Fitness stretching

Neck Extensor Stretch
1. Neck Stretches:

Method:
Sit or stand upright. Interlock hands on the back of the head near the crown. Lightly pull the head straight down and try to touch the chin to the chest.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Upper trapezius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Longissimus capitis, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, scalene.

You can do this stretch either while sitting or while standing. A greater stretch is applied when seated. Standing reduces the ability to stretch because reflexes come into play to prevent a loss of balance. During the stretch, make sure not to reduce the stretch by hunching up the shoulders. Also, keep the neck as straight as possible (no curving). Try to touch the chin to the lowest possible point on the chest. .....
Neck Extensor and Rotation Stretch
2. Neck Stretches: "When the neck extensors become flexible, progress from stretching the right and left sides simultaneously to stretching the opposite sides individually."

Method:
Sit or stand upright. Place the right hand on the back of the head near the crown. Pull the head down toward the right and try to touch the chin as close as possible to the right shoulder.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left upper trapezius, left sternocleidomastoid.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left longissimus capitis, left semispinalis capitis, left splenius capitis, left scalene.

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Neck Flexor Stretch
3. Neck Stretches:

Method:
Sit or stand upright. Interlock hands and place the palms on the forehead. Pull the head back so that the nose points straight up to the ceiling.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Sternocleidomastoid.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Longissimus capitis, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, scalene.

You can do this stretch either while sitting or while standing. A greater stretch is applied when seated. Standing reduces the ability to stretch because reflexes come into play to prevent a loss of balance. During the stretch, make sure not to reduce the stretch by hunching up the shoulders. Also, try to point the chin as far back as possible. .....
Neck Flexor and Rotation Stretch
4. Neck Stretches: "When the neck flexors become flexible, progress from stretching the right and left sides simultaneously to stretching the opposite sides individually."

Method:
Stand or sit upright. Place right hand on the forehead. Pull the head back and toward the right so that the head points toward the shoulder. Keep the head straight; do not lay the head down to either side.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Left sternocleidomastoid.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left longissimus capitis, left semispinalis capitis, left splenius capitis.

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Shoulder Flexor Stretch
5. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright while facing a doorway or corner. Place feet shoulder-width apart with one foot slightly in front of the other. With straight arms, raise your arms to shoulder level and place the palms on the walls or doorframe with the thumbs on top. Lean the entire body forward.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, subclavius, lower trapezius.

To get the maximum benefit during the stretch, keep the elbows locked and the spine straight. The greater the forward lean, the better the stretch. Forward lean is controlled by how far the lead foot is in front of the chest at the start position. Hence, place the foot forward only enough to maintain balance. It is possible to do the neck extensor stretch simultaneously with the shoulder flexor stretch. However, without having the hands pushing down on the head, the neck extensor stretch will be of a lower intensity than if it were done by itself. .....
Shoulder Flexor and Depressor Stretch
6. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches: Elevating the arms will stretch more muscles.

Method:
Stand upright while facing a doorway or corner. Place feet shoulder-width apart with one foot slightly in front of the other. With straight arms, raise arms high above the head, and place the palms on the walls or doorframe. Lean the entire body forward.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, pectoralis minor.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, subclavius.

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Shoulder Extensor Adductor and Retractor Stretch
7. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright inside a doorway while facing a doorjamb with the doorjamb in line with the right shoulder. Place feet shoulder-width apart with the toes pointing straight forward. Bring the left arm across the body toward the right shoulder. Pointing the thumb down, grab hold of the doorjamb at shoulder level. Rotate the trunk inward until you feel a stretch in the posterior left shoulder.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left posterior and middle deltoid, left latissimus dorsi, left triceps brachii, left middle trapezius, left rhomboids.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left teres major, left teres minor, left supraspinatus, left serratus anterior.

To get the maximum benefit of this stretch, you should keep the elbow locked. Over time, as the muscles become more flexible, to keep the elbow locked you will need to grasp the doorframe above the level of the shoulder. Raising the height of the hand does not diminish the major benefits of this stretch. However, as the hand gets higher above shoulder level, the stretch on the rhomboids decreases while the stretch on the serratus anterior increases. .....
Shoulder Adductor Protractor and Elevator Stretch
8. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with the feet shoulder-width apart. Bring the left arm across the front of the body, with the left hand near the right hip. With the right hand, grab hold of the left elbow. With the right hand, try to pull the left elbow down and around the right side of the body.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left posterior deltoid, left latissimus dorsi, left triceps brachii, left lower middle trapezius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left teres major, left teres minor, left supraspinatus, left levator scapulae, left rhomboids.

To maximize the stretch, do not raise the shoulder or bend at the waist. If it is not possible to bring the hand toward the hip, try to come as close as possible. As long as the arm is below the shoulders, the stretch will be effective for the stated muscles. .....
Shoulder Adductor Elevator and Protractor Stretch
9. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches: Bringing the arm above the shoulder changes the emphasis of the stretch to the elevators and protractors.

Method:
Stand upright with the feet shoulder-width apart. Raise the left hand high above the head, and bring the left arm up against the left side of the head. With the right hand, grab hold of the left elbow. With the right hand, try to pull the left elbow behind the head, past the left ear.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left posterior deltoid, left latissimus dorsi, left triceps brachii, left lower trapezius, left serratus anterior.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left teres major, left teres minor, left supraspinatus, left rhomboids, left pectoralis minor.

.....
One Arm Shoulder Flexor Stretch
10. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Stand (or sit on a backless chair) upright with the left arm behind the back and the elbow bent at about 90 degrees. Place feet shoulder-width apart with the toes pointing forward. Grasp the left elbow with the right hand. Pull the left arm across the back and up toward the right shoulder.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left pectoralis major, left anterior deltoid, and middle deltoid.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left levator scapulae, left pectoralis minor, left supraspinatus, left serratus anterior, left coracobrachialis.

If you cannot reach the elbow, then grasp the wrist. When pulling on the wrist, it is easy to pull the arm across the back, but remember that the best effect comes only from pulling upward as well as across. Also, keep the elbow locked at a near-90-degree angle. Changing the alignment of the back will also influence the magnitude of the stretch. If you cannot keep the back straight, arching the back is preferable to bending at the waist. Just be careful; it is easy to lose balance when doing this stretch while both arching the back and standing up. .....
Shoulder Adductor and Extensor Stretch
11. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Stand in a squatting position while facing a doorway with the right shoulder lined up with the left side of the doorjamb. Stick the right arm through the doorway. Grab the inside of the doorjamb at shoulder level with the right hand. While keeping the right arm straight and the feet firmly planted, lower the buttocks toward the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right posterior deltoid, right middle trapezius, right triceps brachii, right teres major, right rhomboids, right infraspinatus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right latissimus dorsi, right teres minor, right supraspinatus, right serratus anterior.

