has his doubts as to its being a species distinct from the vesca, and, in our humble opinion, not without reason, for it can certainly be regarded as a very singular variety only, its origin indeed is a proof of this, in addition to which we may observe, that plants raised from the runners will sometimes, though very rarely indeed, have three leaves instead of one and it is observed by the very intelligent author of the Hist. nat. abovementioned, that seedling plants sometimes produced leaves with three divisions, like those of the Wood Strawberry. Besides the remarkable difference in the number of the leaves in this plant, the leaves themselves are observed to be much smaller in the winter season, and their ribs less branched, the runners also are slenderer and more productive, and the fruit in general more oblong or pyramidal. As an object of curiosity, this plant is deserving a place in every garden of any extent, nor is its singularity its only recommendation, its fruit being equal to that of the finest Wood Strawberry, with which it agrees in the time of its flowering, fruiting, and mode of treatment.
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Hemerocallis Fulva
64. According to Linnaeus, this species is a native of China.
It has long been inured to our climate, and few plants thrive better in any soil or situation, but a moist soil suits it best, its leaves on their first emerging from the ground, and for a considerable time afterwards, are of the most delicate green imaginable, the appearance which the plant assumes at this period of its growth is, indeed, so pleasing, that it may be said to constitute one half of its beauty, its blossoms which appear in July and August, are twice the size of those of the flava, of a tawny orange colour, without gloss or smell, the Petals waved on the edge, the flowers are rarely or never succeeded by ripe Capsules as in the flava, which is a circumstance that has been noticed by Parkinson, when these several characters, in which the fulva differs so essentially from the flava, are attentively considered, we shall wonder that Linnaeus could entertain an idea of their being varieties of each other.
The Hemerocallis fulva, from its size, and from the great multiplication of its roots, is best adapted to large gardens and plantations.
May be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn. .....
Clematis Integrifolia
65. The Clematis integrifolia is not an uncommon plant in the nurseries about London, and is deserving a place in gardens, if not for the beauty of its flowers, at least for their singularity.
It is a native of Germany, flowers in July, and is one of those hardy perennials which suit most people, requiring little more than an introduction.
Is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn. .....
Passiflora Alata
66. This species of Passion flower is one of those which have been introduced into the English gardens since the time of Miller, if it does not equal the c339,rulea in elegance, it excels it in magnificence, in brilliancy of colour, and in fragrance, the blossoms being highly odoriferous as yet, it is by no means so general in this country, as its extraordinary beauty merits, we have seen it flower this year, both summer and autumn, in great perfection in the stove of our very worthy friend James Vere, Esq. Kensington Gore, at the Physic Garden, Chelsea, and at Mr. Malcoms, Kennington, at Chelsea, in particular, it afforded the richest assemblage of foliage and flowers we ever saw.
It appears to the greatest advantage, when trained up an upright pole, nearly to the height of the back of the stove, and then suffered to run along horizontally.
By some it has been considered as a variety only of the Passiflora quadrangularis, others, with whom we agree in opinion, have no doubt of its being a very distinct species, it differs from the quadrangularis, in having leaves more perfectly heart shaped, and less veiny, in having four glands on the foot stalks of the leaves, instead of six, and in not producing fruit with us, which the quadrangularis has been known frequently to do.
The Nursery men report, that this species was first raised in this country, by a gentleman in Hertfordshire, from West India seeds.
The usual mode of propogating it here, is by cuttings.
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Mesembryanthemum Pinnatifidum
67. This species of Mesembryanthemum, so different in the shape of its foliage from all the others hitherto introduced into this country, is first described in the Supplementum Plantarum of the younger Linnaeus, from which we learn that it grew in the Upsal Garden, into which it was most probably introduced by professor Thunberg, as on his authority it is mentioned as a native of the Cape of Good Hope.
Mr. Zier, Apothecary, of Castle Street, was so obliging as to present me this summer with the seeds of this curious plant, I sowed them in a pot of earth, plunged in a tan pit, whose heat was nearly exhausted, they quickly vegetated, and though the summer was far advanced, they proceeded rapidly into flower, and bid fair to produce ripe seeds, as the Capsules have long since been formed.
The whole plant is sprinkled over with glittering particles like the ice plant, to which it bears some affinity in its duration, being an annual and requiring the same treatment.
The blossoms are small and yellow, and if the weather be fine, open about two or three oclock in the afternoon, the stalks are of a bright red colour, and the foliage yellowish green. .....
Sempervivum Arachnoideum
68. By the old Botanists, this plant was considered as a Sedum, and to this day it is generally known in the gardens by the name of the Cobweb Sedum, though its habit or general appearance, independent of its fructification, loudly proclaims it a Houseleek.
In this species the tops of the leaves are woolly, as they expand they carry this woolly substance with them, which being thus extended, assumes the appearance of a cobweb, whence the name of the plant.
Like most of the Houseleeks it is best kept in a pot, or it will grow well and appear to great advantage on a wall or piece of rock work, the more it is exposed to the sun, the more colour will enliven its stalks and foliage, and the more brilliant will be its flowers, the latter make their appearance in July.
It is propagated by offsets which it sends forth in abundance.
It is no uncommon practice to treat this beautiful species of Houseleek, as a native of a warm climate, under such an idea we have seen it nursed up in stoves, while the plant spontaneously braves the cold of the Switzerland Alps. .....
Rosa Muscosa
69. If there be any one genus of plants more universally admired than the others, it is that of the Rose—,where is the Poet that has not celebrated it? where the Painter that has not made it an object of his imitative art?
In the opinion of Miller, the Moss Rose, or Moss Province, as it is frequently called, is a perfectly distinct species, Linnaeus considers it as a variety only of the centifolia as it is found in our Nurseries in a double state only, and as we are ignorant of what country it is the produce, the decision of this matter must be left to future observation and inquiry.
Though it may not increase so fast by suckers, nor be increased so readily by layers, as the centifolia, there is no difficulty in propagating it either way, the latter mode is usually adopted.
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Mesembryanthemum Barbatum
70. The leaves of this species have small hairs, issuing like rays from their points, whence its name of barbatum, there are two others figured by Dillenius, whose leaves have a great similarity of structure, and which are considered by Linnaeus as varieties of this species, our plant is the Stellatum Like most of this tribe it inhabits the Cape, flowers in July, and is readily propagated by cuttings. .....
Statice Sinuata
71. That this singular species of Statice was long since an inhabitant of our gardens, appears from Parkinson, who in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers, gives an accurate description of it, accompanied with an expressive figure, since his time it appears to have been confined to few gardens the nurserymen have lately considered it as a newly introduced species, and sold it accordingly.
It is one of those few plants whose calyx is of a more beautiful colour than the corolla (and which it does not lose in drying), it therefore affords an excellent example of the calyx coloratus, as also of scariosus, it being sonorous to the touch.
Being a native of Sicily, Palestine, and Africa, it is of course liable to be killed with us in severe seasons, the common practice is therefore to treat it as a green house plant, and indeed it appears to the greatest advantage in a pot, it is much disposed to throw up new flowering stems, hence, by having several pots of it, some plants will be in blossom throughout the summer, the dried flowers are a pretty ornament for the mantle piece in winter.
Though a kind of biennial, it is often increased by parting its roots, but more advantageously by seed, the latter, however, are but sparingly produced with us, probably for the want, as Parkinson expresses it, of sufficient heate of the Sunne.
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Helleborus Lividus
72. It is not a little extraordinary that this plant which has for many years been cultivated in this country, should have escaped the notice of Linnaeus, it is equally wonderful that we should at this moment be strangers to its place of growth.
Having three leaves growing together, it has been considered by many as the trifoliatus of Linnaeus but his trifoliatus is a very different plant, a native of Canada, producing small yellow flowers.
It has been usual to treat this species as a green house plant, or at least to shelter it under a frame in the winter, probably it is more hardy than we imagine.
It is propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and by seeds, though few of the latter in general ripen, nor do the roots make much increase—,to these causes we must doubtless attribute its present comparative scarcity.
It flowers as early as February, on which account, as well as that of its singularity, it is a very desirable plant in collections. .....
Monsonia speciosa
73. The genus of which this charming plant is the most distinguished species, has been named in honour of Lady Anne Monson. The whole family are natives of the Cape, and in their habit and fructification bear great affinity to the Geranium. The present species was introduced into this country in 1774, by Mr. Masson.We received this elegant plant just as it was coming into flower, from Mr. Colvill, Nurseryman, Kings Road, Chelsea, who was so obliging as to inform me that he had succeeded best in propagating it by planting cuttings of the root in pots of mould, and plunging them in a tan pit, watering them as occasion may require, in due time buds appear on the tops of the cuttings left out of the ground.It rarely or never ripens its seed with us.Should be treated as a hardy greenhouse plant, may be sheltered even under a frame, in the winter. .....
Antirrhinum triste
74. Receives its name of triste from the sombre appearance of its flowers, but this must be understood when placed at some little distance, for, on a near view, the principal colour of the blossoms is a fine rich brown, inclined to purple.Is a native of Spain, and of course a greenhouse plant with us, but it must not be too tenderly treated, as it loses much of its beauty when drawn up, it should therefore be kept out of doors when the season will admit, as it only requires shelter from severe frost, and that a common hot bed frame will in general sufficiently afford it.It flowers during most of the summer months, as it rarely or never ripens its seeds with us, the usual mode of propagating it, is by cuttings, which strike readily enough in the common way.Miller relates that it was first introduced into this country by Sir Charles Wager, from Gibraltar seeds. .....
Potentilla grandiflora
75. Culture is well known to produce great alterations in the appearance of most plants, but particularly in those which grow spontaneously on dry mountainous situations, and this is strikingly exemplified in the present instance, this species of Potentilla, becoming in every respect much larger, as well as much smoother than in its natural state. Vid. Vaill. above quoted.It is a hardy herbaceous plant, a native of Switzerland, Siberia, and other parts of Europe, and flowers in July.Linnaeus considers it as an annual, Miller, as a biennial, we suspect it to be, indeed have little doubt of its being a perennial, having propagated it by parting its roots, but it may be raised more successfully from seed. .....
Epilobium angustissimum
76. Though the Epilobium here figured has not been many years introduced into this country, it is a plant which has long been well known, and described.Linnaeus makes it a variety only of the Epilobium angustifolium, Haller, a distinct species, and in our opinion, most justly.Those who have cultivated the Epilobium angustifolium have cause to know that it increases prodigiously by its creeping roots. The present plant, so far as we have been able to determine from cultivating it several years, in our Garden, Lambeth Marsh, has not shewn the least disposition to increase in the same way, nor have any seedlings arisen from the seeds which it has spontaneously scattered we have, indeed, found it a plant rather difficult to propagate, yet it is highly probable that at a greater distance from London, and in a more favourable soil, its roots, though not of the creeping kind, may admit of a greater increase, and its seeds be more prolific.It is a native of the Alps of Switzerland, from whence it is frequently dislodged, and carried into the plains by the impetuosity of torrents.It flowers with us in July and August, and being a hardy perennial, and perhaps the most elegant species of the genus, appears to us highly deserving a place in the gardens of the curious. .....
Centaurea montana
77. It has been suggested by some of our readers, that too many common plants, like the present, are figured in this work. We wish it to be understood, that the professed design of the Botanical Magazine is to exhibit representations of such. We are desirous of putting it in the power of all who cultivate or amuse themselves with plants, to become scientifically acquainted with them, as far as our labours extend, and we deem it of more consequence, that they should be able to ascertain such as are to be found in every garden, than such as they may never have an opportunity of seeing. On viewing the representations of objects of this sort, a desire of seeing the original is naturally excited, and the pleasure is greatly enhanced by having it in our power to possess it. But, while we are desirous of thus creating Botanists, we are no less anxious to gratify the wishes of those already such, and we believe, from a perusal of the Magazine, it will appear that one third of the plants figured, have some pretensions to novelty.The Centaurea montana is a native of the German Alps, flowers during the greatest part of the summer, is a hardy perennial, and will grow in any soil or situation, some will think too readily. .....
Narcissus odorus
78. We shall be thought, perhaps, too partial to this tribe of plants, this being the fifth species now figured, but it should be remembered, that as the spring does not afford that variety of flowers which the summer does, we are more limited in our choice, the flowers of this delightful season have also greater claims to our notice, they present themselves with double charms.This species, which, as its name implies, possesses more fragrance than many of the others, is a native of the South of Europe, flowers in the open border in April, is a hardy perennial, thriving in almost any soil or situation, but succeeds best in a loamy soil and eastern exposure. Varies with double flowers, in which slate it is often used for forcing.No notice is taken of this species by Miller, except as a variety of the N. Jonquilla, from which it differs toto calo. .....
Lotus Jacobaeus
79. This species of Lotus has been called black flowerd, not that the flowers are absolutely black, for they are of a very rich brown inclined to purple, but because they appear so at a little distance, the light colour of the foliage contributes not a little to this appearance.It grows naturally in the Island of St. James, is too tender to live abroad in England, so the plants must be kept in pots, and in the winter placed in a warm airy glass cafe, but in the summer they should be placed abroad in a sheltered situation. It may be easily propagated by cuttings during the summer season, and also by seeds, but the plants which have been two or three times propagated by cuttings, seldom are fruitful. Millers Gard. Dict.It continues to flower during the whole of the summer, as it is very apt to die off without any apparent cause, care should be taken to have a succession of plants from seeds, if possible. .....
Spigelia Marilandica
80. This plant, not less celebrated for its superior efficacy in destroying worms, than admired for its beauty, is a native of the warmer parts of North America, the older Botanists, and even Linnaeus, at one time considered it as a honeysuckle, but he has now made a new genus of it, which he has named in honour of Spigelius, a Botanist of considerable note, author of the Ifagog. in yem herbar. published at Leyden in 1633.This plant is not easily propagated in England, for the roots make but slow increase, so that the plant is not very common in the English Gardens at present, for although it is so hardy as to endure the cold of our ordinary winters in the open air, yet as it does not ripen seeds, the only way of propagating it is by parting of the roots, and as these do not make much increase by offsets, so the plants are scarce, it delights in a moist soil, and must not be often transplanted. Millers Dict.The scarcity of this plant, even now, is a proof of the justness of Mr. Millers observation, it is in fact a very shy plant, and scarcely to be kept in this country but by frequent importation.It flowers in June and July. .....
Colutea Arborescens
81. The Bladder Senna, a native of the South of France and Italy, produces a profusion of bloom from June to August, when its inflated pods please from the singularity of their appearance, on these accounts, it is one of the most common flowering shrubs cultivated in gardens and plantations.It is propagated by sowing its seeds any time in the spring in a bed of common earth, and when the plants are come up, they must be kept clear from weeds, and the Michaelmas following they should be transplanted either into nursery rows, or in the places where they are designed to remain, for if they are let grow in the seed bed too long, they are very subject to have tap roots, which render them unfit for transplanting, nor should these trees be suffered to remain too long in the nursery before they are transplanted, for the same reason. Millers Gard. Dict.We have learned by experience, that a very wet soil will prove fatal to these shrubs. .....
Lachenalia Tricolor
82. To Mr. Lee, of the Vineyard, Hammersmith, the first, and as we understand, the only Nurseryman as yet in possession of this plant, which has but lately been introduced into this country from the Cape, we are indebted for the present specimen.Mr. Jacquin, jun. who has figured and described it in the Acta Helvetica, gives it the name of Lachenalia, in honour of Warnerus de la Chenal, a very eminent Swiss Botanist, and the particular friend of the late illustrious Haller. Our readers should be informed, that it had before been called by two other different names, viz. Hyacinthus orchiodes, and Phormium aloides, under the latter of which it now stands in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, as well as that of Lachenalia.Its trivial name of tricolor it receives from the three colours observable in the flowers, but it must be noticed, that it is only at the middle period of its flowering, that these three colours are highly distinguishable, as it advances, the brilliant orange of the top flowers dies away, the spots on the leaves also, which when the plant is young, give it the appearance of an orchis, as it advances into bloom become less and less conspicuous.Like most of the Cape plants, the Lachenalia requires to be sheltered in the winter, during that season it must therefore be kept in a greenhouse, or hot bed frame, well secured.It flowers in the spring, but its blowing may be accelerated by the warmth of the stove, for it bears forcing well enough.It is increased by offsets from the bulbs. .....
Hibiscus Syriacus
83. The Hibiscus syriacus, known generally by the name of Althaea frutex, is a native of Syria, and forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens in autumn, we view it, however, with less delight, as it is a sure indication of approaching winter.There are many varieties of it mentioned by authors, as the purple, red flowered, white flowered, variegated red and white flowered, and the striped flowered, to which may be added, another variety, lately introduced, with double flowers it varies also in its foliage, which is sometimes marked with white, sometimes with yellow.As from the lateness of its flowering, and the want of sufficient warmth, it rarely ripens its seeds with us, the usual mode of increasing it is by layers, and sometimes by cuttings, but the best plants are raised from seeds. Miller observes, that the scarce varieties may be propagated by grafting them on each other, which is the common method of propagating the sorts with striped leaves.In the time of Parkinson it was not looked on as a hardy shrub he thus writes, .....
Tussilago Alpina
84. This species, a native of the Alps, of Switzerland, and Austria, is frequently kept in gardens for the sake of variety, like the rest of the genus, it flowers early in the spring, in March and April, is a very hardy perennial, increases most readily in a moist shady situation, is usually kept in pots for the convenience of sheltering it in very severe seasons, but it will grow readily enough in the open border. All plants that flower early, though ever so hardy, require some kind of shelter, previous to, and during their flowering.Is propagated by parting its roots in autumn. .....
Spartium Jungeum
85. Grows naturally in France, Spain, Italy, and Turkey, bears our climate extremely well, is a common shrub in our nurseries and plantations, which it much enlivens by its yellow blossoms flowers from June to August, or longer in cool seasons.Is raised by seeds, which generally come up plentifully under the shrubs.Miller mentions a variety of it, which, as inferior to the common sort, does not appear to be worth cultivating. .....
Gladiolus Communis
86. Grows wild in the corn fields of most of the warmer parts of Europe, varies with white and flesh coloured blossoms, increases so fast, both by offsets and seeds, as to become troublesome to the cultivator, hence, having been supplanted by the Greater Corn Flag, the Byzantinus of Miller, whose blossoms are larger, and more shewy, it is not so generally found in gardens as formerly.It flowers in June. .....
