Famous indian scientists

Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose
1. Jagadish Chandra Bose was born on 30 November 1858, inMyemsingh, Faridpur, a part of the Dhaka District now in Bangladesh He attended the village school till he was 11 He then moved to Kolkata where he enrolled in St Xaviers He was very much interested in Biology However, Father Lafont, a famous Professor of Physics, inspired in Bose a great interest in Physics
Having obtained his BA in physical sciences, twenty two year old Bose left for London, to obtain a medical degree However, he kept falling ill and had to discontinue his plans to be a doctor He then obtained his BA degree from Christ College, Cambridge
He returned to India in 1885 and joined Presidency College, Kolkata as an Assistant Professor of Physics, where he remained till 1915 There was a peculiar practice in the college at that time The Indian teachers in the college were paid one third of what the British teachers were paid! So Bose refused his salary but worked for three years The fourth year he was paid in full! He was an excellent teacher, extensively using scientific demonstrations in class Some of his students, such as S N Bose went on to become famous physicists themselves
During this period, Bose also started doing original scientific work in the area of microwaves, carrying out experiments involving refraction, diffraction and polarization He developed the use of galena crystals for making receivers, both for short wavelength radio waves and for white and ultraviolet light In 1895, two years before Marconis demonstration, Bose demonstrated wireless communication using radio waves, using them to ring a bell remotely and to explode some gunpowder
Many of the microwave components familiar today waveguides, horn antennas, polarizers, dielectric lenses and prisms, and even semiconductor detectors of electromagnetic radiation were invented and used by Bose in the last decade of the nineteenth century He also suggested the existence of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, which was confirmed in 1944 Bose then turned his attention to response phenomena in plants He showed that not only animal but vegetable tissues, produce similar electric response under different kinds of stimuli .....
Prafulla Chandra Ray
2. Prafulla Chandra was born on 2 August 1861 in RaruliKatipara, a village in the District of Khulna (in present day Bangladesh) His early education started in his village school He often played truant and spent his time resting comfortably on the branch of a tree, hidden under its leaves After attending the village school, he went to Kolkata, where he studied at Hare School and the Metropolitan College The lectures of Alexander Pedler in the Presidency College, which he used to attend, attracted him to chemistry, although his first love was literature He continued to take interest in literature, and taught himself Latin and French at home After obtaining a FA diploma from the University of Calcutta, he proceeded to the University of Edinburgh on a Gilchrist scholarship where he obtained both his BSc and DSc degrees In 1888, Prafulla Chandra made his journey home to India Initially he spent a year working with his famous friend Jagadish Chandra Bose in his laboratory In 1889, Prafulla Chandra was appointed an Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the Presidency College, Kolkata His publications on mercurous nitrite and its derivatives brought him recognition from all over the world Equally important was his role as a teacher he inspired a generation of young chemists in India thereby building up an Indian school of chemistry Famous Indian scientists like Meghnad Saha and Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar were among his students
Prafulla Chandra believed that the progress of India could be achieved only by industrialization He set up the first chemical factory in India, with very minimal resources, working from his home In 1901, this pioneering effort resulted in the formation of the Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Ltd
He retired from the Presidency College in 1916, and was appointed as Professor of Chemistry at the University Science College In 1921 when Prafulla Chandra reached 60 years, he donated, in advance, all his salary for the rest of his service in the University to the development of the Department of Chemistry and to the creation of two research fellowships The value of this endowment was about two lakh rupees He eventually retired at the age of 75 In Prafulla Chandra Ray, the qualities of both a scientist and an industrial entrepreneur were combined and he can be thought of as the father of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry
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Srinivasa Ramanujan