A lower squat yields a greater stretch, but be careful not to squat so low that you feel pain in the legs or knees. To reduce strain on the knees, change where you grab the doorjamb. Changing the position of the grasp, however, influences the amount of stretch placed on the various muscles (see variation). Regardless of where you grasp, keep the back straight or arched. Do not bend forward at the waist. To get an even greater stretch, inwardly rotate the trunk. .....
Shoulder Adductor and Extensor Stretch Variation
12. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches: Changing the hand position on the doorjamb changes the muscles that you stretch.

Method:
Stand in a squatting position while facing a doorway; line up the right shoulder with the left side of the doorjamb. Stick the right arm through the doorway. With the right hand, grab the inside of the doorjamb above head level. While keeping the right arm straight and the feet firmly planted, lower the buttocks toward the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right posterior deltoid, right latissimus dorsi, right triceps brachii, right teres major, right infraspinatus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right teres minor, right supraspinatus, right middle trapezius.

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Seated Shoulder Flexor Depressor Retractor Stretch
13. Shoulder, Back, and Chest Stretches:

Method:
Sit on the floor with the legs straight. While keeping the arms straight, place the palms (with the fingers pointed backward) on the floor about one foot (30 cm) behind the hips. While keeping the arms straight, lean backward toward the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, pectoralis minor.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, subclavius, rhomboids.

To maximize the stretch, keep the arms straight. If it is difficult to refrain from bending the arms, place the hands closer to the hips. Moving the hands farther from the hips can increase the stretch. To keep the body from sliding along the floor, you may need to brace the soles of the feet against a wall. Sitting on a mat with the hands placed on a hard surface will increase the stretch as well as add comfort. .....
Elbow Flexor Stretch
14. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Stand in a doorway. While keeping the arm straight, raise the left arm to shoulder level. Place the arm and palm against the wall with the thumb pointing up. Rotate the trunk backward toward the wall.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left brachialis, left brachioradialis, left biceps brachii.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left supinator, left pronator teres, left flexor carpi radialis, left flexor carpi ulnaris, left palmaris longus.

This stretch is easier to do by grasping a solidly fixed vertical pole. A tight grasp, however, virtually eliminates the stretch effect on the lesser-stretched muscles. Also, it is more difficult to keep the elbow straight, and a straight elbow is necessary for this stretch to be effective. Although it is preferable to lift the arm to shoulder level, the stretch will be effective at whatever height the arm is raised. .....
Elbow Extensor Triceps Brachii Stretch
15. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Sit or stand upright with the left arm flexed at the elbow. Raise the left arm until the elbow is next to the left ear and the left hand is near the right shoulder blade. Grasp the left elbow with the right hand and pull or push the left elbow behind the head and toward the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Left triceps brachii.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left latissimus dorsi, left teres major, left teres minor, left posterior deltoid.

Doing this stretch while seated in a chair with a back allows better control of balance. A greater stretching force can be applied to the muscles when the body is balanced. .....
Elbow Extensor Anconeus Stretch
16. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Stand or sit upright while facing a table. Flex the elbows and rest the forearms on the table with the palms up. Lean forward, bringing the chest toward the table.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Left anconeus.
Lesser-stretched muscle: Left triceps brachii.

For the greatest stretch, keep the forearms and elbows flat on the table. .....
Forearm Pronator Stretch
17. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Stand with the back toward the inside of the doorframe. While keeping the arm straight, hyperextend the left arm above the midpoint between the hip and shoulder. Grasp the doorframe with the left hand with the thumb pointing down. Externally rotate the arm (roll the biceps toward the top).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscle: Left pronator teres.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left brachialis, left brachioradialis, left pronator quadratus, left subscapularis, left teres major.

You can also do this exercise with a firmly planted vertical pole. To maximize the stretch, keep the elbow straight. After rolling the biceps upward, you can enhance the stretch by inwardly rotating the back toward the hyperextended arm (see figure). .....
Forearm Supinator Stretch
18. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Stand with the back toward the inside of the doorframe. While keeping the arm straight, hyperextend the right arm above the midpoint between the hip and shoulder. Grasp the doorframe with the right hand with the thumb pointing up. Internally rotate the arm (roll the biceps down).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right biceps brachii, right supinator.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right brachialis, right brachioradialis, right infraspinatus, right teres minor.

You can also do this exercise with a firmly planted vertical pole. To maximize the stretch, keep the elbow straight. After rolling the biceps downward, you can enhance the stretch by inwardly rotating the back toward the hyperextended arm (see figure). .....
Wrist Extensor Stretch
19. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists and place the back of each hand on the floor, shoulder-width apart. Point the fingers toward the knees. While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the backs of the hands on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi ulnaris.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Supinator, brachialis, biceps brachii, extensor digitorum communis.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the backs of the hands touching the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. .....
Wrist Ulnar Deviator and Extensor Stretch
20. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists and place the back of each hand on the floor. Point the fingers laterally on a line perpendicular to the midline of the body (the fingertips of the opposing hands pointing away from each other). While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the backs of the hands on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Extensor digitorum communis, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor pollicis longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, brachioradialis, supinator, brachialis, biceps brachii.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the backs of the hands touching the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. The distance each hand is away from the body’s midline also influences stretch intensity. The farther away from the midline, the greater the stretch. .....
Wrist Radial Deviator and Extensor Stretch
21. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists and place the back of each hand on the floor. Point the fingers medially (the fingertips of the opposing hands pointing toward each other). While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the backs of the hands on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, extensor pollicis brevis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, supinator, brachialis, biceps brachii, brachioradialis.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the backs of the hands touching the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. The distance each hand is away from the body’s midline also influences stretch intensity. The farther away from the midline, the greater the stretch. .....
Wrist Flexor Stretch
22. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists and place the palm of each hand on the floor, shoulder-width apart. Point the fingers toward the knees. While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the palms flat on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Brachioradialis, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis, palmaris longus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor pollicis longus, pronator teres, brachialis, biceps brachii.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the backs of the hands touching the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. .....
Wrist Radial Deviator and Flexor Stretch
23. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists, and place the palm of each hand on the floor. Point the fingers outward on a line perpendicular to the midline of the body. While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the palms flat on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis, palmaris longus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor pollicis brevis.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the palms on the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. The distance each hand is away from the body’s midline also influences stretch intensity. The farther away from the midline, the greater the stretch. .....
Wrist Ulnar Deviator and Flexor Stretch
24. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Kneel on the floor. Flex both wrists, and place the palm of each hand on the floor. Point the fingers medially (the fingertips of the opposing hands pointing toward each other). While keeping the elbows straight, lean backward (buttocks to the heels), keeping the palms on the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis, palmaris longus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Flexor carpi radialis, flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor pollicis longus, extensor carpi ulnaris.