Hyoscyamus Aureus
87. A native of Crete, and other parts of the East.Flowers most part of the summer, but seldom ripens seeds in England, will continue for several years, if kept in pots and sheltered in winter, for it will not live in the open air during that season, if placed under a common hot bed frame, where it may enjoy as much free air as possible in mild weather, it will thrive better than when more tenderly treated.It may be easily propagated by cuttings, which if planted in a shady border and covered with hand glasses, in any of the summer months, they will take root in a month or six weeks, and may be afterwards planted in pots and treated like the old plants. Millers Gard. Dict.It is, however, a more common practice to keep this plant in the stove in the winter, one advantage, at least, attends this method, we secure it with certainty. .....
Narcissus Bulbocodium
88. Grows spontaneously in Portugal, flowers in the open border about the middle of May, is an old inhabitant of our gardens, but, like the triandrus, is now become scarce, at least in the nurseries about London, in some gardens in Hampshire we have seen it grow abundantly Miller calls it the Hoop Petticoat Narcissus, the nectary, as he observes, being formed like the ladies hoop petticoats.It certainly is one of the neatest and most elegant of the genus, is propagated by offsets, and should be planted in a loamy soil, with an Eastern exposure. .....
Viola Pedata
89. This species of Violet, a native of Virginia, is very rarely met with in our gardens, the figure we have given, was drawn from a plant which flowered this spring in the garden of Thomas Sykes, Esq. at Hackney, who possesses a very fine collection of plants, and of American ones in particular.It is more remarkable for the singularity of its foliage than the beauty of its blossoms, the former exhibit a very good example of the folium pedatum of Linnaeus, whence its name.Miller, who calls it multifida from a former edition of Linnaeuss Species Plantarum, says, that the flowers are not succeeded by seeds here, hence it can only be propagated by parting its roots.The best mode of treating it, will be to place the roots in a pot of loam and bog earth mixed, and plunge the pot into a north border, where it must be sheltered in the winter, or taken up and kept in a common hot bed frame. .....
Gorteria Rigens
90. The Gorteria, of which there are several species, and most of them, like the present, natives of the Cape, has been named in honour of David de Gorter, author of the Flora Zutphanica and Ingrica, the trivial name of rigens is given to this species from the rigidity of its leaves, a term which it is sometimes apt to exchange for the more common botanic name of ringens, an instance of such mistake occurs in the 6th edition of Millers Gard. Dict.The greenhouse, to which it properly belongs, can scarcely boast a more shewy plant, its blossoms, when expanded by the heat of the sun, and it is only when the sun shines on them that they are fully expanded, exhibit an unrivalled brilliancy of appearance.It flowers in June, but rarely brings its seeds to perfection in this country, which is of the less consequence, as the plant is readily enough increased by cuttings.It requires the common treatment of a greenhouse plant. .....
Iris Susiana
91. This species, by far the most magnificent of the Iris tribe, is a native of Persia, from a chief city of which it takes the name of Surfing, Linnaeus informs us, that it was imported into Holland from Constantinople in 1573.Though an inhabitant of a much warmer climate than our own, it thrives readily in the open borders of our gardens, and, in certain favourable situations, flowers freely about the latter end of May or beginning of June. It succeeds best in a loamy soil and sunny exposure, with a pure air moisture, which favours the growth of most of the genus, is injurious and sometimes even fatal to this species.As it rarely ripens its seeds with us, it is generally propagated by parting its roots in autumn. These are also usually imported from Holland, and may be had of the importers of bulbs at a reasonable rate.Being liable to be destroyed by seasons unusually severe, it will be prudent to place a few roots of it in pots, either in the greenhouse or in a hot bed frame during the winter.It bears forcing well. .....
Saxifraga Sarmentosa
92. This species of Saxifrage differing so widely from the others, both in its habit and fructification, as to create a doubt in the minds of some, whether it ought not to be considered as a distinct genus, is a native of China, and one of the many plants which have been introduced into our gardens since the time of Miller.Its round variegated leaves, and strawberry like runners, the uncommon magnitude of the two lowermost pendant petals, joined to the very conspicuous glandular nectary in the centre of the flower, half surrounding the germen, render this species strikingly distinct.It is properly a greenhouse plant, in mild winters indeed it will bear the open air, especially if placed at the foot of a wall, or among rock work, but, in such situations, it is frequently killed in severe seasons.It flowers in May and June, but does not produce its blossoms so freely as some others.No difficulty attends the propagation of it, for it increases so fast by its runners, as to be even troublesome. .....
Sempervivum Monanthes
93. It appears from the Hortus Kewensis, the publication of which is daily expected, that the plant here figured was first brought to this country from the Canary Islands, by Mr. Francis Masson, in the year 1777.It is highly deserving the notice of the Botanist, not only as being by far the least species of the genus, but on account of its Nectaria, these, though not mentioned by Linnaeus in his character of the genus, have been described by other authors, particularly Jacquin and Haller, and though not present in most, and but faintly visible in a few species of Sempervivum, in this plant form a principal part of the fructification, they are usually seven in number, but vary from six to eight.In the specimens we have examined, and which perhaps have been rendered luxuriant by culture, the number of stamina has been from twelve to sixteen, of styles, from six to eight, of flowers on the same stalk, from one to eight.It flowers during most of the summer months, succeeds very well with the common treatment of a greenhouse plant in the summer, but does best in a dry stove in the winter.Is readily increased by parting its roots. .....
Sisyrinchium Irioides
94. On comparing the present plant with the Bermudiana graminea flore minore c[oe]ruleo of Dillenius, both of which I have growing, and now in pots before me, the difference appears so striking, that I am induced with him and Miller to consider them as distinct species, especially as, on a close examination, there appear characters sufficient to justify me in the opinion, which characters are not altered by culture.It is a native of the Bermudian Islands, and flowers in the open border from May to the end of July, it is not uncommon to keep it in the greenhouse, for which, from its size &c. it is very well adapted, but it is not necessary to treat it tenderly, as it will bear a greater degree of cold than many plants usually considered as hardy.It may be propagated most readily by seeds, or by parting its roots in the autumn, should be planted on a border with an eastern aspect, soil the same as for bulbs. .....
Geranium Radula
95. This is one of the numerous tribe of Geraniums introduced from the Cape since the time of Miller it takes the name of Radula, which is the Latin term for a rasp or file, from the rough rasp like surface of the leaves.There are two varieties of it, a major and a minor, which keep pretty constantly to their characters, and as this species is readily raised from seeds, it affords also many seminal varieties.As a Botanist, desirous of seeing plants distinct in their characters, we could almost wish it were impossible to raise these foreign Geraniums from seeds, for, without pretending to any extraordinary discernment, we may venture to prophecy, that in a few years, from the multiplication of seminal varieties, springing from seeds casually, or perhaps purposely impregnated with the pollen of different sorts, such a crop will be produced as will baffle all our attempts to reduce to species, or even regular varieties.Such as are partial to this tribe, will no doubt wish to have this species in their collection, the blossoms are pretty, and the foliage is singular, but it remains but a short time in flower.It is readily propagated by cuttings. .....
Lantana Aculeata
96. According to Miller, this species grows naturally in Jamaica, and most of the other Islands in the West Indies, where it is called wild Sage, the flowers, which are very brilliant, are succeeded by roundish berries, which, when ripe, turn black, having a pulpy covering over a single hard seed.It is readily propagated by cuttings.Different plants vary greatly in the colour of their blossoms, and the prickliness of their stalks, the prickles are seldom found on the young shoots.This plant will bear to be placed abroad in the warmest summer months, the rest of the year it requires artificial heat. It is usually placed in the dry stove, to which, as it is seldom without flowers, it imparts great brilliancy. .....
Fuchsia Coccinea
97. The present plant is a native of Chili, and was introduced to the royal gardens at Kew, in the year 1788, by Capt. Firth, it takes the name of Fuchsia from Fuchs a German Botanist of great celebrity, author of the Historia Stirpium in folio, published in 1542, containing five hundred and sixteen figures in wood, and which, though mere outlines, express the objects they are intended to represent, infinitely better than many laboured engravings of more modern times.Every person who can boast a hot house will be anxious to possess the Fuchsia, as it is not only a plant of peculiar beauty, but produces its rich pendant blossoms through most of the summer, the petals in the centre of the flower are particularly deserving of notice, they somewhat resemble a small roll of the richest purple coloured ribband.Though this plant will not succeed well in the winter, nor be easily propagated unless in a stove, it will flower very well during the summer months, in a good greenhouse or hot bed frame, and though at present from its novelty it bears a high price, yet as it is readily propagated, both by layers, cuttings, and seeds, it will soon be within the purchase of every lover of plants.Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, we understand first had this plant for sale. .....
Tropaeolum Minus
98. This species of Tropaeolum (which like the majus already figured in this work, is a native of Peru) has long been an inhabitant of our gardens, it was the only species we had in the time of Parkinson, by whom it is figured and described, it appears indeed to have been a great favourite with that intelligent author, for he says this plant is of so great beauty and sweetnesse withall, that my garden of delight cannot bee unfurnished of it, and again the whole flower hath a fine small sent, very pleasing, which being placed in the middle of some Carnations or Gilloflowers (for they are in flower at the same time) make a delicate Tussimusie, as they call it, or Nosegay, both for sight and sent.As the Passiflora caerulea, from its superior beauty and hardiness, has in a great degree supplanted the incarnata, so has the Tropaeolum majus the minus, we have been informed indeed that it was entirely lost to our gardens till lately, when it was reintroduced by Dr. J. E. Smith, who by distributing it to his friends, and the Nurserymen near London, has again rendered it tolerably plentiful.Like the majus it is an annual, though by artificial heat it may be kept in a pot through the winter, as usually is the variety of it with double flowers, but as it will grow readily in the open air, in warm sheltered situations, it should be raised on a hot bed, like other tender annuals, if we wish to have it flower early in the summer, continue long in blossom, and produce perfect seeds. .....
Antirrhinum Purpureum
99. Though not so beautiful as many of the genus, this species is a common inhabitant of the flower garden, in which it continues to blossom, during most of the summer.It is a native of Italy, and delights in a dry soil and situation, it will even flourish on walls, and hence will serve very well to decorate the more elevated parts of rock work.When once introduced it comes up spontaneously from seeds. .....
Lathyrus Tingitanus
100. The Tangier Pea, a native of Morocco, cannot boast the agreeable scent, or variety of colours of the sweet Pea, nor does it continue so long in flower, nevertheless there is a richness in the colour of its blossoms, which entitles it to a place in the gardens of the curious, in which it is usually sown in the spring, with other hardy annuals.It flowers in June and July.The best mode of propagating it, is to, sow the seeds on the borders in patches, where the plants are to remain, thinning them when they come up, so as to leave only two or three together. .....
Alyssum Halimifolium
101. Grows spontaneously in dry situations, in the southernmost parts of Europe, where it is shrubby, and in similar situations it is so in some degree with us, but on our flower borders, where it is usually sown, it grows so luxuriantly, that the stalks becoming juicy and tender, are generally destroyed by our frosts, hence it is an annual from peculiarity of circumstance, as such, it is very generally cultivated, the flowers exhibit a pretty, innocent appearance, and strongly diffuse an agreeable honey like smell. They continue to blow through most of the summer months.It is a very proper plant for a wall or piece of rock work, care must be taken, however, not to sow too much of the seed in one pot, as it spreads wide, but it may easily be reduced at any period of its growth, as it does not creep at the root.The specific description in the Hortus Kewensis above referred to, admirably characterizes the plant, but surely at the expence of its generic character. .....
Campanula Speculum
102. Grows wild among the corn in the South of Europe, is an annual, and, like the Sweet Alyssum, generally cultivated in our gardens, and most deservedly so indeed, for when a large assemblage of its blossoms are expanded by the rays of the sun, their brilliancy is such as almost to dazzle the eyes of the beholder.Those annuals which bear our winters frosts without injury, are advantageously sown in the autumn, for by that means they flower more early, and their seeds ripen with more certainty, the present plant is one of those it usually sows itself, and is therefore raised without any trouble.It begins to flower in May and June, and continues to enliven the garden till August or September. .....
Pelargonium Acetosum
103. Mons. LHeritier, the celebrated French Botanist, who in the number, elegance, and accuracy of his engravings, appears ambitious of excelling all his contemporaries, in a work now executing on the family of Geranium, has thought it necessary to divide that numerous genus into three, viz. Erodium, Pelargonium, and Geranium.The Erodium includes those which Linnaeus (who noticing the great difference in their appearance, had made three divisions of them) describes with five fertile stamina, and calls Myrrhina, the Pelargonium those with seven fertile stamina, his Africana, the Geranium, those with ten fertile stamina, his Batrachia.They are continued under the class Monadelphia, in which they now form three different orders, according to the number of their stamina, viz. Pentandria, Heptandria, and Decandria. If the principles of the Linnaean system had been strictly adhered to, they should perhaps have been separated into different classes, for though the Pelargonium is Monadelphous, the Geranium is not so, in consequence of this alteration, the Geranium peltatum and radula, figured in a former part of this work, must now be called Pelargonium peltatum, and radula, and the Geranium Reichardi be an Erodium.The leaves of this plant have somewhat the taste of sorrel, whence its name, it flowers during most of the summer, and is readily propagated by cuttings. Miller mentions a variety of it with scarlet flowers.It is a native of the Cape, and known to have been cultivated in Chelsea Garden, in the year 1724. .....
Lysimachia Bulbifera
104. In the spring of the year 1781, I received roots of this plant from Mr. Robert Squibb, then at New York, which produced flowers the ensuing summer, since that time, I have had frequent opportunities of observing a very peculiar circumstance in its [oe]conomy, after flowering, instead of producing seeds, it throws out gemmae vivaces, or bulbs of an unusual form, from the alae of the leaves, which falling off in the month of October, when the plant decays, produce young plants the ensuing spring.As it is distinguished from all the known species of Lysimachia by this circumstance, we have named it bulbifera instead of stricta, under which it appears in the Hortus Kewensis.Some Botanists, whose abilities we revere, are of opinion that the trivial names of plants, which are or should be a kind of abridgment of the specific character, ought very rarely or never to be changed we are not for altering them capriciously on every trivial occasion, but in such a case as the present, where the science is manifestly advanced by the alteration, it would surely have been criminal to have preferred a name, barely expressive, to one which immediately identifies the plant.The Lysimachia bulbifera is a hardy perennial, grows spontaneously in boggy or swampy ground, and hence requires a moist soil. It flowers in August. .....
Tradescantia Virginica
105. Under the name of Spiderwort, the old Botanists arranged many plants of very different genera the name is said to have arisen from the supposed efficacy of some of these plants, in curing the bite of a kind of spider, called Phalangium, not the Phalangium of Linnaeus, which is known to be perfectly harmless under this name, Parkinson minutely describes it, he mentions also, how he first obtained it.This Spiderwort, says our venerable author, is of late knowledge, and for it the Christian world is indebted unto that painful, industrious searcher, John Tradescant, who first received it of a friend that brought it out of Virginia, and hath imparted hereof, as of many other things, both to me and others.Tournefort afterwards gave it the name of Ephemerum, expressive of the short duration of its flowers, which Linnaeus changed to Tradescantia.Though a native of Virginia, it bears the severity of our climate uninjured, and being a beautiful, as well as hardy perennial, is found in almost every garden.Though each blossom lasts but a day, it has such a profusion in store, that it is seldom found without flowers through the whole of the summer. There are two varieties of it, the one with white the other with pale purple flowers. The most usual way of propagating it is by parting its roots in autumn to obtain varieties, we must sow its seeds. .....
Iberis Umbellata
106. The Candy Tuft is one of those annuals which contribute generally to enliven the borders of the flower garden its usual colour is a pale purple, there is also a white variety of it, and another with deep but very bright purple flowers, the most desirable of the three, but where a garden is large enough to admit of it, all the varieties may be sown.For want of due discrimination, as Miller has before observed, Nurserymen are apt to collect and mix with this species the seeds of another, viz. the amara, and which persons not much skilled in plants consider as the white variety, but a slight attention will discover it to be a very different plant, having smaller and longer heads, differing also in the shape of its leaves and seed vessels, too trifling a plant indeed to appear in the flower garden.Purple Candy Tuft is a native of the South of Europe, and flowers in June and July it should be sown in the spring, on the borders of the flower garden in patches, when the plants come up, a few only should be left, as they will thereby become stronger, produce more flowers, and be of longer duration. .....
Cassia Chamaecrista
107. A native of the West Indies, and of Virginia according to Linnaeus, not common in our gardens, though cultivated as long ago as 1699, by the Duchess of Beaufort, (vid. Hort. Kew.) unnoticed by Miller.This species, superior in beauty to many of the genus, is an annual, and consequently raised only from seeds, these must be sown in the spring, on a hot bed, and when large enough to transplant, placed separately in pots of light loamy earth, then replunged into a moderate hot bed to bring them forward, and in the month of June removed into a warm border, where, if the season prove favourable, they will flower very well towards August, but, as such seldom ripen their seeds, it will be proper to keep a few plants in the stove or greenhouse for that purpose, otherwise the species may be lost. .....
Anthyllis Tetraphylla
108. An annual, the spontaneous growth of Spain, Italy, and Sicily, flowers in the open border in July, and ripens its seeds, in September.Long since cultivated in our gardens, but more as a rare, or curious, than a beautiful plant.Its seeds are to be sown in April, on a bed of light earth, where they are to remain, no other care is necessary than thinning them, and keeping them clear of weeds. .....
Lavatera Trimestris
109. Our plant is undoubtedly the Spanish blush Mallow of Parkinson, and the Lavatera althaeaefolia of Miller according to the former, it is a native of Spain, according to the latter, of Syria.Mr. Miller considers it as distinct from the trimestris, Mr. Aiton has no althaeaefolia in his Hort. Kew. we are therefore to conclude that the althaeaefolia of Miller, and the trimestris of Linneus are one and the same species.Of the annuals commonly raised in our gardens, this is one of the most shewy, as well as the most easily cultivated, its seeds are to be sown in March, on the borders where they are to remain, the plants, thinned as they come up, and kept clear of weeds.It varies with white blossoms, and flowers from July to September. .....
Mimosa Verticillata
110. The radical leaves of plants usually differ in shape from those of the stalk, in some plants remarkably so, the Lepidium perfoliatum figured in the Flora Austriaca of Professor Jacquin is a striking instance of this dissimilarity the Lathyrus Aphaca, a British plant, figured in the Flora Lond. is still more such, as large entire leaf like stipulae grow in pairs on the stalk, instead of leaves, while the true leaves next the root, visible when the plant first comes up from seed, are few in number, and those pinnated. The present plant no less admirably illustrates the above remark, the leaves which first appear on the seedling plants being pinnated, as is represented in the small figure on the plate, while those which afterwards come forth grow in whorls. We have observed the same disposition to produce dissimilar leaves in several other species of Mimosa, which have arisen from Botany Bay seeds, lately introduced.