3. Ramanujan was born in Erode, a small village in Tamil Nadu on 22 December 1887 When he was a year old his family moved to the town of Kumbakonam, where his father worked as a clerk in a cloth merchants shop When he was nearly five years old, Ramanujan enrolled in the primary school In 1898 he joined the Town High School in Kumbakonam At the Town High School, Ramanujan did well in all subjects and proved himself an able all round scholar It was here that he came across the book Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure Mathematics by G S Carr Influenced by the book, he began working on mathematics on his own, summing geometric and arithmetic series He was given a scholarship to the Government College in Kumbakonam However his scholarship was not renewed because Ramanujan neglected all subjects other than mathematics In 1905 he appeared for the First Arts examination which would have allowed him to be admitted to the University of Madras Again he failed in all subjects other than mathematics, a performance he repeated in 1906 and 1907 too In the following years he worked on mathematics, with only Carrs book as a guide, noting his results in what would become the famous Notebooks
He got married in 1909 and started looking for a job His search took him to many influential people, among them Ramachandra Rao, one of the founding members of the Indian Mathematical Society For a year he was supported by Ramachandra Rao who gave him Rs 25 per month He started posing and solving problems in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society His research paper on Bernoulli numbers, in 1911, brought him recognition and he became well known in Chennai as a mathematical genius In 1912, with Ramachandra Raos help, he secured the post of clerk in the accounts section of the Madras Port Trust He continued to pursue mathematics and in 1913 he wrote to G H Hardy in Cambridge, enclosing a long list of his own theorems Hardy immediately recognized Ramanujans mathematical ability On the basis of Hardys letters, Ramanujan was given a scholarship by the University of Madras in 1913 In 1914, Hardy arranged for him to go to Trinity College, Cambridge
Ramanujans work with Hardy produced important results right from the beginning In 1916 Ramanujan graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research In 1918, he was elected a Fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, all in the same year! However, from 1917 onwards he was seriously ill and mostly bedridden In 1919 he returned to India, in very poor health
Ramanujan made outstanding contributions to analytical number theory, elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series His published and unpublished works have kept some of the best mathematical brains in the world busy to this .....
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
4. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born at Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu on 7 November 1888 His father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics so from the very beginning he was immersed in an academic atmosphere Ramans academic brilliance was established at a very young age He finished his secondary school education at the tender age of thirteen and entered the Mrs AVN College at Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh Two years later he moved to the prestigious Presidency College in Chennai When he was fifteen, he topped his class to receive his BA degree with honours in Physics and English Raman continued his studies at the Presidency College and when he was barely eighteen, graduated at the top of his class and received his MA degree with honours
Raman joined the Indian Audit and Accounts Service and was appointed the Assistant Accountant General in the Finance Department in Kolkata In Kolkata, he sustained his interest in science by working in the laboratory of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, in his spare time studying the physics of stringed instruments and Indian drums
In 1917, Raman gave up his government job to become the Sir Taraknath Palit Professor of Physics at the Science College of University of Calcutta (191733) He made enormous contributions to research in the areas of vibration, sound, musical instruments, ultrasonics, diffraction, photoelectricity, colloidal particles, Xray diffraction, magnetron, dielectrics, etc In particular, his work on the scattering of light during this period brought him worldwide recognition
In 1924 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and a year later was honoured with the prestigious Hughes medal from the Royal Society Four years later, at the joint meeting of the South Indian Science Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore, he announced his discovery of what is now known as the Raman Effect
He was knighted in 1929, and in 1930, became the first Asian scientist to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his discoveries relating to the scattering of light (the Raman Effect) In 1934, he became the Director of the newly established Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore, where he remained till his retirement After retirement, he established the Raman Research Institute at Bangalore, where he served as the Director The Government of India conferred upon him its highest award,the Bharat Ratna in 1954 .....