The closer the hands are to the knees, the easier it is to keep the palms on the floor. The farther the hands are in front of the knees, however, the greater the applied stretch. The distance each hand is away from the body’s midline also influences stretch intensity. The farther away from the midline, the greater the stretch. .....
Finger Flexor Stretch
25. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Sit or stand upright. Flex the elbow at a 90-degree angle, and extend the wrist as far as possible. Point the fingers upward. With the right hand, push the fingers on the left hand toward the elbow.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left flexor carpi radialis, left flexor carpi ulnaris, left flexor digiti minimi brevis, left flexor digitorum profundus, left flexor digitorum superficialis, left palmaris longus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left flexor pollicis longus.

The elbow angle does not need to be precisely 90 degrees. Choose a comfortable angle. Some people find that fully flexing the elbow makes it easier to push on the hand. With the elbow fully flexed, the push is more downward than across. .....
Finger Extensor Stretch
26. Arm, Wrist, and Hand Stretches:

Method:
Sit or stand upright. Turn the left arm so that the palm faces up and flex the elbow to a 90-degree angle. Flex the wrist to a 90-degree angle, and flex the fingers so that they are pointed toward the elbow. Place the right hand on top of the fingers and press the fingers down toward the forearm.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left extensor carpi radialis brevis, left extensor carpi radialis longus, left extensor carpi ulnaris, left extensor digitorum communis, left extensor digiti minimi, left extensor indicis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left extensor pollicis brevis, left extensor pollicis longus.

Increase the magnitude of the stretch by flexing the fingers (make a fist). Also, the elbow angle does not need to be precisely 90 degrees. Choose a comfortable angle. Some people find that fully flexing the elbow makes it easier to push on the hand. With the elbow fully flexed, the push is more downward than across. .....
Lower Trunk Flexor Stretch Back Lying Position
27. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Lie on the floor on your back. Place a rolled-up towel (1 to 2 inches, or 2.5 to 5 centimeters, in diameter) between the small of your back and the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Quadratus lumborum, psoas major, iliacus.

Of all of the stretches in this book that stretch the lower trunk flexors, this stretch is the best for people who have a swayed back or have weak abdominal muscles, since arching the lower back is potentially dangerous for these people. Because the small of the back is supported in this exercise, undesired pressures on the spinal column are reduced. Nevertheless, the width of the back support is important. The larger the diameter of the object, the greater the undesired pressure. Make sure that the upper back, shoulder blades, and buttocks are resting comfortably on the floor. Also, squeezing the buttocks will reduce stress on the lower back. .....
Lower Trunk Flexor Stretch Front Lying Position
28. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Lie facedown on the floor. Place both hands palms down; fingers point forward by each hip. Slowly arch the back, contracting the buttocks. Continue arching the back and lift your head and chest off the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Quadratus lumborum, psoas major, iliacus, rotatores, intertransversarii.

Remember that arching the lower back is potentially dangerous, especially if you have weak abdominal muscles. Injuries from arching the lower back include excessive squeezing of the spinal discs, jammed spinal joints, and pinched spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. Therefore, this stretch is recommended only for those who are very stiff. When doing this stretch, do minimal arching and make sure that you squeeze the buttocks during the arching. Squeezing the buttocks reduces stress on the lower back. .....
Seated Lower Trunk Extensor Stretch
29. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Sit upright in a chair with legs separated. Slowly round the upper back and begin to lean forward. Continue to bend at the waist and lower the head and abdomen between the legs and below the thighs.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Iliocostalis lumborum, multifidus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Interspinales, rotatores, spinalis thoracis.

Remember that hyperflexion can injure the spinal cord. When doing this exercise, go slowly and do not let the back become straight. Also, the effect of the stretch is minimized if the buttocks rise up off of the chair. .....
Seated Lower Trunk Extensor Lateral Flexor Stretch
30. Lower-Trunk Stretches: "Angling the head toward one of the knees will increase the stretch on the lowertrunk extensors and partially stretch some of the lateral flexors."

Method:
Sit upright in a chair with legs separated. Slowly extend the upper back and begin to lean forward. Continue to bend at the waist and lower your head and abdomen toward the right knee. Slowly lower the head below the right knee.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left iliocostalis lumborum, left multifidus, left rotatores, left external oblique, left internal oblique.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left interspinales, left intertransversarii, left quadratus lumborum.

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Reclining Lower Trunk Extensor Stretch
31. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Lie on the back with the legs extended. Flex the knees and hips, bringing the knees up over the chest. Cross the feet at the ankles and separate the knees so that they are at least shoulder-width apart. Grasp the thighs at the inside of the knees and pull the legs down to the chest.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Iliocostalis lumborum, multifidus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Interspinales, rotatores, spinalis thoracis.

Remember that hyperflexion can injure the spinal cord. When doing this exercise, go slowly and do not let the back become straight. To prevent a straight back, allow the spinal column to curl, and raise the buttocks off the floor. Also, do not try to bring the knees too far below the chest (do not try to touch the knees to the floor). .....
Standing Lower Trunk Lateral Flexor Stretch
32. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with the feet together and the left side of the body facing a wall about an arm’s length away. Place the palm of the left hand on the wall at shoulder height, and place the heel of the right hand at the hip joint. While keeping the legs straight, contract the buttocks and slightly rotate the hips in toward the wall. Use the right hand to push the right hip toward the wall.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left external oblique, left internal oblique, left rotatores.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left intertransversarii, left multifidus, left quadratus lumborum.