This singular species, on the authority of Mr. David Nelson, is a native of New South Wales, and was introduced to the royal garden at Kew by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart.
We first saw it in flower, and have since seen it with ripe seed pods, at Mr. Malcolms, Kennington.
It is properly a green house plant, and propagated only by seeds, which are to be sown on a gentle hot bed.
It is some years in arriving at its flowering state. .....

Lathyrus Tuberosus
111. Grows spontaneously in various parts of France and Germany, Mr. Philip Hurlock lately shewed me some dried specimens of this plant, which he gathered in the corn fields, on the Luneburgh Heide, in Upper Lusatia, where it grew plentifully, and afforded a pleasing appearance to the curious traveller .....
Cistus Ladaniferus
112. One of the most ornamental hardy shrubs we possess, at once pleasing to the eye, and grateful to the smell, for, as Miller observes, the whole plant in warm weather exudes a sweet glutinous substance, which has a very strong balsamic scent, so as to perfume the circumambient air to a great distance.Its blossoms, which appear in June and July in great profusion, exhibit a remarkable instance of quickly fading beauty, opening and expanding to the morning sun, and before night strewing the ground with their elegant remains as each succeeding day produces new blossoms, this deciduous disposition of the petals, common to the genus, is the less to be regretted.Is a native of Spain and Portugal, prefers a dry soil and warm sheltered situation, and in very severe seasons requires some kind of covering.Cultivated 1656, by Mr. John Tradescant, jun. Ait. Hort. Kew.Is readily increased from cuttings, but Miller remarks, that the best plants are raised from seeds.Varies with waved leaves, and in having petals without a spot at the base.Is not the plant from whence the Ladanum of the shops is produced, though affording in warmer countries than ours a similar gum, hence its name of ladanifera is not strictly proper. .....
Convolvulus Purpureus
113. Is an annual plant which grows naturally in Asia and America, but has been long cultivated for ornament in the English gardens, and is generally known by the title of Convolvulus major. Of this there are three or four lasting varieties, the most common hath a purple flower, but there is one with a white, another with a red, and one with a whitish blue flower, which hath white seeds. All these varieties I have cultivated many years, without observing them to change. If the seeds of these sorts are sown in the spring, upon a warm border where the plants are designed to remain, they will require no other culture but to keep them clear from weeds, and place some tall stakes down by them, for their stalks to twine about, otherwise they will spread on the ground and make a bad appearance. These plants, if they are properly supported, will rise ten or twelve feet high in warm Summers they flower in June, July, and August, and will continue till the frost kills them. Their seeds ripen in Autumn. Millers Gard. Dict. ed. 4to. 1771. .....
Silene Pendula
114. Grows spontaneously in Sicily and Crete, is an annual of humble growth, and hence a suitable plant for the borders of the flower garden, or the decoration of Rock work, as its blossoms are shewy, and not of very short duration.It flowers in June and July, and if once permitted to scatter its seeds, will come up yearly without any trouble. .....
Lathyrus Sativus
115. A native of France, Spain, and Italy, and distinguishable when in flower by the blue colour of its blossoms, which are sometimes, however, milk white, but its seed pods afford a more certain mark of distinction, being unusually short, broad, and winged on the back.This species grows to the height of about two feet, and is usually sown in the spring with other annuals, though not so beautiful, it forms a contrast to the sweet and Tangier Pea, and may be introduced where there is plenty of room, or a desire of possessing and knowing most of the plants of a genus.It flowers in June and July.Cultivated 1739, by Mr. Philip Miller. Ait. Hort. Kew. .....
Limodorum Tuberosum
116. For this rare plant I am indebted to the very laudable exertions of a late Gardener of mine, James Smith, who, in the spring of the year 1788, examining attentively the bog earth which had been brought over with some plants of the Dionaea Muscipula, found several small tooth like knobby roots, which being placed in pots of the same earth, and plunged into a tan pit having a gentle heat, produced plants the ensuing summer, two of which flowered, and from the strongest of those our figure was taken.From this circumstance we learn, that this species is a native of South Carolina, and properly a bog plant, growing spontaneously with the Dionaea Muscipula.Both Mr. Dryander and Dr. J. E. Smith assure me, that it is the true Limodorum tuberosum of Linnaeus, the one usually called by that name is a native of the West Indies, and treated as a stove plant.From the little experience we have had of the management of this species, it appears to us to be scarcely hardy enough for the open border, yet not tender enough to require a stove. We have succeeded best by treating it in the manner above mentioned, we may observe, that the tan pit spoken of was built in the open garden, not in a stove, and was for the purpose of raising plants or seeds by a gentle heat, as well as for striking cuttings and securing plants from cold in the winter.Our figure will make a description of the plant unnecessary, its flowering stem with us has arisen to the height of a foot and a half, the number of flowers has not exceeded five. In its most luxuriant state it will probably be found much larger, and to produce more flowers. .....
Campanula Carpatica
117. This species of Bell flower, which takes its name from its place of growth, is a native of the Carpatian Alps, and was introduced into the Royal Garden at Kew, by Professor Jacquin, of Vienna, in the year 1774.It flowers in June and July.As yet it is scarce in our gardens, but deserves to be more generally known and cultivated, its flowers, in proportion to the plant, are large and shewy like many other Alpine plants, it is well suited to decorate certain parts of rock work, or such borders of the flower garden, as are not adapted for large plants.It is a hardy perennial, and propagated by parting its roots in autumn.Our figure, from a deficiency in the colouring art, gives a very inadequate idea of its beauty. .....
Sedum Anacampseros
118. Grows spontaneously out of the crevices of the rocks in the South of France, flowers in our gardens in July and August, is a very hardy perennial, and in sheltered situations retains its leaves all the year.The singular manner in which the leaves are attached to the flowering stem, deserves to be noticed.As many of the succulent plants are tender, and require a Green house in the winter, cultivators of plants are apt indiscriminately to extend the same kind of care to the whole tribe, hence it is not uncommon to find this and many other similar hardy plants, nursed up in the Green house or stove, when they would thrive much better on a wall or piece of rock work, for the decoration of which this plant in particular is admirably adapted.Like most of the Sedum tribe it may readily be propagated by cuttings, or parting its roots in autumn.Dodonaeus figure admirably represents its habit.According to the Hort. Kew. it was cultivated in this country by Gerard, in 1596. .....
Strelitzia Reginae
119. In order that we may give our readers an opportunity of seeing a coloured representation of one of the most scarce and magnificent plants introduced into this country, we have this number deviated from our usual plan, with respect to the plates, and though in so doing we shall have the pleasure of gratifying the warm wishes of many of our readers, we are not without our apprehensions least others may not feel perfectly well satisfied, should it prove so, we wish such to rest assured that this is a deviation in which we shall very rarely indulge and never but when something uncommonly beautiful or interesting presents itself to avoid the imputation of interested motives, we wish our readers to be apprized that the expences attendant on the present number, in consequence of such deviation, have been considerably augmented, not lowered.It is well known to many Botanists, and others, who have experienced Sir Joseph Bankss well known liberality, that previous to the publication of the Hortus Kewensis he made a new genus of this plant, which had before been considered as a species of Heliconia, and named it Strelitzia in honour of our most gracious Queen Charlotte, coloured engravings of which, executed under his direction, he presented to his particular friends, impressions of the same plate have been given in the aforesaid work, in which we are informed that this plant was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. in the year 1773, where it lately flowered .....
TRELITZIA REGINae
120. From a perennial stringy root shoot forth a considerable number of leaves, standing upright on long footstalks, front a sheath of some one of which, near its base, springs the flowering stem, arising somewhat higher than the leaves, and terminating in an almost horizontal long pointed spatha, containing about six or eight flowers, which becoming vertical as they spring forth, form a kind of crest, which the glowing orange of the Corolla, and fine azure of the Nectary, renders truly superb. The outline in the third plate of this number, is intended to give our readers an idea of its general habit and mode of growth.