Meghnad Saha
5. Meghnad Saha was born on 6 October 1893 in Sheoratali village near Dhaka in present day Bangladesh His father Jagannath Saha was a grocer in the village After primary education, he was admitted to a middle school that was seven miles away from home He stayed with a doctor near the school and had to work in that house to pay for his boarding and lodging Overcoming all these difficulties, he stood first in the Dhaka middle school test, thus securing a Government scholarship and joined the Dhaka Collegiate School in 1905
Great political unrest was prevailing in Bengal, caused by the partition of the province by the British against strong popular opinion Meghnad Saha was among the few senior students who staged a boycott of the visit by the then Governor, Sir Bampfylde Fuller and as a consequence forfeited his scholarship and had to leave the institution He then joined the Kisori Lal Jubilee School where he passed the entrance test of the University of Calcutta standing first among students from East Bengal He graduated from Presidency College with mathematics as his major
He then joined the newly established Science College in Kolkata as a lecturer and pursued his research activities in physics By 1920, Meghnad Saha had established himself as one of the leading physicists of the time His theory of hightemperature ionization of elements and its application to stellar atmospheres, as expressed by the Saha equation, is fundamental to modern astrophysics; subsequent development of his ideas has led to increased knowledge of the pressure and temperature distributions of stellar atmospheres In 1920, Saha went to Imperial College, London and later to Germany Two years later he returned to India and joined the University of Calcutta as Khaira Professor He then moved to the University of Allahabad and remained there till 1938, establishing the Science Academy in Allahabad (now known as the National Academy of Science) In 1927, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London
He returned to the University of Calcutta in 1938 where he introduced nuclear physics into the postgraduate physics curriculum In 1947 he established the Indian Institute of Nuclear Physics (now known as the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics) Later in his life, Saha played an active role in the development of scientific institutions throughout India as well as in national economic planning involving technology .....
Satyendra Nath Bose
6. Satyendra Nath Bose was born on New Years day, 1894 in Goabagan in Kolkata. His father was an accountant in Indian Railways. Satyendra Nath popularly known as Satyen Bose, did his schooling at Hindu School, Kolkata, and then joined Presidency College. He excelled in academics throughout his education ? Intermediate, B.Sc. and M.Sc. with applied mathematics. His teacher at the Presidency College was Jagadish Chandra Bose - whose other stellar pupil was Meghnad Saha. Bose took his B.Sc. examination in 1913 and his M.Sc examination in 1915. He stood first in both the examinations, the second place going to Meghnad Saha.
He worked as a lecturer of physics in the Science College of the University of Calcutta (1916-21) and along with Meghnad Saha, introduced postgraduate courses in modern mathematics and physics. He derived with Saha, the Saha-Bose equation of state for a nonideal gas. In 1921, Bose left Kolkata to become a Reader at the Dakha University. It was during this period that he wrote the famous paper on the statistics of photons. It was named Bose statistics after him and is now an integral part of physics. Paul Dirac, the legendary physicist, coined the term boson for particles obeying these statistics. Apart from this he did theoretical work on the general theory of relativity and also experimental work on crystallography, fluorescence, and thermoluminescence.
Bose spent about 10 months in Paris in 1924, doing research with Madame Curie and Louis de Broglie. Later he went to Berlin where he met Einstein. He returned to Dhaka in 1926 and became Professor. Shortly before Independence, Bose returned to Kolkata to become the Khaira Professor of Physics, a post he kept till 1956. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1958, and the Government of India named him a National Professor and awarded him the honor of Padma Vibhushan. .....