It is very easy to lose balance while doing this exercise, so stand on a nonskid surface. Keep the left arm straight, but do not lock the elbow. You can increase the amount of stretch either by moving the feet farther from the wall, by resting the left forearm on the wall instead of the hand, or both. .....
Seated Lower Trunk Lateral Flexor Stretch
33. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Sit upright in a chair. Interlock the hands behind the head, with the elbows in a straight line across the shoulders. While keeping both elbows back and in a straight line, laterally flex the waist, and move the right elbow toward the right hip.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left external oblique, left internal oblique, left rotatores.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left intertransversarii, left multifidus, left quadratus lumborum.

Flexing or extending at the waist will reduce this stretch’s effectiveness. Also, keep the buttocks and thighs in complete contact with the chair. The closer the elbow gets to the floor, the harder it will be to remain seated in the chair. Wrapping the lower legs and feet around the chair legs will help in keeping the buttocks and thighs in contact with the seat. .....
Standing Lower Trunk Flexor Stretch Arched Back
34. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with legs 2 to 3 feet apart (61 to 91 cm) with hands placed on the hips. Slowly arch the back, contracting the buttocks and pushing the hips forward. Continue arching the back, drop the head backward, and slide the hands past the buttocks and down the legs.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Quadratus lumborum, psoas major, iliacus.

This exercise is potentially dangerous, especially for those who have a swayed back or weak abdominal muscles. This exercise can worsen a swayed back and cause excessive squeezing of the spinal discs, jammed spinal joints, and pinched spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. This stretch is recommended only for those who are very stiff and do not have a swayed back. Also, you should use this exercise only when the other lower-back flexor stretches do not provide any improvement. When doing this stretch, do minimal arching and make sure that you squeeze the buttocks during the arching. Squeezing the buttocks reduces the stress on the lower back. .....
Lower Trunk Lateral Flexor Stretch Arched Back
35. Lower-Trunk Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with legs 2 to 3 feet apart (61 to 91 cm) with the right foot about 1 foot (30 cm) ahead of the left foot. Place both hands near the right hip. Slowly arch the back, contracting the buttocks and pushing the hips forward. Continue arching the back, rotate the trunk clockwise, and drop the head back toward the right side. Slide the hands past the right buttock and down the right leg.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Rectus abdominis, left external oblique, left internal oblique.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left quadratus lumborum, left psoas major, left iliacus, left rotatores, left intertransversarii.

This exercise is potentially dangerous, especially for people with a swayed back or weak abdominal muscles. This exercise can worsen a swayed back and cause excessive squeezing of the spinal discs, jammed spinal joints, and pinched spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. This stretch is recommended only for those who are very stiff and do not have a swayed back. Also, you should use this exercise only when the other lower-back flexor stretches do not provide any improvement. When doing this stretch, do minimal arching and make sure that you squeeze the buttock during the arching. Squeezing the buttock reduces the stress on the lower back. Finally, it is very easy to lose balance while doing this exercise, so take extra care. .....
Seated Hip External Rotator and Hip Extensor Stretch
36. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Sit on the floor with the left leg extended straight out in front. Bend the right knee and place the right foot flat against the left inner thigh, as close as possible to the pelvic area. Place the hands on the floor next to the thighs. Bend the trunk over toward the left (straight) knee as far as possible until you start feeling a slight stretch (light pain). Keep the left knee down on the floor if possible as you bend over. As you bend over, reach out with your arms toward the left foot.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles on right side: Gluteus medius and minimus, piriformis, gemellus superior and inferior, obturator externus and internus, quadratus femoris, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi. Most-stretched muscles on left side: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Soleus, plantaris.

Bend the trunk in a forward direction from the hip joint. Keep the trunk as a straight unit; do not let the back curve (see figure below, right). Bending the trunk toward the right knee instead of the left knee reduces the stretch of the most-stretched muscles on the right side of the body and increases the stretch of the most-stretched muscles on the left side of the body. You can modify this stretch to include the lower-leg muscles (soleus, popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, posterior tibialis, gastrocnemius, and plantaris). To include these additional muscles, reach out with the left arm, grasp the left foot, and pull the toes slowly toward the knee (dorsiflexed position). .....
Hip External Rotator Stretch
37. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright on the left leg with the knee straight; face a support surface (such as a table or beam) that is even with the hips or just a little below the hips. The right leg is bent at the hip at about a 90-degree angle and rested on the support surface; the outside of the lower right leg rests as flat as possible on the surface. (You can place a towel or pillow under the foot and lower right leg for cushioning.) Lower the trunk as far as possible toward the right foot, keeping the right knee as flat as possible on the surface.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Gluteus maximus and medius and minimus, right piriformis, right gemellus superior and inferior, right obturator externus and internus, right quadratus femoris, lower erector spinae, left latissimus dorsi.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right tensor fascia lata, right lower latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius.

Lower the trunk forward from the hip joint. Keep the trunk as a straight unit; do not let the back curve. Increasing the height of the table, bench, or other surface by 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) above the hips will increase the stretch on these muscle groups. .....
Recumbent Hip External Rotator and Hip Extensor Stretch
38. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Lie on your back on a comfortable surface. While outwardly rotating the right leg, bend the right knee and bring the right foot to the body’s midline (point the knee laterally). While keeping the left leg flat, grasp the right knee with the right hand and the right ankle with the left hand. Pull the lower leg as a unit as far as possible toward the chest.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles on right side of body: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, lower latissimus dorsi, erector spinae. Lesser-stretched muscles in left leg: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus medius (if the leg is kept flat on the floor).

Bringing the ankle toward the head or even over the head will stretch the aforementioned muscles to the maximum. .....
Recumbent Hip External Rotator and Hip Extensor Stretch Crossed Leg
39. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Lie on your back on a comfortable surface. Bend the left leg so that the knee is raised up off the floor while keeping the left foot on the floor. Bend the right knee and cross the right ankle over and just above the left knee. Grasp the left leg just under the left knee with both hands. Pull the left knee along with the bent right knee toward your chest as far as possible until you start feeling a slight stretch (light pain).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles on right side of body: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, lower latissimus dorsi, erector spinae. Lesser-stretched muscles in left leg: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius.

You can do this stretch while in a sitting position, but it is less effective and more difficult to maintain balance. .....
Hip External Rotator and Back Extensor Stretch
40. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Sit on the floor with the right leg extended. Bend the left leg and place the left foot on the outside of the right knee. Bend the right arm and position the outside of the right elbow against the outside of the upraised left knee. Brace the left arm against the floor near the left hip. Push the right elbow against the left knee, twisting the trunk as far as possible to the left. Maintain enough pressure with the right elbow to keep the left knee in a stable position.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles on left side of the body: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, lower latissimus dorsi, erector spinae. Lesser-stretched muscles on right side of body: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi.