Particular Description of the same.

ROOT perennial, stringy, somewhat like that of the tawny Day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), strings the thickness of the little finger, blunt at the extremity, extending horizontally, if not confined, to the distance of many feet.

LEAVES numerous, standing upright on their footstalks, about a foot in length, and four inches in breadth, ovato oblong, coriaceous, somewhat fleshy, rigid, smooth, concave, entire on the edges, except on one side towards the base, where they are more or less curled, on the upper side of a deep green colour, on the under side covered with a fine glaucous meal, midrib hollow above and yellowish, veins unbranched, prominent on the inside, and impressed on the outside of the leaf, young leaves rolled up.

LEAF STALKS about thrice the length of the leaves, upright, somewhat flattened, at bottom furnished with a sheath, and received into each other, all radical.

SCAPUS or flowering stem unbranched, somewhat taller than the leaves, proceeding from the sheath of one of them, upright, round, not perfectly straight, nearly of an equal thickness throughout, of a glaucous hue, covered with four or five sheaths which closely embrace it. Two or more flowering stems spring from the same root, according to the age of the plant.

SPATHA terminal, about six inches in length, of a glaucous hue, with a fine bright purple at its base, running out to a long point, opening above from the base to within about an inch of the apex, where the edges roll over to one side, forming an angle of about forty five degrees, and containing about six flowers.

FLOWERS of a bright orange colour, becoming upright, when perfectly detached from the spatha, which each flower is a considerable time in accomplishing. In the plant at Chelsea, the two back petals, or, more properly segments of the first flower, sprang forth with the nectary, and while the former became immediately vertical, the latter formed nearly the same angle as the spatha, four days afterwards the remaining segment of the first flower, with the two segments and nectary of the second came forth, and in the same manner at similar intervals all the flowers, which were six in number, continued to make their appearance.

COROLLA deeply divided into three segments, which are ovato lanceolate, slightly keeled, and somewhat concave, at the base white, fleshy, and covered with a glutinous substance flowing in great quantities from the nectary.

NECTARY of a fine azure blue and most singular form, composed of two petals, the upper petal very short and broad, with a whitish mucro or point, the sides of which lap over the base of the other petal, inferior petal about two inches and a half in length, the lower half somewhat triangular, grooved on the two lowermost sides, and keeled at bottom, the keel running straight to its extremity, the upper half gradually dilating towards the base, runs out into two lobes more or less obtuse, which give it an arrow shaped form, bifid at the apex, hollow, and containing the antherae, the edges of the duplicature crisped and forming a kind of frill from the top to the bottom.

STAMINA five Filaments arising from the base of the nectary, short and distinct, Antherae long and linear, attached to and cohering by their tips to the apex of the nectary.STYLE filiform, white, length of the nectary.STIGMA three quarters of an inch long, attached to, and hitched on as it were to the tip of the nectary, roundish, white, awl shaped, very viscid, becoming as the flower decays of a deep purple brown colour, and usually splitting into three pieces, continuing attached to the nectary till the nectary decays. Mr. Fairbairn, to whose abilities and industry the Companies Garden at Chelsea is indebted for its present flourishing state, being desirous of obtaining ripe seeds, I had no opportunity of examining the germen. Such were the appearances which presented themselves to us in the plant which flowered at the Chelsea Garden, that they are liable to considerable variation is apparent from the figure of Mr. Millar, which appears to have been drawn from a very luxuriant specimen, as two spathae grow from one flowering stem, the stigma is also remarkably convoluted, many other appearances are likewise represented, which our plant did not exhibit in the figure given in the Hortus Kewensis, the stigma appears to have separated from the nectary on the first opening of the flower, and to be split into three parts, neither of which circumstances took place in our plant till they were both in a decaying state. .....

Narcissus Incomparabilis
121. This species of Narcissus, though well described and figured by the old Botanists, especially Parkinson, has been overlooked by Linnaeus.It is undoubtedly the incomparable Daffodil of Parkinson, figured in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers, and the incomparabilis of Millers Dict. ed. 6. 4to. the latter informs us, that he received roots of it from Spain and Portugal, which fixes its place of growth.

It is a very hardy bulbous plant, and flowers in April, in its single state it is very ornamental, the petals are usually pale yellow, and the nectary inclined to orange, which towards the brim is more brilliant in some than in others, in its double state, it is well known to Gardeners, by the name of Butter and Egg Narcissus, and of this there are two varieties, both of which produce large shewy flowers, the one with colours similar to what we have above described, which is the most common, the other with petals of a pale sulphur colour, almost white, and the nectary bright orange, this, which is one of the most ornamental of the whole tribe, is named in the Dutch catalogues, the Orange Ph .....

Hyacinthus Racemosus
122. The Hyacinthus racemosus and botryoides are both cultivated in gardens, but the former here figured is by far the most common, racemosus and botryoides, though different words, are expressive of the same meaning, the former being derived from the Latin term racemus, the latter from the Greek one ??????, both of which signify a bunch of grapes, the form of which the inflorescence of these plants somewhat resembles, and hence they have both been called Grape Hyacinths, but as confusion thereby arises, we have thought it better to call this species the Starch Hyacinth, the smell of the flower in the general opinion resembling that substance, and leave the name of Grape Hyacinth for the botryoides.The Hyacinthus racemosus grows wild in the corn fields of Germany, in which it increases so fast by offsets from the root as to prove a very troublesome weed, and on this account it must be cautiously introduced into gardens.It flowers in April and May.We have found the Nurserymen very apt to mistake it for the botryoides, a figure of which it is our intention to give in some future number. .....
Anemone Hortensis
123. We are more and more convinced, that in our eagerness, for novelties, we daily lose plants by far more ornamental than the new ones we introduce, the present, a most charming spring plant, with which the Gardens abounded in the time of Parkinson, is now a great rarity, its blossoms, which are uncommonly brilliant, come forth in April, and, like those of many other plants, appear to advantage only when the sun shines.It may be propagated either by seeds, or by parting its roots in Autumn, in the former way we may obtain many beautiful varieties.It prefers a light loamy soil and moderately exposed situation.Roots of a variety of this plant with scarlet double flowers are imported from Holland, under the name, of Anemonoides, and sold at a high price. .....
Iberis Gibraltarica
124. The flowers of this plant, a native of Gibraltar, bear some resemblance to those of the Common Candy Tuft, but when they blow in perfection, they are usually twice as large, hence they are highly ornamental in the green house, which early in the Spring, the time of their coming forth, stands in need of some such shewy flowers.This plant is easily raised from cuttings, and easily preserved, it may be kept through the Winter in a common hot bed frame, and in mild Winters will stand abroad, especially if sheltered amongst rock work, its greatest enemy is moisture in the Winter season, this often proves fatal to it, as indeed a long continued damp atmosphere does to many others, the Nurserymen about London complain of losing more plants the last mild Winter, from this cause, than they generally do from severe frosts. In a little green house which I had in my late garden, Lambeth Marsh, most of the plants became absolutely mouldy, in such seasons then, though in point of cold the plants may not require it, we must dissipate the superfluous moisture by a gentle heat. .....
Alstr
125. This plant receives its generic name from Claudius Alstr .....
Alyssum Deltoideum
126. Plants which flower early, and continue a long while in bloom, are deservedly preferred, more especially by those who content themselves with a partial collection, of that number is the present species of Alyssum, which begins to flower in March, and continues to blossom through April, May, and June, and, if favourably situated, during most of the summer.It is properly a rock plant, being hardy, forming with very little care a neat tuft of flowers, and not apt to encroach on its neighbours.May be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, or by cuttings.Is a native of the Levant, according to Mr. Aiton, and cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1739, but omitted in the 6th 4to. edition of his Dictionary has usually been considered by the Nurserymen about London as the hyperboreum. .....
Ixia Flexuosa
127. The Ixias are a numerous tribe, chiefly natives of the Cape, and in general remarkable either for their delicacy, or brilliant colours.The one here figured appears to be a variety of the flexuosa with a purple eye, its blossoms are fragrant, and come forth in April or May.All the sorts multiply very fast by offsets, so that when once obtained, there will be no occasion to raise them from seeds for the roots put out offsets in great plenty, most of which will flower the following season, whereas those from seeds are three or four years before they flower. These plants will not thrive through the winter in the full ground in England, so must be planted in pots, and placed under a frame in winter, where they may be protected from frost, but in mild weather should enjoy the free air, but they must be guarded from mice, who are very fond of these roots, and if not prevented will devour them. Millers Gard. Dict. .....
Scilla Campanulata
128. There are few old gardens which do not abound with this plant, it bears great affinity to our Hare bell, with which it appears to have been confounded by most Botanists. Parkinson thus discriminates it This Spanish bell flowred Jacinth is very like the former English or Spanish Jacinth, but greater in all parts, as well of leaves as flowers, many growing together at the toppe of the stalke, with many short greene leaves among them, hanging doune their heads with larger, greater, and wider open mouths, like unto bels of a darke blew colour, and no good sent. Park. Parad.Though not remarkable for the fineness of its colours, or pleasing from its fragrance, it contributes with other bulbous plants to decorate the flower border or plantation in the spring, when flowers are most wanted.It is very hardy, and increases abundantly by offsets, its seeds also ripen well. .....
Amaryllis Vittata
129. Linnaeus, the Son, took much pains in new modelling the generic and specific characters of this genus, as may be seen in the Hort. Kew Mons. LHeritier, when in England a few years since, saw this species, described and named it Vittata.Of what country it is a native is not known with certainty, most probably of the Cape, was first introduced into England by Mr. Malcolm.Our figure was drawn from a fine specimen which flowered this spring with Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington.It usually flowers in April or May, but may be forwarded by artificial heat.It rarely puts forth offsets from the root, but readily produces seeds, by which it is propagated without difficulty.When it blossoms in perfection it truly deserves the name of superb, which Mr. Aiton has given it, the stem rising to the height of three feet or more, and producing from two to five flowers. .....
Alyssum Utriculatum
130. A native of the Levant, and cultivated by Mr. Miller in the year 1739.
Is a hardy and beautiful perennial, flowering from April to June, at which time it begins to form its curiously inflated pods.
Like the Alyssum deltoideum, it is well adapted to the decorating of walls, or rock work, and is readily propagated either by seeds or slips. .....
Catesbaea Spinosa
131. Of this genus there is only one species described by authors, and which Linnaeus has named in honour of our countryman Mark Catesby, Author of the Natural History of Carolina.This shrub was discovered by Mr. Catesby, near Nassau town, in the Island of Providence, where he saw two of them growing, which were all he ever saw, from these he gathered the seeds and brought them to England.It is propagated by seeds, which must be procured from the country where it naturally grows. If the entire fruit are brought over in sand, the seeds will be better preserved, the seeds must be sown in small pots filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot bed of Tanners bark. If the seeds are good, the plants will appear in about six weeks, these plants make little progress for four or five years. If the nights should prove cold the glasses must be covered with mats every evening. As these plants grow slowly, so they will not require to be removed out of the seed pots the first year, but in the Autumn the pots should be removed into the stove, and plunged into the tan bed, in spring the plants should be carefully taken up, and each planted in a separate small pot, filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a fresh hot bed of Tanners bark. In Summer when the weather is warm, they should have a good share of air admitted to them, but in Autumn must be removed into the stove, where they should constantly remain, and must be treated afterwards in the same manner as other tender exotic plants. Millers Dict.It is more usual with Nurserymen to increase this plant by cuttings.Our drawing was made from a plant which flowered this Spring, with Mr. Colvill, Nurseryman, Kings Road, Chelsea.It flowers most part of the Summer, but not so freely as many other stove plants. .....
Rubus Arcticus
132. The Rubus arcticus grows wild in the northern parts of Europe and America, in moist, sandy, and gravelly places. Linnaeus has figured and minutely described it in his Flora Lapponica, out of gratitude, as he expresses himself, for the benefits reaped from it in his Lapland journey, by the nectareous wine of whose berries he was so often recruited when sinking with hunger and fatigue, he observes that the principal people in the north of Sweden make a syrup, a jelly, and a wine, from the berries, which they partly consume themselves, and partly transmit to Stockholm, as a dainty of the most delicious kind, and truly he adds, of all the wild Swedish berries this holds the first place.Our figure does not correspond altogether with Linnaeuss description, but it is drawn as the plant grew, culture doubtless made it produce more than its usual number of flowering stems and petals.It grows readily and increases rapidly in bog earth, on a north border, and flowers in May and June, but very rarely ripens its fruit in Gardens. .....
Hyacinthus Comosus
133. Most of the old Botanists arranged this plant, the racemosus, and others having almost globular flowers with the Hyacinths. Tournefort, struck with the difference of their appearance, made a distinct genus of them under the name of Muscari, in which he is followed by Miller, and should have been by Linnaeus, for they differ so much that no student would consider the present plant as belonging to the same genus with the Hare bell.This species grows wild in the corn fields of Spain, Portugal, and some parts of Germany, and flowers in May and June.It is distinguished more by its singularity than beauty, the flowers on the summit of the stalk differing widely in colour from the others, and being mostly barren Parkinson says, the whole stalke with the flowers upon it, doth somewhat resemble a long Purse tassell, and thereupon divers Gentlewomen have so named it.It is a hardy bulbous plant, growing readily in most soils and situations, and usually propagated by offsets. .....
Adonis Vernalis
134. Of this plant Linnaeus makes two species, viz. the vernalis and appennina, differing in their specific character merely in the number of their petals, which are found to vary from situation and culture, as the first name taken from its time of flowering is the most expressive, we have followed Mr. Miller and Mr. Aiton in adopting it.It is an old inhabitant of the English gardens, and a most desirable one, as it flowers in the spring, produces fine shewy blossoms, which expand wide when exposed to the sun, is hardy and readily cultivated.Grows wild on the mountainous pastures of some parts of Germany.It may be increased by parting its roots in Autumn or Spring, or by seed. Miller recommends the latter mode. .....
Gladiolus Cardinalis
135. This new species of Gladiolus, of whose magnificence our figure can exhibit but an imperfect idea, was introduced into this country from Holland, a few years since, by Mr. Graffer, at present Gardener to the King of Naples, and first flowered with Messrs. Lewis and Mackie, Nurserymen, at Kingsland, a very strong plant of it flowered also this summer at Messrs. Grimwoods and Co. which divided at top into three branches, from one of which our figure was drawn.It obviously differs from the other more tender plants of this genus, in the colour of its flowers, which are of a fine scarlet, with large white somewhat rhomboidal spots, on several of the lowermost divisions of the Corolla, strong plants will throw up a stem three or four feet high.It is most probably a native of the Cape, flowers with us in July and August, and is increased by offsets from the bulbs, must be treated like the Ixias and other similar Cape plants. .....
Pelargonium Tetragonum
136. A vein of singularity runs through the whole of this plant, its stalks are unequally and obtusely quadrangular, sometimes more evidently triangular, its leaves few, and remarkably small, its flowers, on the contrary, are uncommonly large, and what is more extraordinary have only four petals, previous to their expansion they exhibit also an appearance somewhat outr .....
Hypericum Balearicum
137. Is according to Linnaeus a native of Majorca, Miller says that it grows naturally in the Island of Minorca, from whence the seeds were sent to England by Mr. Salvador, an Apothecary at Barcelona, in the year 1718.The stalks of this species are usually of a bright red colour, and covered with little warts, the leaves are small with many depressions on their upper sides like scars, the flowers are not always solitary, but frequently form a kind of Corymbus.It is a hardy green house plant, and readily propagated by cuttings.It flowers during most of the Summer.Clusius informs us in his Hist. pl. rar. p. 68. that he received from Thomas Penny, a Physician of London, in the year 1580, a figure of this elegant plant, and who the next year shewed a dried specimen of the same in London, which had been gathered in the Island of Majorca, and named by him ????? ?????, or Myrtle Cistus[2] it appears therefore that this plant has long been known, if not cultivated in this country.We may remark that Clusiuss figure of this plant is not equally expressive with many of his others. .....
Kalmia Hirsuta
138. This new species of Kalmia which we have called hirsuta, the stalk, leaves, and calyx, being covered with strong hairs, was imported from Carolina in the Spring of 1790, by Mr. Watson, Nurseryman at Islington, with whom several plants of it flowered this present Autumn, about the middle of September, from one of which our drawing was made.