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar
7. Bhatnagar was born on 21 February 1894 at Bhera, in the district of Shapur in Punjab (now in Pakistan) When he was barely eight months old, his father passed away He spent his next thirteen years under the care of his maternal grandfather in Bulandshahar in Uttar Pradesh Under the influence of his grandfather, young Bhatnagar not only developed a taste for engineering and science but also became interested at a very early age in geometry and algebra and in making mechanical toys In 1911, Shanti published a letter to the editor, in The Leader, Allahabad, on how to make a substitute for carbon electrodes in a battery using molasses and carbonaceous matter under pressure and heat
Matriculating the same year, he joined the Dayal Singh College, Lahore After finishing his intermediate examination in first division, Shanti joined the Forman Christian College and after his BSc and MSc degrees, he spent the next two years at the University of London earning his DSc degree on the surface tension of oils, under the supervision of Professor FG Donnan Returning to India in 1921, he joined the Benares Hindu University as a Professor, remaining there till 1924 From 1924 to 1940 he served as the Director of the University Chemical Laboratories, Lahore, addressing problems in industrial and applied chemistry
In August 1940, Bhatnagar took over as the Director of the newly created Directorate of Scientific and Industrial Research This organisation became the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, with Bhatnagar as its Director Bhatnagars tenure saw the setting up of 12 laboratories and the total number of CSIR laboratories today stands at 40
The British Government conferred on him the Order of the British Empire and in 1941, he was made the Knight Bachelor In 1943 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and received the Padma Vibhushan (1954) from the Government of India
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar played a significant part along with Homi Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Vikram Sarabhai and others in building of postindependence Science & Technology infrastructure and in the formulation of Indias science policies .....
Homi Jehangir Bhabha
8. Homi Bhabha was born on 30 October 1909 in Mumbai Son of a barrister, he grew up in a privileged environment In Mumbai he attended the Cathedral & John Connon School and then Elphinstone College, followed by the Royal Institute of Science After passing the Senior Cambridge Examination at the age of sixteen, he joined the Gonvile and Caius College in Cambridge with an intention to pursue mechanical engineering His mathematics tutor was Paul Dirac, and Bhabha became fascinated with mathematics and theoretical physics He earned his engineering degree in 1930 and PhD in 1934
In 1937, together with W Heitler, a German physicist, Bhabha solved the riddle about cosmic rays Cosmic rays are fast moving, extremely small particles coming from outer space When these particles enter the earths atmosphere, they collide with the atoms of air and create a shower of electrons Bhabhas discovery of the presence of nuclear particles (which he called mesons) in these showers was used to validate Einsteins theory of relativity making him world famous
When the war broke out in Europe, Bhabha was on a holiday in India In 1940, CV Raman, then head of the Physics Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, persuaded Bhabha to join the institute as a Reader in Physics and Bhabha decided to stay back in India In 1941, Homi Bhabha was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, London, in recognition of his contributions to the field of cosmic rays, elementary particles and quantum mechanics Bhabha soon realized the need for an institute fully devoted to fundamental research, and wrote to JRD Tata for funding This resulted in the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai in 1945, with Bhabha as the Director, a position he held until his death In 1948, Homi Bhabha was appointed the Chairman of the International Atomic Energy Commission Under his guidance, nuclear reactors like the Apsara, Cirus and Zerlina were built He gained international recognition for his excellent work and served as the President of the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, which was held in Geneva in 1955 He was the President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics from 1960 to 1963
A multifaceted personality, Bhabha was immensely fond of music, painting and writing Some of his paintings are displayed in the British Art Galleries and the TIFR art collection today is rated as one of the best collections of contemporary Indian art in the country
He is the recipient of the Adams Award, Padma Bhushan, an Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States .....
Subramaniam Chandrasekhar
9. Subramaniam Chandrasekhar, a nephew of Sir CV Raman, was born on 19 October 1910 in Lahore, (now in Pakistan) His father was an officer in the Department of Audits and Accounts of the Indian Government Services Chandrasekhar received his elementary education from his parents and private tutors when he was in Lahore In 1918 Chandra moved to Chennai where he attended the Hindu High School finishing his secondary school education with honours He then joined the Presidency College, there taking his Bachelor of Science degree in physics with honours
His first scientific paper, Compton Scattering and the New Statistics, was published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society in 1928 On the basis of this paper he was accepted as a research student by RH Fowler at the University of Cambridge On the voyage to England, he developed the theory of white dwarf stars, showing that a star of mass greater than 145 times the mass of the sun could not become a white dwarf This limit is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit
He obtained his doctorate in 1933 Soon after receiving his doctorate, Chandrasekhar was awarded the Prize Fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge In 1937, he accepted the position of Research Associate at the University of Chicago Chandrasekhar stayed at University of Chicago throughout his career, becoming the Morton D Hall Distinguished Service Professor in Astronomy and Astrophysics in 1952 In 1952 he established the Astrophysical Journal and was its editor for 19 years, transforming it from a local publication of the University of Chicago into the national journal of the American Astronomical Society He became a US citizen in 1958 He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London and in 1962 received the Societys Royal Medal He also received the US National Medal of Science (1966) He was awarded the Nobel prize for Physics in 1983 for his theoretical work on the physical processes of importance to the structure of stars and their evolution Chandra was a popular teacher who guided over fifty students to their PhDs including some who went on to win the Nobel prize themselves!! His research explored nearly all branches of theoretical astrophysics and he published ten books, each covering a different topic, including one on the relationship between art and science .....