Do not arch the back or bend forward at the waist. .....
Hip Extensor and Back Extensor Stretch
41. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Lie on your back on a comfortable surface. Bend the left knee and bring it toward the chest. While keeping the right leg flat, grasp the left knee with both hands and pull it down toward the chest as far as possible.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Gluteus maximus, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi. Lesser-stretched muscles in the right leg: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus medius.

Bringing the knee toward the armpit instead of the chest will increase the stretch in the muscles. You can do this exercise with both legs simultaneously, but it won’t be as effective as when done with each leg separately. .....
Standing Bent Knee Hip Adductor Stretch
42. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with the legs more than shoulder-width apart and the left foot turned out. Lower the body (hips) to a half-squatting position, bending the right knee and sliding the left foot outward to the left to keep the left knee straight. While going down, place the hands on the top of the right knee for support and balance (or hold on to an object for balance).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left gracilis, left adductor magnus, left adductor longus, left adductor brevis, left pectineus, middle and lower part of left sartorius, left semitendinosus, left semimembranosus.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Medial side left gastrocnemius and left soleus, left flexor digitorum longus.

Keep the trunk as straight as possible. It is more comfortable to rest the left foot on the inside of the foot. To increase the stretch, bend the trunk to the right and press the right thigh down with both hands at the same time. .....
Seated Hip Adductor Stretch
43. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Sit on the floor in the lotus position (knees bent, feet together with the soles touching). Bring the heels of the feet as close as possible to the buttocks (distance depends on degree of flexibility). Grasp the feet or just above the ankles with elbows spreading sideways and touching the legs just below the knees. Bend the trunk over toward the feet, and press the lower part of the thighs and knees down with the elbows while stretching.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Gracilis, adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, middle part of sartorius, lower erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Gluteus maximus, posterior part of gluteus medius.

The closer the heels are to the buttocks, the greater the stretch. Placing the heels 1 foot (30 cm) away from the buttocks increases the stretch on the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and erector spinae and places the greatest portion of the stretch on the origins of the adductor muscles. .....
Standing Raised Leg Hip Adductor Stretch
44. Hip Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with weight balanced on the left leg. Place the right leg on a table, bench, or object that is about even with the height of the hips. While keeping the right knee straight, rotate the body sideways so that the trunk and the left leg face 90 degrees away from the raised right leg (allow the right leg to rotate so that the right knee points to the side). Point the left knee and toes forward (directly in front of the hips). Bend the left knee slightly, but keep the right knee straight. Hang both arms down in front of the left leg with the palms close to the floor. Alternatively, place the left hand over the left knee and the right hand on the lateral (outer) side of the right knee (as illustrated). Bend the trunk slightly forward toward the left knee.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gracilis, right adductor magnus, right adductor brevis, right adductor longus, right middle sartorius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right medial gastrocnemius, right soleus.

Make sure to keep the right knee straight. The alternative hand placement allows for greater stretch especially if you apply pressure with the right hand on the right knee. The stretch is also increased with an increased bend of the left knee. .....
Standing Knee Flexor Stretch
45. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with the right heel 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) ahead of the left toes. Keeping the right knee straight and the left knee slightly bent, bend the trunk over toward the right knee. Reach the hands toward the right foot.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris, right gluteus maximus, right gastrocnemius, lower erector spinae.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right soleus, right plantaris, right popliteus, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.

For the best stretch, keep the right knee straight and bend the trunk directly from the hip. Keep the back as straight as possible. Turning the right foot slightly outward and bending the head and trunk more toward the medial (inner) side of the right knee will increase the stretch of the biceps femoris. Turning the right foot slightly inward and bending the head and trunk more toward the lateral (outer) side of the knee will increase the stretch of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. .....
Seated Knee Flexor Stretch
46. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Sit on the floor with the legs extended and the inside of the ankles as close together as possible. Keep the feet relaxed in a natural position. Place the hands on the floor next to the thighs. Bend at the waist and lower the head toward the legs. If possible, keep the back of the knees on the floor. While bending forward, slide the hands toward the feet and keep them alongside the legs.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius, lower erector spinae.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Soleus, plantaris, popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, posterior tibialis.

To maximize the stretch of the knee flexors, do not bend the knees, tilt the pelvis forward, or curve the back. Also, bend the trunk forward as a single unit, keeping it centered between the two legs. .....
Seated Knee Ankle Shoulder and Back Stretch
47. Knee and Thigh Stretches: Changing the hand position to grasp the toes shifts the stretch to other muscles.

Method:
Sit on the floor with the legs extended and the inside of the ankles as close together as possible. Keep the feet relaxed in a natural position. Bend at the waist and lower the head toward the legs. If possible, keep the back of the knees on the floor. While bending forward, slide the hands toward the feet, grasp the feet, and pull the toes slowly toward the knees (dorsiflexed position).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius, lower erector spinae, soleus, plantaris, popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Lower latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, posterior deltoid, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, triceps brachii.

.....
Raised Leg Knee Flexor Stretch
48. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with weight balanced on the left leg. Flex the right hip and place the right leg (with the knee straight) on a table, bench, or other stable object that is approximately the same height as the hips. Bend at the waist, extend your arms over the lower right leg, and lower the head toward the right leg, keeping the right knee as straight as possible. Keep the left knee straight and the left foot pointing in the same direction as the right leg.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gluteus maximus, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi, right gastrocnemius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right soleus, right popliteus, right plantaris, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis, left sartorius, left rectus femoris.

To maximize the stretch of the knee flexors, do not bend the knees, tilt the pelvis forward, or curve the back. Also, bend the trunk straight forward as a single unit, keeping it centered over the right leg. Increasing the height of the table or bench by 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) above the hips will increase the stretch of these muscle groups. You will also start feeling a stretch in some of the left-side muscle groups (sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, lateralis, and medialis) as you increase the height of the table. .....
Raised Leg Knee Ankle Shoulder and Back Stretch
49. Knee and Thigh Stretches: Changing the hand position to grasp the toes shifts the stretch to other muscles.