The plants were brought over with their roots enclosed in balls of the earth in which they naturally grew, which on being examined appeared of a blackish colour, and full of glittering particles of sand, similar indeed to the bog earth which we find on our moors and heaths, there is therefore little doubt (for no account accompanied the plants) but this Kalmia grows on moorish heaths, or in swamps.

In its general appearance it bears some resemblance to the Andromeda Dab .....

Alstrimeria Pelegrina
139. Father Feuillee figures and describes three species of Alstr .....
Lupinus Luteus
140. The present, with many other species of Lupine, is very generally cultivated in flower gardens, for the sake of variety, being usually sown in the spring with other annuals, where the flower borders are spacious, they may with propriety be admitted, but as they take up much room, and as their blossoms are of short duration, they are not so desirable as many other plants.It is a native of Sicily, and flowers in June and July.We have often thought that the management of the kitchen garden, in point of succession of crops, might be advantageously transplanted to the flower garden, in the former, care is taken to have a regular succession of the annual delicacies of the table, while in the latter, a single sowing in the spring is thought to be all sufficient, hence the flower garden, which in August, September, and part of October, might be covered with a profusion of bloom, exhibits little more than the decayed stems of departed annuals. .....
Heliotropium Peruvianum
141. This plant recommends itself by its fragrance rather than its beauty, so delicious indeed is the odour it diffuses, that it is considered as essential to every green house and stove.It grows naturally in Peru, from whence the seeds were sent by the younger Jussieu to the royal garden at Paris, where the plants produced flowers and seeds, and from the curious garden of the Duke dAyen, at St. Germains, I was supplied with some of the seeds, which have succeeded, in the Chelsea garden, where the plants have flowered and perfected their seeds for some years. Millers Gard. Dict.You may consider it either as a stove or a green house plant, the former is more congenial to it in the winter season.A pure atmosphere is essential to its existence, as I experienced at Lambeth Marsh, where I in vain endeavoured to cultivate it.It is propagated by cuttings as easily as any Geranium, and requires a similar treatment, in hot weather it must be well supplied with water, and in winter carefully guarded against frost, so fatal to most of the natives of Peru. .....
Scorzonera Tingitana
142. I am indebted for seeds of this plant to my very worthy and liberal friend Nich. Gwyn, M. D. of Ipswich, to whose penetrating genius, and learned researches, Botany owes much.As its name implies, it is a native of the province of Tangier, on the Barbary coast, appears to have been cultivated here, according to the Hort. Kew. in 1713, but is not mentioned in the 6th 4to. edit. of Millers Dictionary.It may be considered as forming a valuable addition to our stock of annuals, being a beautiful plant, and easily cultivated it thrives best on a moderately dry soil, warmly situated should be sown in the spring with other annuals.I have observed, that in the middle of summer, a hot unclouded sun, which is favourable to the expansion of most of the flowers of this class, is too powerful for those of the present plant, which then appear to the greatest advantage in warm hazy weather. .....
Pelargonium Glutinosum
143. The leaves of this species exhibit, on being touched, a manifest viscidity, or clamminess, which, independent of their shape, serves to characterize the species, the middle of the leaf is also in general stained with purple, which adds considerably to its beauty, but this must be regarded rather as the mark of a variety, than of the species.With most of its congeners, it is a native of the Cape, and of modern date in this country, being introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Messrs. Kennedy and Lee, in the year 1777.It flowers from May to September, is readily propagated by cuttings, and sometimes raised from seeds, from whence several varieties have been produced. .....
Ferraria Undulata
144. The old Botanists appear to have been wonderfully at a loss to what family they should refer this very singular plant, as will appear on consulting the synonyms, Burman at length made a distinct genus of it, naming it Ferraria in honour of Joh. Baptista Ferrarius, by whom it was described, and very well figured, in his Flora feu de Florum Cultura, published at Amsterdam, in 1646.Mr. Miller informs us, that he received roots of this plant from Dr. Job Baster, F. R. S. of Zirkzee, who obtained it from the Cape, of which it is a native.In the vegetable line, it is certainly one of the most singular and beautiful of natures productions, much it is to be regretted that its flowers are of very short duration, opening in the morning and finally closing in the afternoon of the same day, a strong plant will, however, throw out many blossoms in succession.In its structure and .....
Monarda Fistulosa
145. The Monarda fistulosa, a hardy herbaceous plant, growing spontaneously in Canada, and other parts of North America, has long been cultivated in the English gardens, to which it recommends itself as much by the fragrance of its foliage, as the beauty of its flowers, of this species the plant here figured is an uncommonly beautiful variety, its blossoms far surpassing those of the original in size, as well as brilliancy of colour, the floral leaves also are highly coloured, we have represented a single blossom of the common Monarda fistulosa, that the difference of the two may be rendered obvious.This variety has been very lately introduced from Holland, by Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington, it flowers from June to September, and is propagated by parting its roots in spring or autumn. .....
Hypericum Calycinum
146. This species of St. Johns Wort, particularly distinguished by the largeness of its flowers, has very generally been considered as the Ascyron of Linn?us, owing to his giving to that plant the synonyms which properly belong to the present one in his Mantissa, this species is called calycinum, which name is adopted in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, and also in the Hortus Kewensis, where the proper synonyms are applied to it, and from which we learn, that it is a native of the country near Constantinople, and was introduced into this country by Sir George Wheler, Bart. in 1676.It is a hardy perennial, increasing much by its roots, which are of the creeping kind, and by parting of which in the autumn it is most readily propagated, like the periwinkle, it is a plant well adapted to cover a bank, or bare, spots under trees, where other plants will not thrive.It flowers from July to September. .....
Dais Cotinifolia
147. The Dais cotinifolia is an ornamental Green house Shrub, of the deciduous kind, and though it appears from the Hortus Kewensis to have been introduced by Mr. James Gordon, of Mile End, in 1776, is yet a great rarity with us, and only to be found in some of the first collections.Its scarcity, and consequent very high price, is attributed to the Nursery mens not having yet discovered the means of propagating it freely.Messrs. Grimwood and Co. of Kensington, have some very fine plants of it, which flower every year in the months of June and July, but as yet have produced no perfect seeds, which they may be expected to do when grown older, such having been known to ripen them in Holland.It is a native of the Cape, and appears to have been long possessed by the Dutch, as its Generic Character taken from D. V. Royen, is printed in the Genera Plantarum of Linn?us in 1764.There are only two known species, and they vary in the number of their Stamina, and divisions of the Corolla. .....
Pelargonium Betulinum
148. Though long since described, we have been in possession of this species of Cranes Bill but a few years, it is one of the many new ones introduced by Mr. Masson from the Cape, and at the same time one of the most desirable, as its blossoms which are ornamental, are freely produced during most of the summer, and the plant itself is readily propagated by cuttings.The flowers vary considerably, both in size, and colour, its foliage is different from that of most others, and, as its name imports, like that of the Birch Tree.It requires the same treatment as most other Green House Plants. .....
Zinnia Multiflora
149. The Zinnia, multiflora, a native of Louisania, is a plant of more modern introduction, but requires the same treatment, and flowers at the same time, as the Tagetes patula, with which, though far inferior in brilliancy of colour, it contributes to decorate the borders of the flower garden from June to September.There is a variety of it with yellow flowers, nearly as common in our gardens as the present plant.Linn?us gave to this genus the name of Zinnia, in honour of Joh. Gottfr. Zinn, the pupil of Haller, and his successor at the University of Gottingen.The plant we have figured, answers to the name and to the specific description of Linn?uss multiflora, having never seen his pauciflora, we cannot say whether there be any just cause for suspecting them to be varieties of each other. .....
Tagetes Patula
150. For richness and variety of tints few flowers can vie with this species of Tagetes, which forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens at the close of summer.Some authors make it a native of Africa, others of America.Two principal varieties are usually kept in the gardens, the common small sort with a strong disagreeable smell, and a larger one here figured, usually called sweet scented, the former is of more humble growth, its branches more spreading, its blossoms smaller than those of the latter, the flowers of which have usually a greater portion of the yellow tint, and the smell of the other so modified as to be far less disagreeable, sweet scented we fear it can scarcely be called from the seed of both sorts some flowers will be produced extremely double, and others single.Miller recommends the seed to be frequently changed, to prevent them from degenerating.It is one of our tender annuals which require to be raised on a gentle hot bed, if we are desirous of having them early, if that be not an object, they may be sown under a common hand glass on a warm border the beginning of May, and, when large enough, planted out in the flower beds, where they are to remain.Dodon?us observes, that the leaves, if held up to the light, appear as if perforated, and he adduces some instances, which prove the plant to be of a poisonous nature. .....
Lotus Tetragonolobus
151. A common annual in our gardens, where it has been long cultivated, is a native of Sicily, and flowers in the open borders in July and August, requires the same management as other hardy annuals.Miller observes, that it was formerly cultivated as an esculent plant, the green pods being dressed and eaten as peas. .....
Epidendrum Cochleatum
152. Plants which draw their support from other living ones, of which there are numerous instances, are by Botanists termed parasitical, and of this kind are most of the present family, deriving their generic name, which is of Greek extraction, from growing on trees, into the bark of which they fix their roots, some of them are also found to grow on dead wood, as the present plant, which is described by Sir Hans Sloane, in his history of Jamaica, V. 1. p. 250. t. 121. f. 2. as not only growing plentifully on trees, but also on the palisadoes of St. Jago de la Vega.Instances of these plants flowering in England are very rare, Commodore Gardner, in the year 1789, presented to the Apothecaries company some roots of this plant, taken up in the woods of Jamaica with great care, and which being successfully treated by Mr. Fairbairn in their garden at Chelsea, one of them threw up a flowering stem last February, from whence our drawing was made.Mr. Fairbairn planted the roots in pots of earth, composed of rotten wood and decayed leaves, plunging them into the tan bed of a pit of considerable size.In its fructification, the Epidendrum obviously agrees with the Orchis tribe, but differs essentially in the .....
Bulbocodium Vernum
153. The excellent and learned Clusius, in the second appendix to his history of rare plants, gives a very good figure of this plant, both in flower and seed, accompanied with its history, our Parkinson also represents it in his Parad. terr. and gives such a minute description of it, as convinces us he must have cultivated it at the time he wrote Mr. Miller appears not to have been well acquainted with it, or he would not have described its root to be like that of the Snowdrop, had he said Colchicum, he would not have misled Retzius also in his Bot. Obs. gives a figure of it with the flower dissected.The Bulbocodium, of which there is only one species, is a mountainous plant, a native of Spain, and flowers in the open ground at the same time as the Crocus, for a purple variety of which it might easily be mistaken at first sight, but it differs from the Crocus in having six stamina, and from the Colchicum, to which it is very nearly allied, in having one style instead of three.It is at present a rare plant in our gardens, which we attribute to its bulbs not admitting of much increase, as well as to its being liable to be killed by frost, and hence requiring more care than it may be thought entitled to from its appearance.It varies in the colour of its flowers. .....
Saponaria Ocymoides
154. The Saponaria Ocymoides has been figured in the appendix to the fifth volume of the Flora Austriaca in its wild state, as in similar works every plant is expected to be, our figure represents a branch of it only, taken (as all ours in this work professedly are) from a garden specimen which grew on a wall of a particular construction in our garden at Brompton, and of which it was the principal ornament through the months of May, June, and July, during most of which time it was covered with a profusion of bloom.Though it produces blossoms in abundance, it affords but little seed, but may be increased by slips or cuttings.It is a hardy perennial, a native of France, Italy, Switzerland, and Carinthia, loves a pure air and a dry situation, grows best among rocks, stones, or out of a wall, and certainly is one of the best plants imaginable for ornamenting of rock work.I received seeds of it, and many other rare plants, from my very kind friend Mr. Daval, of Orbe, in Switzerland. .....
Oxalis Versicolor
155. The Oxalis versicolor is considered as one of the most beautiful of the many species cultivated in gardens, and, though well known to, and described by several of the older Botanists, has graced our collections but a few years, being introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew, from the Cape (where, as well as in Ethiopia, it grows spontaneously) by Mr. Masson, in the Year 1774.Many of this genus flower early in the spring, the season in which this species also puts forth its blossoms, but by dexterous management it may be made to flower during most of the year, and this is effected by placing the pea like tubera or knobs which the root sends forth, and by which the plant is propagated, in pots filled with loam and bog earth at stated distant periods.Like most of the Cape plants, it is well adapted to the greenhouse, and succeeds best when placed on a front shelf of the house, where it can have plenty of light and air, some keep it in the stove, but there the plant is drawn up, and the flowers lose a part of their brilliancy in no situation do they ever expand but when the sun shines on them, this is the less to be regretted, as they are most beautiful when closed. .....
Coreopsis Verticillata
156. The Coreopsis verticillata is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, a native of North America, producing its blossoms, which are uncommonly shewy, from July to October, and is readily propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.It grows to a great height, and is therefore rather adapted to the shrubbery than the flower garden.Clayton remarks, that the petals, though of a yellow colour, are used by the inhabitants to dye cloth red. .....
Hyacinthus Botryoides
157. The Hyacinthus botryoides, a native of Italy, and cultivated in the time of Gerard and Parkinson, is now become scarce with us, being only to be accidentally met with in long established gardens, we first saw it in the garden of our very worthy and much valued friend, Mr. John Chorley, of Tottenham, to whose lady my collection stands indebted for several rare and valuable plants.This species increases sufficiently fast by offsets, but in the open border does not very readily produce flowering stems as both it and the racemosus are apt to become troublesome in a garden from their great increase, we would recommend their bulbs to be placed in moderately sized pots filled with light earth, and plunged in the borders where they are designed to flower, in the autumn they should be regularly taken out, the offsets thrown away, and about half a dozen of the largest bulbs left, all of which will most probably flower at the usual time, the end of March or beginning of April.Parkinson, who most admirably describes this and the racemosus, enumerates three varieties, viz. the white, the blush coloured, and the branched, the first is frequently imported with other bulbs from Holland, the second and third we have not seen, the latter, if we may judge from Parkinsons fig. in his Parad. is a most curious plant, and was obtained, as Clusius reports, from seeds of the white variety, whether it now exists is deserving of inquiry.The botryoides differs from the racemosus, in having its leaves upright, its bunch of flowers smaller, the flowers themselves larger, rounder, of a paler and brighter blue. .....
Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis
158. Rumphius in his Herbarium Amboinense gives an excellent account of this beautiful native of the East Indies, accompanied by a representation of it with double flowers, in which state it is more particularly cultivated in all the gardens in India, as well as China, he informs us that it grows to the full size of our hazel, and that it varies with white flowers.The inhabitants of India, he observes, are extremely partial to whatever is red, they consider it as a colour which tends to exhilarate, and hence they not only cultivate this plant universally in their gardens, but use its flowers on all occasions of festivity, and even in their sepulchral rites he mentions also an .....
Alyssum Saxatile
159. As this plant has very generally obtained in gardens and nurseries the name of yellow Alyssum, we have retained it, for though it is not the only one of the genus which produces yellow flowers, it may still be called yellow by way of eminence, such is the extreme brilliancy and profusion of its blossoms.It is a native of Crete, and was first cultivated in this country by Mr. Miller, in 1731, at Chelsea garden.It begins to flower about the latter end of April, and continues to blossom through great part of May, and it is not uncommon for it to flower again in autumn.If it has a pure air and a dry situation, it will grow in almost any soil.The usual mode of propagating it is by slips, or cuttings. As it is a small, shewy, hardy plant, and not disposed to over run others, it is very suitable to embellish rock work. .....
Pulmonaria Virginica
160. Miller informs us in his Dictionary, that the Pulmonaria Virginica grows naturally upon mountains in most parts of North America, that the seeds were sent many years since by Mr. Banister, from Virginia, and some of the plants were raised in the garden of the Bishop of London, at Fulham, where for several years it was growing.Though a native of Virginia, it ranks with the hardy herbaceous plants of our gardens, and flowers in the open border about the middle of April, the blossoms before their expansion are of a reddish purple colour, when fully blown they become of a light bright blue, the foliage is glaucous, or blueish green, it is said to vary with white and flesh coloured flowers.In favourable seasons, the Flower Garden owes much of its gaiety to this elegant plant, and at a time when ornament is most desirable.It requires a pure air, and a situation moderately sheltered, as the cold easterly winds which too readily prevail in April, when it is in flower, are apt to deface it.It is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and is a free grower. .....
Amygdalus Nana
161. The Dwarf Almond, a native of Russia and Tartary, is justly considered as one of our most ornamental shrubs, it rarely rises above the height of three feet, and hence becomes very suitable for the shrubbery of small extent. It flowers about the middle of April, somewhat later than the common Almond.Miller observes, that the roots are apt to put out suckers, by which the plant may be increased in plenty, and if those are not annually taken away, they will starve the old plant.Cultivated in 1683, by Mr. James Sutherland. Ait. Hort. Kew. .....
Sanguinaria Canadensis
162. Though the Sanguinaria cannot be considered as a handsome shewy plant, yet we scarcely know its equal in point of delicacy and singularity, there is something in it to admire, from the time that its leaves emerge from the ground, and embosom the infant blossom, to their full expansion, and the ripening of its seed vessels.The woods of Canada, as well as of other parts of North America, produce this plant in abundance with us it flowers in the beginning of April its blossoms are fugacious, and fully expand only in fine warm weather. It is a hardy perennial, and is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn, a situation moderately shady, and a soil having a mixture of bog earth or rotten leaves in it suits it best.Its knobby roots, when broken asunder, pour forth a juice of a bright red or orange colour, whence its name of Sanguinaria with this liquid the Indians are said to paint themselves.Dillenius, has figured it in his admirable work, the Hortus Elthamensis, where three varieties of it are represented, viz. a large one, a small one, and one in which the petals are multiplied, but which can scarcely be called double.It appears from Morison, that the Sanguinaria was cultivated in this country in 1680, the date of his work. .....
Phlox Divaricata
163. Most of the plants of this genus are natives of North America, and remarkable for their beauty, they were first introduced under the name of Lychnidea, which, though a Latin term, is now familiarized to the English ear.Mr. Aiton has given to this species the name of early flowering, it coming much sooner into blossom than any of the others, beginning to flower in May with the yellow Alyssum, its blossoms, however, are not of so long duration, nor so ornamental as some others of the same family.It seldom exceeds a foot in height, and, on this account, may be regarded as a suitable rock plant.It rarely ripens its seeds with us, but is readily increased either by cuttings or layers, succeeds best in a pure air and a situation moderately dry.Like most other American plants, it is of modern introduction, was cultivated by Mr. Miller, in 1758, and figured in his Icones. .....
Ranunculus Gramineus
164. This species of Ranunculus, an inhabitant of the dry pastures South of France and Italy, and a hardy herbaceous plant of ready growth, recommends itself by the earliness of its flowering and the delicate glaucous colour of its foliage. Parkinson figures it with double flowers, though he describes it with semi double ones only, we have not observed either of these varieties in the gardens about London, they have most probably fallen victims to the rage for novelty, at the shrine of which many a fair and goodly flower is yearly sacrificed.It flowers towards the end of April, and is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.The synonyms of this and other species of Ranunculus described in Gerards Fl. Gallopr. are very inaccurately quoted in Professor Murrays edition of the Syst. Vegetab. .....
Pelargonium Cordifolium
165. Our readers are here presented with the figure of another Geranium of modern introduction, not enumerated by Linn?us or Miller, and which in point of beauty, duration of flowering, and facility of culture, is equal to most.
It was introduced to the Royal Garden, at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr. Masson, in 1774.
There are several varieties of it, but the one here figured is the most beautiful.
It strikes readily from cuttings, by which it is usually propagated.
Requires the same treatment as the more common Geraniums, and flowers, from March to July. .....
Cheiranthus Maritimus
166. Linn?us has described this plant minutely in his Mantissa Plant, so that no doubt remains of its being his maritimus.With us, it has been customary for Gardeners and Nurserymen to distinguish this species by the name of Virginia Stock, a name highly improper, as it is found to be a native of the Mediterranean coast.The blossoms which this plant first puts forth are of a lively red, in a few days they become of a blueish purple colour, to this variety of hues the plant owes its chief beauty.Being of humble growth, and producing a profusion of bloom, which is of long duration, it is frequently used as an edging to borders, and sometimes sown in little patches with other annuals, in whatever way used, it contributes greatly to enliven the borders of the flower garden.