Vikram Sarabhai
10. Vikram Sarabhai was born on 12 August 1919 at Ahmedabad He had his early education in a private school,Retreat run by his parents on Montessori lines This atmosphere injected into the young boy the seeds of scientific curiosity, ingenuity and creativity With a natural inclination towards physics and mathematics, Vikram Sarabhai did not get into his family business After school and college in Gujarat, he went to England and obtained his tripos at St Johns College in 1939 He returned to India for a while and worked alongside Sir CV Raman in the field of cosmic rays, at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, after which he returned to Cambridge, England for further research in the area and completed his PhD in 1947 He established the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad in 1948, in a few rooms at the MG Science Institute with Professor KK Ramanathan as Director In April 1954, PRL moved into a new building and Dr Sarabhai made it the cradle of the Indian Space Programme At the young age of 28, he was asked to organise and create the ATIRA, the Ahmedabad Textile Industrys Research Association and was its Honorary Director during 194956 He also helped build and direct the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad from 19621965
Sarabhai pioneered Indias space age by expanding the Indian Space Research Organization Indias first satellite Aryabhata launched in 1975, was one of the many projects planned by him Like Bhabha, Sarabhai wanted the practical application of science to reach the common man Thus he saw a golden opportunity to harness space science to the development of the country in the fields of communication, meteorology, remote sensing and education The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) launched in 1975 76, brought education to five million people in 2,400 Indian villages In 1965, he established the Community Science Centre in Ahmedabad with a view to popularise science among children His deep cultural interests led him, along with his wife Mrinalini Sarabhai, to establish Darpana Academy, an institution devoted to performing arts and propagation of ancient culture of India He was the recipient of the Bhatnagar Memorial Award for Physics in 1962, the Padma Bhushan in 1966, and was posthumously awarded the Padma Vibhushan He was the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1966, VicePresident and Chairman of the UN Conference on peaceful uses of outer space in 1968, and President of the 14th General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency The International Astronomical Union named a crater in the moon (in the Sea of Serenity) after him, in honour of his contributions to science .....
C R Rao
11. Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao was born to CD Naidu and A Laxmikantamma on 10 September 1920 in Huvvina Hadagalli in present day Karnataka He was the eighth in a family of 10 children After his fathers retirement, the family settled down in Vishakapatnam in Andhra Pradesh From his earliest years, Rao had an interest in mathematics After completing high school he joined the Mrs AVN College at Vishakapatnam for the Intermediate course He received his MA in Mathematics with first rank in 1940 Rao decided to pursue a research career in mathematics, but was denied a scholarship on the grounds of late submission of the application He then went to Kolkata for an interview for a job He did not get the job, but by chance he visited the Indian Statistical Institute, then located in a couple of rooms in the Physics Department of the Presidency College, Kolkata He applied for a oneyear training course at the Institute and was admitted to the Training Section of the Institute from 1 January 1941 In July 1941 he joined the MA Statistics program of the Calcutta University By the time he passed the MA exam in 1943, winning the gold medal of the University, he had already published some research papers! In 1943 he joined ISI as a technical apprentice, doing research, teaching in the Training Section of the Institute and at Calcutta University and assisting Professor Mahalanobis in editing Sankhya the Indian Journal of Statistics
In 1946 he was deputed to the Cambridge University on a project While working full time on this, he also worked in the genetic laboratory of RA Fisher, the father of modern statistics and completed his PhD under Fisher By this time Rao had already completed some of the work which carries his name: CramerRao inequality, RaoBlackwell theorem, Raos score test and Raos orthogonal arrays He returned to ISI in 1948 and in 1949 was made a Professor at the very young age of 29 He headed and developed the Research and Training Section of the ISI, and went on to become Director of the ISI He became the associate editor of the Sankhya in 1964 and became the editor in 1972 He left ISI in 1978 and joined the University of Pittsburgh In 1988 he moved to the Pennsylvannia State University holding the Eberly Family Chair in Statistics and the Directorship of the Centre for Multivariate Analysis till 2001
Dr Rao is a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 2001 The CR Rao Award for Statistics was instituted in his honor, to be given once in two years In 2002 he was awarded the National Medal of Science of the USA The Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science in the Osmania University Campus has been named after him .....