Method:
Stand upright with weight balanced on the left leg. Flex the right hip and place the right leg (with the knee straight) on a table, bench, or other stable object that is approximately the same height as the hips. Bend at the waist, extend your arms over the lower right leg, and lower the head toward the right leg, keeping the right knee as straight as possible. While bending forward, slide the hands toward the feet, grasp the feet, and pull the toes slowly toward the knees (dorsiflexed position).

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gluteus maximus, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi, right gastrocnemius, right soleus, right popliteus, right plantaris, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left sartorius, left rectus femoris, lower trapezius, posterior deltoid, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, triceps brachii.

.....
Recumbent Knee Flexor Stretch
50. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Lie flat on your back in a doorway with the hips placed in front of the doorframe. Raise the right leg and rest it on the doorframe. Keep the right knee straight and the left leg flat on the floor. Place the hands palms down on either side of the buttocks. Keeping the right leg straight, use the hands to slowly move the buttocks through the doorframe until you feel a stretch in the back of the leg.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gluteus maximus, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris, right gastrocnemius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right soleus, right popliteus, right plantaris, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis, left sartorius, left rectus femoris.

To maximize the stretch of the knee flexors, do not bend the knees, tilt the pelvis forward, or curve the back. Adjust the distance between the buttocks and the doorframe to increase or decrease the stretch. The closer the buttocks are to the doorframe, the greater the stretch. Once the buttocks cannot be positioned any closer to the doorframe, bending the leg at the hip and moving the leg toward the head can increase the stretch. .....
Recumbent Knee Ankle Shoulder and Back Stretch
51. Knee and Thigh Stretches: Using a towel to bend the toes shifts the stretch to other muscles.

Method:
Lie flat on your back in a doorway with the hips placed in front of the doorframe. Raise the right leg and rest it on the doorframe. Keep the right knee straight and the left leg flat on the floor. Place a towel, cloth, or band over and around the toes and grasp both ends firmly with the hands. Keeping the right leg straight, place the hands on the doorframe and slowly move the buttocks through the doorframe until you feel a stretch in the back of the leg. Once you feel the stretch in the back of the leg, use the towel to pull the toes and foot down toward the head.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gluteus maximus, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris, erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi, right gastrocnemius, right soleus, right popliteus, right plantaris, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left sartorius, left rectus femoris, lower trapezius, posterior deltoid, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, triceps brachii.

.....
Seated Knee Flexor and Hip Adductor Stretch
52. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Sit comfortably on the floor with legs extended in a V position (feet far apart from each other). Place the hands on the floor next to the thighs. Keep both knees straight and as flat against the floor as possible. Reach the hands out toward the center or slide the hands forward along the legs and bend the trunk over between the knees.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, adductor magnus and longus, gluteus maximus, lower erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi, medial side of soleus, medial head of gastrocnemius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Lateral soleus, lateral head of gastrocnemius, plantaris, biceps femoris.

To maximize the stretch, do not bend the knees, tilt the pelvis forward, or curve the back. Also, bend the trunk forward as a single unit, keeping it centered between the two legs. .....
Seated Knee Hip Ankle Shoulder and Back Stretch
53. Knee and Thigh Stretches: Changing the hand position to grasp the toes shifts the stretch to other muscles.

Method:
Sit comfortably on the floor with legs extended in a V position (feet far apart from each other). Keep both knees straight and as flat against the floor as possible. Slide the hands forward along the legs and bend the trunk over between the knees. At the same time, grasp the toes of both feet and pull them toward the body.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, adductor magnus, adductor longus, gluteus maximus, lower erector spinae, lower latissimus dorsi, soleus, gastrocnemius, popliteus, plantaris, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Biceps femoris, posterior deltoid, triceps brachii, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, lower trapezius.

.....
Standing Knee Flexor and Hip Adductor Stretch
54. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Stand with the right side of the body near a table, bench, or object at the approximate height of the hips. While balancing the weight on the left leg, raise the right leg and position it on the table, bench, or object. Keeping the knees straight, bend the trunk over between the knees as far as possible. As you bend the trunk, reach between the knees and place the hands behind the thighs.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, adductor magnus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, sartorius, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Posterior deltoids, triceps brachii, lower trapezius, teres minor, teres major, infraspinatus.

Keep the knees straight, bend the trunk forward from the hip joint, and keep the trunk as a straight unit (no back curve). By increasing the height of the table, bench, or other object 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) above the hips, you will have additional benefits to the noted muscle groups. .....
One Leg Kneeling Knee Extensor Stretch
55. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Step forward with the left leg and bend the knee at about a 90-degree angle. Keep the left knee positioned above the left ankle. Extend the right leg behind the torso and touch the floor with the right knee; the lower leg lies on the floor. Hold on to an object or place the hands on the left knee to maintain balance. Move the hips forward, pushing the left knee in front of the left ankle and dorsiflexing that ankle.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right vastus medialis, right vastus intermedius, right vastus lateralis, middle and upper right sartorius, right rectus femoris, right psoas major, right iliacus, right tensor fascia lata.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right pectineus, anterior part of right gluteus medius.

Move slowly to the stretched position and keep the left knee pointing forward. Do not let the left knee point to either side or let the right knee move along the floor. While the hips are placed in the forward direction, arching the back can increase the stretch on the muscles. .....
One Leg Standing Hip Flexor and Knee Extensor Stretch
56. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright with weight balanced on the left leg. Keep the left foot pointing straight forward and the knee almost straight. To help maintain balance, brace the left hand on a wall. Bend the right knee; grasp the right foot or ankle tightly and pull the right heel backward and slightly upward to within 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) of the buttocks. At the same time, push the hips forward.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right vastus medialis, right vastus intermedius, right vastus lateralis, middle and upper right sartorius, right rectus femoris, right psoas major, right iliacus, right tensor fascia lata.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right pectineus, anterior part of right gluteus medius.

When doing this stretch, be extra careful not to strain the knee structure by overflexing the knee. Pull the ankle slowly in a more backward than upward direction, making sure that the hips also move forward. In other words, concentrate more on doing hip extension than on doing knee flexion. To place most of the stretch emphasis on the medial muscles (vastus medialis and pectineus), rotate the upper body away from the medial muscles (rotate the right side clockwise) when bending backward. To place most of the stretch emphasis on the lateral muscles (vastus lateralis and tensor fascia latae), rotate the upper body away from the lateral muscles (rotate the right side counterclockwise) when bending backward. .....
Supported One Leg Standing Hip Flexor and Knee Extensor Stretch
57. Knee and Thigh Stretches: "You can also do this stretch by bracing the right foot on a table or beam. Because of the increased possibility of hyperflexing the knee, this is a more advanced stretch; you should do this stretch only if you have very flexible muscles."