It is one of those annuals whose seeds should be sown in the autumn, as it thereby comes much forwarder into bloom, and its blossoms are more lively than those arising from seeds sown in the spring, by varying the time of sowing, it may be had to flower in spring, summer, and autumn.Small pots of it in bloom have a pretty appearance, and may be used to decorate the windows of those who reside in cities or great towns, where the pleasures of the garden are not to be enjoyed. .....

Sophora Tetraptera
167. The magnificent and highly curious species of Sophora here represented, is one of the many plants discovered by Sir Joseph Banks at New Zealand, where it forms a tree of a considerable size.A finer sight can scarcely be imagined than a tree of this sort, extending to a great breadth on a wall with a western aspect, in the Apothecaries Garden at Chelsea, where it was planted by Mr. Forsyth about the year 1774, and which at this moment (April 28, 1791) is thickly covered with large pendulous branches of yellow, I had almost said golden flowers, for they have a peculiar richness, which it is impossible to represent in colouring, in the winter care is taken to cover it carefully with mats, least it should suffer from any extraordinarily severe weather.It usually produces a few seed vessels of an uncommon form, having four wings, whence its name of tetraptera, from some of the seeds which have ripened in this country plants have been raised, and by these the plant is found to be propagated with the most success, it may also be increased by cuttings and layers. .....
Iris Pavonia
168. We have our doubts whether the plant here figured be the pavonia of the Systema Vegetabilium, as it does not accord so well with the description there given, as we could wish, as such however it has been regarded by some here, and it must be allowed to answer extremely well to the name.It is a small delicate Iris, about a foot and a half high, with very narrow leaves, bearing on the top of the stalk one or at most two flowers, three of the petals are large and white, with a brilliant blue spot at the base of each, edged on the outer side with deep purple, the delicacy of the flower, and the eye like spot at the base of three of the petals, render at one of the most striking plants of the genus.The figure here given was drawn from a plant which flowered with Messrs. Grimwood and Co. last June, who received it from Holland, and treat it in the same way as their Cape bulbs, of which country it is said to be a native.It is not mentioned either in Mr. Millers Gardeners Dictionary, or the Hortus Kewensis. .....
Ixora Coccinea
169. It will appear strange, we presume, to most of our readers, when they are informed, that the Ixora coccinea, a plant at present in few hands, and which a short time since was sold in some of our nurseries for five guineas, should have been known in this country a hundred years ago, and yet Mr. Aiton, who has so laudably exerted himself, in ascertaining the precise period, when most of the exotics cultivated in the royal garden at Kew first made their appearance in Great Britain, informs us on very respectable authority, that this plant was introduced by Mr. Bentick in 1690.There is every reason to suppose, that this splendid exotic did not long survive its introduction, on inquiry, we learn that it was reintroduced about fifteen years ago, by the late Dr. John Fothergill, a name, to medicine and botany ever dear, in whose rich and magnificent collection at Upton was first known to flower, about the same time, the late Mr. Thoburn, Nurseryman at Brompton, raised a few Ixoras from foreign seeds, and from these (an accident having happened to the plant which was Dr. Fothergills) are said to have arisen the plants at present in this country.

Both Rheede and Rumphius describe and figure this plant in their respective works, the Hortus Malabaricus and Herbarium Amboinense, it is mentioned also by several other authors from their various accounts we discover, that in different parts of India, where it grows wild, it forms a slender shrub, or tree, about six feet high, rising generally with a single stem, that its clusters of flowers, seen from afar are so brilliant as to resemble a burning coal, especially in a dark wood, whence its name of Flamma Sylvarum, that it grows in the woods, and flowers in September and October, producing a black fruit, the size of small cherries, on which the peacocks are supposed to feed, and from whence they have obtained the name of Cerasa Pavonina. The Chinese call it Santanhoa, with them it produces flowers and fruit the year through, and they hold the blossoms in such veneration, as to use them in the sacrifices they make to their idol Ixora, whence Linn?us has taken the name applied by him to this genus. The root is said to possess some acrimony, and to be made use of by the natives in curing the toothach.It is customary in this country, to treat the Ixora as a stove plant, perhaps it may be less tender than we are aware of, it flowers in July and August, but has not been known to produce fruit, is increased from cuttings, without much difficulty.Our drawing was taken from a small but very healthy plant in the stove of Mr. Whitley (late Thoburn and Whitley, Brompton).Linn?us describes, and some authors figure this plant with stipul?, which our plant had not, not being arrived at an age, perhaps, to produce them. .....