K Chandrasekharan
12. Komaravolu Chandrasekharan was born on 21 November 1920 in Machilipatnam in modernday Andhra Pradesh He attended District Board School in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, and then High School at Bapatla, also in Guntur He then obtained his MA in Mathematics from the Presidency College, Chennai and was a Research Scholar in the Department of Mathematics of the University of Madras during 19401943 During 194346 he was a parttime Lecturer at Presidency College and obtained his PhD during this time under Ananda Rau, who was with Ramanujan in Cambridge Chandrasekharan then went to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA
In 1949, while he was in Princeton, he was invited by Homi Bhabha to join the School of Mathematics of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research An extraordinarily gifted organiser and administrator of science, he transformed the fledgling School of Mathematics of TIFR into a centre of excellence respected the world over He initiated a very successful programme of recruitment and training of Research Scholars at TIFR The programme continues to this day along the same lines that he set down He put to excellent use his contacts with the leading mathematicians of the world, persuading many of them (like L Schwartz, a Fields medalist, and CL Siegel) to visit TIFR and deliver courses of lectures over periods of two months and more The lecture notes prepared out of these lectures and published by TIFR enjoy a great reputation in the world mathematics community to this day During 195561, he was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Mathematical Union (IMU) He served as the Secretary of IMU during 196166 and as President during 197174 His initiatives over a long period of 24 years on this Committee were numerous and valued greatly He served as the Vice President of the International Council of Scientific Unions during 196366 and as its Secretary General during 196670 He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet, Government of India during 196166 He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1959, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in 1963 and the Ramanujan Medal in 1966 He was responsible for the IMU sponsoring the International Mathematical Colloquium held every 4 years at the Tata Institute starting 1956 In 1957 on his initiative, TIFR published the Notebooks of Srinivasa Ramanujan In the fifties, Chandrasekharan held the editorship of the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society Thanks to his abilities at persuading some of the great names in the field to publish there, several great papers appeared in the journal during this period
In 1965 he left TIFR and moved to Eidgerossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich He worked in the fields of number theory and summability His mathematical achievements are first rate, but his contribution to Indian mathematics has been even greater .....
Har Gobind Khorana
13. Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, Punjab, (now in Pakistan) on 9 January 1922 His father was a patwari, a village agricultural taxation clerk in the BritishIndian system of government Har Gobind did his schooling from the DAV High School in Multan He received his BSc and MSc degrees from the Punjab University in Lahore Khorana lived in India until 1945, when the award of a Government of India Fellowship made it possible for him to go to England and he studied for a Ph D degree at the University of Liverpool
Khorana spent a postdoctoral year (19481949) at the Eidgen .....