Method:
Stand with the back toward a padded table, bed, or soft platform that is below the height of the hips. Balance the weight on the left leg and bend the knee slightly. Bend the right knee and prop the right ankle on the rear support surface. Place both hands on the rear support surface 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) behind the buttocks. Move the torso backward slowly so that the heel of the right foot touches the buttocks. Make sure that the ankle and knee are comfortable. Push the hips forward and simultaneously arch the back by bending the shoulders toward the buttocks.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right vastus medialis, right vastus intermedius, right vastus lateralis, middle and upper right sartorius, right rectus femoris, right psoas major, right iliacus, right tensor fascia lata.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right pectineus, anterior part of right gluteus medius.

.....
Lying Hip Flexor and Knee Extensor Stretch
58. Knee and Thigh Stretches:

Method:
Lie on the right side of the body. Bend the left knee and bring the left heel to within 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) of the buttocks. Grasp the left ankle tightly and pull the leg backward close to your buttocks. However, do not bring the heel of the left ankle all the way to the buttocks. Push the hip forward at the same time.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Left vastus intermedius, left rectus femoris, left psoas major, middle and upper left sartorius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Left vastus medialis, left vastus lateralis, left tensor fascia lata, left pectineus, left iliacus, anterior part of left gluteus medius, left anterior tibialis, left extensor digitorum longus, left extensor hallucis longus.

When doing this stretch, be extra careful not to strain the knee structure by overflexing the knee. Pull the ankle slowly in a more backward direction than upward direction, making sure that the hips are also moved forward. In other words, concentrate more on doing hip extension than on doing knee flexion. .....
Seated Toe Extensor Stretch
59. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with the left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. While bracing the right ankle with the right hand, place the fingers of the left hand on the tops of the right toes. Pull the tips of the toes toward the sole of the foot.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right extensor digitorum longus, right extensor digitorum brevis, right extensor hallucis longus, right extensor hallucis brevis, right anterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right peroneus tertius, right dorsal interosseous, right lumbricales.

Hold the ankle firmly in order to keep it and the foot stable. You will feel the stretch on the top of the foot area (dorsal side). If grasping and pulling on the tips of the toes cause too much pain, apply the pressure at the ball of the foot. .....
Seated Toe Extensor and Foot Everter Stretch
60. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with the left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. While bracing the right ankle with the right hand, place the thumb of the left hand along the ball of the right foot and place the fingers of the left hand across the top of the foot with the fingers perpendicular to the toes. Use the left hand to pull (or twist) the sole of the foot upward. At the same time, bend the toes toward the sole of the foot. ? feet

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right extensor digitorum longus, right extensor digitorum brevis, right extensor hallucis longus, right extensor hallucis brevis, right dorsal interosseous, right abductor digiti minimi brevis, right adductor hallucis, right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right peroneus tertius.
Lesser-stretched muscle: Right anterior tibialis.

Make sure to stabilize the foot and ankle with a firm hold. Grasping the ends of the toes and pulling them upward (while keeping the toes in the flexed position) can produce a more effective stretch. You will feel the stretch on the lateral side of the foot (little toe side) and ankle area—abductor digiti minimi, extensor digitorum brevis, and extensor hallucis brevis muscles. .....
Seated Toe Extensor and Foot Inverter Stretch
61. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. While bracing the right ankle with the right hand, place the thumb of the left hand along the ball of the right foot and the fingers of the left hand across the top of the foot with the fingers perpendicular to the toes. Use the left hand to push (or twist) the sole of the foot down toward the floor. At the same time, bend the toes toward the sole of the foot.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right abductor hallucis, right extensor hallucis longus, right extensor hallucis brevis, right anterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right extensor digitorum longus, right extensor digitorum brevis, right peroneus tertius, right lumbricales, right dorsal interosseous.

Make sure to stabilize the foot and ankle with a firm hold. Grasping the ends of the toes and pressing them firmly downward can produce a greater stretch. You will feel the stretch on the medial side of the foot (big toe side). .....
Seated Toe Flexor Stretch
62. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with the left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. Brace the right ankle with the right hand, and place the fingers of the left hand along the bottoms of the toes of the right foot with the fingers pointing in the same direction as the toes. Use the fingers of the left hand to push the toes of the right foot toward the right knee.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis, right lumbricales, right plantar interosseous, right abductor hallucis, right abductor digiti minimi.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis, right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right plantaris, right soleus, right gastrocnemius.

Make sure to stabilize the foot and ankle with a firm hold. Pushing hard on the very ends of the toes with the left palm will provide a much greater stretch. You will feel the stretch on the sole (plantar side) of the foot. .....
Seated Toe Flexor and Foot Everter Stretch
63. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with the left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. Brace the right ankle with the left hand and place the fingers of the right hand perpendicular across the bottoms of the toes. Also place the pad of the right thumb on the ball of the right big toe. Use the right hand to pull (or twist) the sole of the foot upward. At the same time, use the fingers of the right hand to pull the toes of the right foot up toward the top of the foot.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis, right quadratus plantae, right abductor digiti minimi, right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right plantar interosseous.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right anterior tibialis, right flexor hallucis longus, right flexor digitorum longus, right posterior tibialis, right abductor hallucis.

Make sure to stabilize the foot and ankle with a firm hold. If you grasp the very ends of the toes and pull harder, then you will be able to stretch these muscles even farther. You will feel the stretch on the sole (plantar side) of the foot. .....
Seated Toe Flexor and Foot Inverter Stretch
64. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
While sitting on a chair with the left foot on the floor, raise the right ankle and place it on top of the left knee. Brace the right ankle with the left hand and place the fingers of the right hand perpendicular across the bottoms of the toes. Also place the pad of the right thumb on the ball of the right big toe. Use the fingers of the right hand to pull the toes of the right foot up toward the top of the foot. At the same time, use the right thumb to push the sole of the right foot down toward the floor. ? feet

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis, right lumbricales, right plantar interosseous, right abductor hallucis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right abductor digiti minimi, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.