Draba Aizoides
170. The plant here figured, a native of the German Alps, is one of those whose beauty cannot be shewn in a small detached piece of it, to be admired, it must be seen in a tuft of some considerable size, which it is much disposed to form when growing among rock work, for which, like many other small Alpine plants, it is well suited, thus elevated above the surface of the ground, the various beauties of this humble race are more distinctly seen, and their curious structure more readily inspected.This species is the more to be esteemed, as it flowers very early in the spring, in March, and the beginning of Apri, and continues in blossom about six weeks.Linn?us originally confounded it with a similar plant, the Draba alpina, a mistake since rectified in his Mantissa Plant. p. 91. .....
Ixia Chinensis
171. In that elaborate and inestimable work, the Hortus Malabaricus, we have a good figure of the plant here exhibited, accompanied by a minute description, the author informs us that it grows spontaneously in India, attaining the height even of five or six feet, and affecting a sandy soil, the natives consider it as an antidote to poisons in general, and regard the bruised root as peculiarly efficacious in curing the bite of the serpent, called Cobra de Copella.We raised plants of it last year from seeds imparted to us by J. Ibbettson, Esq. of the Admiralty, this year, during the months of August and September, many of them have flowered, and capsules are forming which have every appearance of producing perfect seeds, the root of this plant is yellow, and tuberous like that of the Iris, the leaves also greatly resemble those of that tribe, it grows to the height of about three feet, and produces a considerable number of flowers in succession each of which is of short duration.The root and radical leaves as represented on the plate are much smaller than in plants which have been long established.Our plants stood in pots in the open ground through the winter of 1790 1 without injury, but it must be remembered, that the weather during that period was uncommonly mild, it will be safest therefore to consider it as a tender herbaceous plant.It differs so much in its fructification from many others of the genus, that Prof. Murray has considered it as a Mor?a, with which, in our humble opinion, it has scarcely any affinity. .....
Lamium Orvala
172. Few of the plants of this genus have been thought to possess sufficient beauty for the flower garden, the present one excepted, the magnificence of whose blossoms justly entitles it to rank with the more curious, if not the most beautiful of the vegetable tribes.Though not common in our gardens, it has long been introduced, having been cultivated and accurately described, though badly figured, by Parkinson in his Parad. terr.It grows spontaneously in the woods of Italy and Hungary, and flowers with us about the latter end of April, at which time, if cold winds prevail, it is apt to be injured, unless placed in a sheltered part of the garden.It may be propagated either by seeds, or by parting its roots in autumn, is a hardy plant and grows readily. .....
Aitonia Capensis
173. This genus, of which there is only one known species, has been named by the younger Linn?us, in honour of Mr. William Aiton, author of the Hortus Kewensis, and Botanic Gardener to his Majesty. The great length of time, Mr. Aiton has been engaged in the cultivation of plants, the immense numbers which have been the constant objects of his care through every period of their growth, joined to his superior discernment, give him a decided superiority in the prima facie knowledge of living plants over most Botanists the present day, his abilities in the other line of his profession, are displayed in the eulogies of all who have seen the royal collection at Kew, which he has the honour to superintend.The Aitonia is a native of the Cape, and was introduced by Mr. Masson, in the year 1774.It is a greenhouse shrub of slow growth, seldom exceeding three feet in height, producing, when of sufficient age, flowers and fruit through most of the year, the fruit is a large dry angular berry, of a fine red colour.Our drawing was made from a very fine plant, formerly Dr. Fothergills, now in the collection of Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington.It is only to be raised from seeds, which are sparingly produced in this country. .....
Buddlea Globosa
174. Mr. Adam Buddle, in honour of whom the present genus has been originally named by Dr. Houston, was an ingenious English Botanist, cotemporary with, and the friend of Petiver, his name is often mentioned in the Synopsis of Mr. Ray and his Hortus Siccus, or dried collection of British plants, preserved in the British Museum, still resorted to in doubtful cases.The present species not enumerated either by Linn?us or Miller, is a native of Chili, and according to the Hort. Kew. was introduced by Messrs. Kennedy and Lee, in 1774.It has been customary, in consideration of its native place of growth, to treat it here as a greenhouse plant, for which situation it soon becomes unfit from its magnitude, some have ventured to plant it in the open borders in warm sheltered situations, where it has been found to succeed very well, producing its beautiful yellow blossoms in abundance, care must be taken, however, to guard it carefully from severe frosts, which are apt to destroy it.It flowers in May and June, and is usually propagated by cuttings or layers. .....
Kalmia Latifolia
175. Professor Kalm (in honour of whom Linn?us, as before has been observed, named this genus of plants) in his travels into North America, published in English by Mr. Forster, relates that he found this species in various provinces of that extensive continent, as Pensylvania, New Jersey, and New York, growing most commonly on the sides of hills, sometimes in woods, that it flourished most on the northern sides of the hills, especially where they were intersected by rivulets, he observes, that when all the other trees had lost their ornaments, this enlivened the woods by the verdure of its foliage, and that about the month of May, it was covered with a profusion of blossoms of unrivalled beauty. .....
Cytisus Laburnum
176. Of the Laburnum, our nurseries afford two principal varieties, the broad and narrow leavd, the latter (which is the one here figured) Mr. Miller was induced to make a species of under the name of alpinum, it certainly differs very materially from the broad leavd one, yet is most probably only a seminal variety, the Laburnum figured in its wild state by Professor Jacquin, in his Flora Austriaca, has much broader leaves than ours, no mention is made by him of its being subject to vary.Both Miller and Hanbury recommend the Laburnum to be cultivated not only as an ornamental but as a timber tree, the wood having a very close grain, a good colour, and bearing a high polish,[6] they urge in its favour, that it is very hardy, a quick grower, and one that will thrive in almost any soil, the latter says, it will become a timber tree of more than a yard in girt whatever success may attend its cultivation for the more useful purposes, as a hardy, deciduous, ornamental tree, it has long been the pride of our shrubberies and plantations.It blossoms in May, and is usually very productive of seeds, by which it may be propagated most readily.Hares and rabbits being fond of its bark, do great damage to plantations of Laburnum, especially in severe weather, I remember somewhere to have read, that these animals will not touch a tree if soot has been placed about it, perhaps, a circle drawn round the base of the tree with the new coal tar, which has a powerful smell of long duration, might keep off these noxious animals.

The Professor does not mention the precise height which he had observed these trees to attain in North America, but it is evident that they acquire a considerable thickness, as the wood of the root as well as the body of the tree is manufactured into various utensils by the natives, and by the Indians into spoons in particular, whence it has obtained the name of the Spoon Tree.The leaves have been found to prove poisonous to kine, horses, and sheep, but the deer are observed to brouse on them with impunity.Peter Collinson, Esq. who was highly instrumental in enriching this country with the native plants of North America, is said to have introduced this elegant species about the year 1734.With us it succeeds best when planted with a northern aspect, well sheltered, in a soil composed of loam and bog earth, in a situation moderately moist, where the air is perfectly pure.Being with difficulty propagated by suckers or layers, it is most commonly raised from American seeds. .....

Kalmia Glauca
177. This species (much inferior in size to the latifolia, as it rarely exceeds two feet in height) is a native of Newfoundland, where it was discovered by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. and by him introduced to this country in the year 1767.It is of course not described by Mr. Miller, nor is it mentioned the in the 14th edition of Linn?uss Syst. Vegetab. by Professor Murray, in the Hort. Kew. of Mr. Aiton, it is both described and figured.It flowers in April and May, is propagated in the same manner and requires the same treatment as the latifolia. .....
Hypericum Coris
178. There is an elegance and neatness in most of this tribe, and none possess those qualities in a greater degree than the present species, which is a charming little evergreen, admirably adapted for the greenhouse, as it forms a pretty bulb, and flowers during most of the summer.It grows spontaneously in the South of Europe, and many parts of the Levant, Honorius Bellus, in his epistle Clusius (vid. Clus. op.) describes it as growing on the hilly parts of the island of Crete.Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, received it about four years since from the Crimea.It is propagated by cuttings. .....
Fumaria Glauca
179. The term sempervirens applied to this plant by Linn?us, originated in the description given of it by Cornutus, (vid. Syn.) the impropriety of calling an annual plant (for such it undoubtedly is with us, and must be in Canada, its native place of growth) an evergreen, has appeared to us too glaring to be continued, we have thought the promotion of the science required a change in the name, and have therefore altered it to that of glauca, as coinciding with the English name of glaucous, given it by Mr. Aiton in his Hortus Kewensis, for to the delicate, pleasing, glaucous hue of its foliage, it owes its beauty, as much as to the lively colours of its blossoms.It is a hardy annual, coming up spontaneously in the open border where it has once flowered and seeded, and sometimes reaching the height of two feet.It flowers from June to September.Mr. Aiton informs us of its having been cultivated by Mr. James Sutherland in the year 1683. Strange! that it should yet be a rarity in our gardens. .....
Azalea Nudiflora
180. Whether the variety of the Azalea nudiflora here figured, was originally introduced to this country by Mrs. Norman of Bromley in Kent, or Mr. Bewick of Clapham in Surrey (both celebrated for their collections of American plants) we cannot with certainty assert, true it is, the Azalea coccinea was little known here till the sale of Mr. Bewicks plant in 1722, a considerable number of these shrubs formed the choicest part of that collection, and sold at high prices, one of them produced twenty guineas prior to this period, Mr. Bewick had presented one of the same sort of shrubs to Mr. Thoburn, the fruits of whose skill and assiduous care in the cultivation of American plants are apparent in his late nursery at Brompton, now Mr. Whitleys, and from the produce of which plant our figure was taken.The original species, found abundantly in the more southern parts of North America, was introduced, according to Mr. Aitons account, by Peter Collinson, Esq. about the year 1724.

The brilliancy of colour and a happy combination of form, unite in rendering the variety here figured, one of the most beautiful plants in nature yet it wants the fragrance of some of the varieties of the viscosa.It flowers in June and continues in blossom about three weeks, requires a sheltered but not too shady a situation, more dry than moist, and a soil composed of loam and bog earth, or rotten leaves.The usual mode of propagating it is by layers, care must be taken not to remove the offspring too soon from the mother plant. .....

Colutea Frutescens
181. Of the several species of Colutea cultivated in our garden the one here figured, is distinguished by the brilliancy of its flowers, the largeness of its pods, and the downy appearance of the under side of its leaves.It appears from the Hortus Kewensis to have been cultivated by Mr. James Sutherland as long since as the year 1683 it was not however generally introduced to our gardens till the time of Miller, who figured it in his Icones, it was then understood to be an .....
Salvia Aurea
182. Such as are delighted with the singular rather than the beautiful appearances of plants, cannot fail of ranking the present species of sage among their favourites.It been called aurea, from the colour of its flowers, ferruginea would perhaps have been more expressive of them, when they first open indeed they are of a yellow colour, but they quickly and constantly become of the colour of rusty iron.The leaves are nearly round, and have a pleasing silvery hue a few of them only, and those chiefly at the extremities of the young shoots, are of the form described by Linn?us in his specific character of the plant, and hence Commelins description (vid. Syn.) is to be preferred, as leading us with more certainty to a knowledge of the plant, the colour of the leaves, the colour and unusual magnitude of the blossoms, are indisputably the most striking features of the species, and therefore to be resorted to for my own part, as a friend to the advancement of the science, rather than as the follower of that great man, I see no good reason why colour should not in many instances, especially where expressive characters are wanting, form a part of the specific character in plants, as well as in animals we are told indeed of its inconstancy. I would ask .....
Syringa Vulgaris
183. Few shrubs are better known in this country than the Lilac few more universally cultivated, there is scarcely a cottage it does not enliven, or a shrubbery it does not beautify.It has long had a place in our gardens, both Gerard and Parkinson describe two sorts, the blue and the white, to these another sort is added by more modern writers, superior in beauty to the original, as producing larger bunches of flowers, of a brighter hue, having more of the purple tint and hence called by some the purple Lilac, Miller considers the three as different species.The flowers of the Lilac possess a considerable degree of fragrance, but not of the most agreeable kind, our readers perhaps, will not be displeased to hear the opinion of old Gerard on this point, delivered in his own wordsThey have a pleasant sweete smell, but in my judgement they are too sweete, troubling and molesting the head in very strange manner I once gathered the flowers, and laid them in my chamber window, which smelled more strongly after they had lien together a few howers, with such a ponticke and unacquainted savor, that they awaked me from sleepe, so that I could not take any rest until I had cast them out of my chamber.Though a native of Persia, it bears our severest winters without injury, has a pleasing appearance when in bud, flowers in May, and is readily propagated by suckers, but finer plants, in the opinion of Miller, are raised from seeds.It will grow in almost any soil or situation, even in London, but, to flower well, it must have a pure air. .....
Ixia Crocata
184. To the Cape of Good Hope, that never failing source of rare and beautiful plants, we are indebted for most of our Ixias, and among others for the present species, which though not of that value, nor possessing the delicacy or fragrance of the blossoms of some others, is a very desirable plant, not only as an object of curiosity, from the transparency of the base of the corolla, but as it adds much to the brilliancy of a collection, is easily obtained, and as easily propagated.It flowers in May and June, but its flowering may be prolonged by putting its bulbs into pots at different periods, or accelerated by artificial heat.It produces offsets more plentifully than many of the genus.Mr. Aiton informs us that it was cultivated by Mr. Miller in 1758, who figures it in his Icones. .....
Coronilla Valentina
185. The Coronilla valentina comes very near to the glauca already figured in this work, but may be distinguished by a little attention, the valentina has smaller leaves, which are more numerous, and more truly glaucous, the stipul?, which in the glauca are small, narrow, and pointed, in the valentina are large, and almost round, and in the young plant are strikingly conspicuous, as the plant comes into flower, they drop off, the valentina is not so much disposed to flower the year through as the glauca, but produces its blossoms chiefly in May, June, and July, the flowers of the glauca are observed to smell more strongly in the day time, those of the valentina at all times diffuse a very powerful odour, so as even to scent a small greenhouse, we have often been amused with hearing the different opinions entertained of this smell, some speaking of it in terms of rapture, others ready to faint when they approach it the flowers of the valentina are more disposed to produce seed vessels than those of the glauca, the seeds of which usually ripen well, and afford the means of increasing the plant most readily. To have a succession of small handsome bushy plants for the greenhouse, the old ones must either be frequently cut down, or young ones raised from seed, or cuttings, the stems as they grow up becoming naked at bottom.It is a hardy greenhouse plant, and may be kept well enough through the winter in a common hot bed frame, or planted against a south wall, and matted as myrtles usually are in such situations, we have known the glauca, treated in prove a charming ornament.It is a native of Spain, growing, as Clusius informs us, by road sides, in sandy places, and on the declivities of hills.Cultivated here in 1656, by J. Tradescant, jun. H. K. .....
Selago Ovata
186. Linn?us in his Mantissa has somewhat largely described this plant under the name of Lippia ovata, evidently from a dried specimen, which may account for the flowers being described of a dark violet colour, he recommends it to such as might have an opportunity of seeing the living plant, to observe if it was not referable to some other genus, accordingly Mons. LHeritier, who, when lately in England, saw it in the royal garden at Kew, joined it to the genus Selago, retaining the trivial name of ovata, bract?ata would perhaps have been a better name, for though its ovate inflorescence may be peculiar to the species, its bracte? or floral leaves are so very singular that they constitute the most prominent feature of the plant.Mr. Aiton informs us, that it was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr. Masson, in 1774.

It recommends itself not so much on account of its beauty, curious structure of its flowering spikes, and the fragrance of its blossoms.It is a greenhouse plant, and flowers during most of the summer, its blossoms are white with a yellow spot on the two uppermost, and sometimes on all the segments of the corolla, and an orange spot at the mouth of the tube.Is propagated by cuttings. .....

Iris Sambucina
187. This species of Iris, said to be a native of the South of Europe, derives its name from the smell of its flowers, which very much resembles that of elder in bloom.It is one of the tallest and handsomest of the genus, in a rich moist soil acquiring the height of three feet or more, it is therefore more proper for the shrubbery than the flower garden.It flowers about the latter end of May, and is readily increased by parting its roots in autumn.The Iris of Parkinson, referred to in the synonyms, accords so exactly with our plant, in every circumstance but smell, which is not mentioned, that we have no doubt but it was cultivated in our gardens in his time. .....
Convolvulus Nil
188. All our writers on exotic botany treat of this plant, Gerard, one of the first, gives us the following account This beautiful Bindweed, which we call Convolvulus C?ruleus, is called of the Arabians Nil of Serapio, Hab al nil, about Alepo and Tripolis in Syria, the inhabitants call it Hasmisen, the Italians Campana azurea, of the beautifull azured flowers and also Fior de notte, bicause his beautie appeereth most in the night he informs us, that it grew in his garden, but perished before it ripened its seeds. Parkinson says, it thrives remarkably well in our country, if the year be any thing kindly Miller informs us, that it is a native of Africa and America, extols it as one of the most beautiful of the genus, observes, that it is a very distinct species from the purpurea, of which it has been considered by some as a variety, that it will grow to the height of eight or ten feet, that in favourable seasons the seeds will ripen in the open air, and that it requires the same treatment as other annuals usually raised on a hot bed. Mr. Aiton considers it as a stove plant, as indeed most of our tender annuals properly are.It flowers from July to September.Though apparently common in our gardens formerly, it is now very rarely met with. .....
Erica Grandiflora
189. The Erica here figured, is one of the many new and beautiful species, which within these few years have been sent from the Cape by Mr. Masson, and which have contributed so greatly to enrich the royal garden at Kew.The description given of the grandiflora in the Suppl. Plant. accords so ill with our plant, that we should be led to consider it as another species, did not the respectable authority of the Hortus Kewensis silence all doubts on that head.The blossoms of this species, whether we regard their magnitude, their colour, their smooth and glossy surface, or the regular position of the filaments, projecting beyond the corolla, and closing together by the anther?, excite our notice, and claim our admiration.Like every other heath, the hardy ones excepted, it is a greenhouse plant, and flowers from May to July.Our drawing was made from a plant finely blown, in the collection of James Vere, Esq. Kensington Gore. .....
Ornithogalum Aureum
190. We have bestowed on this plant the name of aureum, from the colour of its blossoms, which are usually of a bright orange or gold colour, in some specimens we have observed them of a paler hue, and consequently less beautiful.This highly ornamental species is of modern introduction, having been received by Mess. Lee and Kennedy, a few years since from the Cape, of which it is a native.The root is a whitish bulb, resembling in size and shape that of the Lachenalia tricolor, figured on plate 82 of this work, from whence spring three or four smooth, somewhat fleshy, upright, dark green leaves, about half an inch wide, and three or four inches long, edged with white, and, if magnified, appearing fringed with very fine hairs or villi, the stalk is naked, from eight to twelve inches high, supporting many flowers, which spring from the al? of large, hollow, pointed bracte?, and which opening one after another, keep the plant a considerable time in flower, according to Linn?uss generic character, every other filament should be dilated at the base, in the present species each filament is so, or rather sits as it were on a white glandular nectary, emarginated on the inside, and highly deserving of notice.In the greenhouse, where this plant has hitherto been kept, its blossoms come forth as early as January and February, and continue for several months, they will long display their beauty, if the stem be cut off and put in a phial of water.It is propagated by offsets from its bulbs, and has the appearance of being a plant of kindly growth and easy management. .....
Primula Marginata
191. There is no difficulty in determining the British plants of this genus, but much in ascertaining many of the foreign ones Professor Jacquin has taken great pains to elucidate them in his Miscel. Austr. where fifteen are specifically described, none of which accord exactly with the plant here figured, which has every appearance of being a distinct species in the Hortus Kewensis it is described as the glutinosa of the Flora Austriaca, with which it agrees in many respects, but specimens sent from Vienna shew it to be a different plant, in its farinaceous tendency it accords with the Primula Auricula, but is very unlike that plant as it is figured in its wild state by Prof. Jacquin, in the Fl. Austr. the leaves being much narrower, the flowers larger, and of a different colour, it differs from glutinosa in the shortness of its involucrum, from villosa (already figured) in having leaves much narrower, perfectly smooth in respect to villi, and in the colour of its blossoms, which approach that of the Lilac, but more especially in its disposition to become mealy, particularly on the edges of its leaves, between the serratures, where it is so strong as to make the leaf appear with a white or silvery edge, as this character is constant to it, and not to any other species of Primula that we are acquainted with, we have given to it the name of marginata.

Mr. Lee received it from the Alps in the year 1781, and it has continued in our gardens ever since unaltered by culture. It is a very delicate pretty plant, with a pleasing musky smell, and flowers in March and April. To succeed in its cultivation, it should be placed in a pot of stiffish loam, mixed with one third rotten leaves, bog earth, or dung, and plunged in a north border, taking care that it does not suffer for want of water in dry seasons, thus treated, it increases by its roots nearly as readily as the Auricula, and may be propagated by parting its roots early in April or September. .....

Cypripedium Acaule
192. We have not figured the present species of Cypripedium so much on account of its beauty as of its rarity, for it is far less handsome than any of the other species that we are acquainted with.It is a native of different parts of North America, and flowers with us in May.There is little difficulty in distinguishing it from the other foreign species, it has rarely more than two radical leaves, a very short flowering stem compared with the others, a large nectary in proportion to its size, which in the specimens we have seen has been divided on its upper part, through its whole length, so as in fact to destroy in a great degree that shoe or slipper like form, from which this genus has taken its name.Like the rest of the family, it requires a little extraordinary care in its culture, its roots should be placed in a pot filled with loam and bog earth, or rotten leaves, well mixed, and plunged in a north border, where in severe seasons it will be proper to shelter it, if the whole border be formed of the same soil or compost the pot will be less necessary.Our drawing was made from a plant growing with Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington. .....
Narcissus Angustifolius
193. Under the name of poeticus three different species of Narcissus appearing perfectly distinct (though similar in many respects) and regarded as such by the old Botanists, have been confounded by the moderns, viz.
Narcissus albus circulo purpureo, v et vi.
Narcissus albus magno odoro flore circulo pallido,
Narcissus pallidus circulo luteo. C. Bauh.
Narcissus medio purpureus pr?cox,
Narcissus medio purpureus serotinus,
Narcissus medio luteus vulgaris. Park Parad.
The first of these, the one here figured is evidently the poeticus of Linn?us, judging by the authors to whom he refers in the third edition of his Spec. Pl. which are indeed few in number, and confined chiefly to Bauh. Pin. Dodon?us, of the second, and third, he takes no notice.
The two former ones of these have the greatest affinity, inasmuch as they both produce for the most part only one flower, of a white colour, having a very short nectary, edged with orange, to both of these Linn?uss specific description is equally applicable, as well as the trivial name of poeticus, given them indiscriminately by several of the old Botanists, some regarding the first, some the second as the plant mentioned by Theocritus[2], Virgil[3], and Ovid[4], unfortunately both of them are found to grow in the same meadows, and have the same obvious appearances, it is therefore utterly impossible to say which of the two was the Narcissus of the poets, if we have the greatest difficulty in ascertaining what the plants were of the Botanists of those times, how are we to discover what the Poets meant, who with very few exceptions have been unpardonably inattentive to the appearances of nature. Since then the term poeticus is equally suitable to both, and as there cannot be two with the same name, we have thought it best to get rid of it altogether, and substitute others which tend in a certain degree to discriminate the several species, denominating the
1st. angustifolius.
2d. majalis.
3d. biflorus.
The angustifolius here figured is a native of the South of Europe, and said by Magnol and Clusius to grow spontaneously in the meadows about Narbonne and Montpelier.
It flowers in our gardens early in April, about a month before the biflorus, and full six weeks sooner than the majalis, increases readily by offsets, and succeeds best in a soil that is moderately moist. In what respects it differs from the two others, will be mentioned when they come to be figured. .....
Fritillaria Imperialis
194. The Crown Imperial, a native of the East, most probably of Persia, was introduced according to Dodon?us, into the gardens of the emperor and some of the nobility at Vienna in 1576, it appears to have been cultivated here as early as 1596 both Gerard and Parkinson describe it minutely, the latter on account of its stately beautifulness, gives it the first place in his garden of delight.It flowers usually in the beginning of April, the whole plant sends forth a strong unpleasant smell, compared by most writers to that of a fox, perceptible when you approach it, to this effluvia Parkinson endeavours to reconcile us by saying that it is not unwholesome, it is so disagreeable however, that few choose to have many of these plants, or those in the most frequented parts of their gardens, yet it ought not to be proscribed, for independent of its beauty, there is much in it to admire, and especially its singular Nectaria, which in the form of a white glandular excavation decorate the base of each petal, in these usually stands a drop of clear nectareous juice, the peduncle or flower stalk which bends downwards when the plant is in flower, becomes upright as the seed ripens.

Of this plant, as of all others which have long been objects of culture, there are many varieties, those most generally cultivated in our gardens are the common orange flowered single and double, yellow single and double, gold striped leaved, and silver striped leaved, the Dutch in their catalogues enumerate thirteen varieties.Luxuriant plants will sometimes produce a second and even a third whorl or crown of flowers, and the flat stalked ones which are monsters, have been known to produce seventy two blossoms, but none of these are found to be constant.The Crown Imperial, though a native of a much warmer climate than ours, is a hardy bulb, and not very nice in regard to soil, succeeds best in such as is stiffish, enriched with manure, and placed in a sheltered situation.Is propagated by offsets, which are produced in tolerable abundance. .....

Cheiranthus Mutabilis
195. The present species of Cheiranthus, unknown both to Miller and Linn?us, was first described in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, who informs us that it was introduced to the Royal Garden in 1777, and found wild in the Island of Madeira by Mr. Masson.Its chief merit as an ornamental plant consists in its early flowering, its blossoms which are shewy contribute to enliven the green house in March and April, on their first expanding, they are white, in some plants (for they are subject to great variation) inclined to yellow, in a few days they become purple, to this change of colour observable also in the Cheiranthus maritimus already figured, it owes its name of mutabilis.

In sheltered gardens at the foot of a wall, we have known this species survive a mild winter, it seems indeed to be almost as hardy as the common stock, it is most commonly however kept in the green house.The usual way of propagating this species, which is of ready and quick growth, is by cuttings, which should be put into the ground as soon as the plant has done flowering, these if properly treated will become handsome plants to place in the green house at the approach of Winter, and to decorate it the ensuing Spring, in like manner may the green house be annually recruited with many similar plants to great advantage. .....

Saxifraga Crassifolia
196. The term grandifolia would have been more applicable to this species of Saxifrage than crassifolia, for it is not so much distinguished for the thickness as the largeness of its leaves, these are almost equal in size to those of our broad leaved Dock, red on the under and of a fine shining green on their upper surface, they may be ranked indeed among the more handsome kinds of foliage, the flowering stems, according to the richness and moisture of the soil in which they are planted, rise from one to two or even three feet high, at top supporting a large bunch of purple pendulous flowers, which blossom in April and May, and, if the season prove favourable, make a fine appearance. Should cold winds prevail at the time of their flowering, which they are very apt to do, the plants should be covered with a hand glass, or, if in a pot, it may be removed into the green house, which they will not disgrace.

Is found spontaneously on the Alps of Siberia, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was introduced in 1765 by Dr. Solander. No plant is more readily increased by parting its roots, which may be done either in spring or autumn.There is another Saxifrage in our gardens exceedingly like this in appearance, but differing, in producing larger bunches of flowers, and in having larger, rounder, and more heart shaped leaves, Mr. Aiton regards this as a variety of the crassifolia, we are inclined to consider it as a species under the name of cordifolia. The parts of fructification in the crassifolia are apt to be preternaturally increased. .....

Narcissus Biflorus
197. Both Gerard and Parkinson describe and figure this plant, informing us that it was very common in the gardens in their time, the former indeed mentions it as growing wild in fields and sides of woods in the West of England, the latter says he could never hear of its natural place of growth. Clusius reports that he had been credibly informed of its growing wild in England, it probably may, but of this it remains for us to be more clearly ascertained, it undoubtedly is the plant mentioned by Ray in his Synopsis.

As it grows readily, increases in a greater degree than most others and is both ornamental and odoriferous, it is no wonder that we meet with it in almost every garden, and that in abundance, flowering towards the end of April, about three weeks later than the angustifolia. It usually produces two flowers, hence we have called it biflorus, it frequently occurs with one, more rarely with three, in a high state of culture it probably may be found with more, when it has only one flower it may easily be mistaken for the majalis, but may be thus distinguished from it, its petals are of a more yellow hue, the nectary is wholly yellow, wanting the orange rim, it flowers at least three weeks earlier, but the character, which by observation we have found most to be depended on, exists in the flowering stem, the top of which in the biflorus, very soon after it emerges from the ground, bends down and becomes elbowed, as our figure represents, in the majalis, it continues upright till within a short time of the flowers expanding. .....

Indigofera Candicans
198. Of the genus Indigofera, twenty three species are enumerated in Prof. Murrays edition of the Syst. Vegetab. of Linn?us, ten in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, in which last work only, the present plant, distinguished by the whiteness of its stalks and of the underside of its leaves, is described, and in which we are informed, that it is a native of the Cape, from whence it was introduced by Mr. Masson in 1774.

Its principal period of flowering is from about the beginning of May to the middle of June, at which time it is highly ornamental in the green house strong healthy plants produce from five to eight blossoms in a spike on a plant growing with Mr. Colvill, Nurseryman, Kings Road, Chelsea, we once counted nine a few of these usually produce seed vessels containing perfect seeds, by which the plant is mostly propagated, it may also be raised by cuttings, but not very readily. .....

Aster Alpinus
199. Clusius and Jacquin, by both of whom this species of Aster is figured and described, inform us, that it grows spontaneously on the Austrian Alps of the many hardy herbaceous species cultivated in our garden, this is by far the most humble in is growth, in its wild state acquiring the height of about four inches, and when cultivated, rarely exceeding eight or nine its blossoms for its size are large and shewy, making their appearance much earlier than any of the others, viz. about the end of May and beginning of June, and continuing in blossom three weeks or a month.It is readily propagated by parting its roots in the autumn, may be kept in pots, or planted in the open border, prefers a moist stiffish soil, if carefully watered in dry weather, will grow among rock work, for which, from its size, it is well adapted. .....
Antirrhinum Sparteum
200. The drawing here exhibited gives but a faint idea of the elegant and lively appearance which this plant assumes when it grows in a tuft, and a number of its branches are in blossom at the same time.It is a hardy annual, of small stature, a native of Spain, and flowers during most of the summer.Was introduced into this country, according to Mr. Aiton, in 1772, by Mons. Richard, and deserves to be much more generally cultivated.Some regard it as a biennial, but as seeds of it sown in the spring flower the ensuing summer, and as the plant dies when it has ripened its seeds, there appears more propriety in considering it as an annual.It is to be sown in the same manner as other hardy annuals, will flower earlier if the seeds have been raised in autumn.The upper part of the stalk, as well as the leaves of the calyx, are beset with viscous hairs, in which respect it does not perfectly accord with Linn?uss description. Vid. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 854. .....
Chourishi Systems