Make sure to stabilize the foot and ankle with a firm hold. If you grasp the very ends of the toes and pull harder, then you will be able to stretch these muscles even farther. You will feel the stretch on the sole (plantar side) of the foot—the flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and quadratus plantae muscles. .....
Standing Toe Extensor Stretch
65. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright and brace against a wall or an object for balance. Point the right foot backward away from the body, dorsal (top) side of the toes down against the floor. While keeping the dorsal side of the toes pressed against the floor, lean your weight onto the right leg and press the bottom of the heel down toward the floor.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right extensor digitorum brevis, right extensor hallucis brevis, right anterior tibialis, right peroneus tertius.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right extensor hallucis longus, right extensor digitorum longus, right dorsal interosseous.

It is more comfortable to perform this stretch on a carpet or other soft surface. Be sure not to drag the foot that is pressed to the floor. Moving the heel medially or laterally will place greater stretch on either the dorsal medial or dorsal lateral parts of the foot. .....
Standing Toe Flexor Stretch
66. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright while facing the wall, 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) away. Keeping the heel of the foot on the floor, press the bottoms of the toes of the right foot up against the wall. The ball of the foot should be more than half an inch (more than 2 cm) above the floor. Lean forward and slide the ball of the foot slowly down, keeping the toes pressed against the wall.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis, right lumbricales, right plantar interosseous, right abductor hallucis, right abductor digiti minimi.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.

Make sure that the ball of the foot is parallel to the floor. This ensures that all of the toes are stretched equally. Also, slide the ball of the foot down slowly; otherwise, overstretching could happen. Bending the right knee slightly and moving the knee forward toward the wall will incorporate the calf muscles in the stretch. .....
Single Plantar Flexor Stretch
67. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand facing a wall 2 feet (61 cm) away. Brace your hands against the wall. Keeping the left foot in place, place the right foot 1 to 2 feet (30 to 61 cm) behind the left foot. The left foot is 1 to 2 feet away and the right foot is 2 to 4 feet (61 to 122 cm) away from the wall. Keeping the right heel on the floor, lean your chest toward the wall. You can bend the left knee slightly to facilitate moving the chest up against the wall.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right gastrocnemius, right soleus, right plantaris, right popliteus, right flexor digitorum longus, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis, right abductor digiti minimi, right abductor hallucis, right popliteus, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus, right biceps femoris.

As the chest gets closer to the wall, bending the knee slightly will realign the tibia and increase the distance between the muscle attachment points. This will increase the stretch on the posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, and flexor digitorum longus muscles while at the same time reducing the stretch on the hamstring muscles. .....
Double Plantar Flexor Stretch
68. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright on the edge of a stair or beam, with both heels unsupported out past the edge. Keep the right and left knees straight, and hold on to a support with at least one hand. Lower both heels down as far as possible.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor hallucis brevis, posterior tibialis, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi brevis, abductor digiti minimi, abductor hallucis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris.

It is more comfortable to do this stretch while wearing shoes. Always support the body—an unsupported body could cause the muscles to contract and not stretch. You will increase the extent of the stretch if you work one leg at a time. After the heels reach their lowest point, you can apply more stretch by bending the knees slightly. This will stretch the posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, and flexor digitorum longus muscles; at the same time it will reduce the stretch on the hamstring muscles. Placing the ball of the foot on the edge of the stairs or beam will increase the stretch on the origin (top part) of these muscle groups. Placing the midsection of the foot on the edge of the stairs or beam increases the stretch on the lower portion of these muscles. .....
Plantar Flexor and Foot Everter Stretch
69. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright on the edge of a stair or beam, with the midsection of the right foot on the edge. Place the foot in an inverted position (stand on the lateral [outer] side of the foot). Keep the right knee straight and the left knee slightly bent. Hold on to a support with at least one hand. Keeping the foot inverted, lower the right heel as far as possible.

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right peroneus longus, right peroneus brevis, right peroneus tertius, right abductor digiti minimi, lateral side of right soleus and right gastrocnemius, right flexor hallucis longus, right posterior tibialis.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right popliteus, right plantaris, medial head of right gastrocnemius, right biceps femoris, right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right flexor hallucis brevis.

It is more comfortable to do this stretch while wearing shoes. This is an excellent stretch for the peroneus longus and brevis and the abductor digiti minimi muscles, which are located at the lateral (outer) side of the lower leg and the foot. Be extra careful when placing the foot in an inverted position, and make sure to progress slowly through this stretching exercise. After the right heel reaches the floor or the lowest point, you can increase the stretch by bending the right knee slightly. This removes any stretch on hamstring muscles, but it stretches the calf muscles further. .....
Plantar Flexor and Foot Inverter Stretch
70. Foot and Calf Stretches:

Method:
Stand upright on the edge of a stair or beam, with the midsection of the right foot on the edge. Place the foot in an everted position (stand on the medial [inner] side of the foot). Bend the right knee slightly toward the midsection of the body (inside direction), with the left knee slightly bent. Hold on to a support with at least one hand. While keeping the foot everted, lower the right heel as far as possible."

Affected Body Part:
Most-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum longus, right abductor hallucis, medial side of right soleus, right posterior tibialis, right plantaris.
Lesser-stretched muscles: Right flexor digitorum brevis, right quadratus plantae, right flexor hallucis brevis, right flexor digiti minimi brevis, right medial gastrocnemius, right semitendinosus, right semimembranosus.

It is more comfortable to do this stretch while wearing shoes. This is an excellent stretch for the flexor digitorum longus, medial soleus, and abductor hallucis muscles, which are located at the medial side of the lower leg and foot. Take extra care when placing the foot in an everted position, and make sure to progress slowly through this stretching position. After the right heel reaches the floor or the lowest point, bending the right knee slightly can increase the stretch. This reduces the stretch on hamstring muscles, but it increases the stretch on the calf muscles. .....
Rules to play Taekwondo
Win In Taekwondo. At the end of 3 rounds (2 for juniors) the winner is the player with the most points.You can also win by knocking out you opponent.If its a draw after 3 rounds then there is a golden point round. The first player to score a point in this round wins.I .....
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Good digestion When emotions play a part. If you are aware of a link between digestive symptoms and your emotions, consider hypnotherapy. Research suggests this is one of the most effective treatments for any form of irritable bowel syndrome. .....
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Be extra gentle when defuzzing your face. Waxing and tweezing can cause scarring or spots, especially for women with darker skin.Prep your skin before hair removal by washing the area with an antibacterial wash, suggests Cook Bolden.And to avoid discoloration, make sure to have an aftercare .....
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