G N Ramachandran
14. G N Ramachandran was born on 8 October 1922 in Ernakulam, Kerala His father G Narayana Iyer was the principal of Maharajas college in Ernakulam Ramachandran did his intermediate from Maharajas college and his BSc (Hons) in Physics from St Josephs College, Tiruchi In 1942 he joined the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore as a student in the Electrical Engineering department However, under the influence of CV Raman, he shifted to Physics He obtained his MSc and then his PhD in 1947, under Ramans supervision He then went to the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge and obtained his second PhD degree under Prof Wooster He returned to India in 1949 and joined IISc as an Assistant Professor In 1952, at the young age of 30, he moved to Madras as the Head of the Physics Department at the University of Madras On the suggestion of JD Bernal, the crystallographer and chemist, who visited the University in 1952, he started work on determining the structure of the protein collagen, the fibrous protein found in skin, bone and tendon Based on the limited data available at the time, in 1954, he proposed, along with Gopinath Kartha, the triplehelix structure for collagen, later revised in the light of new data to the coiled coil structure for biomolecules This was a fundamental advance in the understanding of biomolecular structures He and his colleagues C Ramakrishnan and V Sasisekharan went on to develop methods to examine and assess structures of biomolecules, in particular peptides In 1963, this resulted in the famous Ramachandran map, which is an indispensable tool in the study of molecular structures today His contributions in the field of Xray crystallography such as anomalous dispersion, new kinds of Fourier syntheses, and Xray intensity statistics are also extremely important His 1971 paper with AV Lakshminarayanan on threedimensional image reconstruction was to have important applications in Computer Assisted Tomography (The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to AM Cormack and Sir GN Hounsfield for their work in CAT)
In 1971 Ramachandran returned to Bangalore to set up the Molecular Biophysics Unit at the IISc which is today a major research centre He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977 and was awarded the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar award In 1999, The International Union of Crystallography awarded him the prestigious Ewald Prize, which is given only once in three years He was the editor of Current Science between 1950 and 1957 .....
Harish Chandra
15. Harish Chandra was born on 11 October 1923 in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh He attended school in Kanpur and then the University of Allahabad, where he studied theoretical physics After obtaining his masters degree in 1943 he joined the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore to work further with Homi Bhabha on theoretical physics Dr Bhabha arranged for Harish Chandra to go to Cambridge to work for his PhD under the legendary Paul Dirac In 1947 Dirac visited Princeton for one year and Harish Chandra worked as his assistant during this time In Princeton he met and was greatly influenced by the great French mathematician Chevalley, giving up physics altogether and taking up mathematics Harish moved to Columbia University after his year at Princeton In 1963, Harish Chandra was invited to become a permanent member of the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton He was appointed IBMvon Neumann Professor in 1968
Harish Chandra received many awards in his career He was a Fellow of both the Indian Academy of Sciences and the Indian National Science Academy In 1974, he received the Ramanujan Medal from Indian National Science Academy He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and also won the Cole prize from the American Mathematical Society in 1954 for his papers on representations of semisimple Lie algebras and groups Harish Chandra is quoted as saying that he believed that his lack of background in mathematics was in a way responsible for the novelty of his work:I have often pondered over the roles of knowledge or experience, on the one hand, and imagination or intuition, on the other, in the process of discovery I believe that there is a certain fundamental conflict between the two, and knowledge, by advocating caution, tends to inhibit the flight of imagination Therefore, a certain naivete, unburdened by conventional wisdom, can sometimes be a positive asset His profound contributions to the representation theory of Lie groups, harmonic analysis, and related areas left researchers a rich legacy that continues today .....
M K Vainu Bappu
16. Manali Kallat Vainu Bappu was born on August 10, 1927 to a senior astronomer in the Nizamiah Observatory, Hyderabad A brilliant student throughout, Vainu Bappu not only excelled in studies but took active part in debates, sports and other extra curricular activities However, astronomy to which he was exposed from an early age, became his passion Being a keen amateur astronomer, even as an undergraduate, he had published papers on variable star observations After obtaining his Masters degree in Physics from Madras University, Vainu Bappu joined the prestigious Harvard University on a scholarship
Within a few months of his arrival at Harvard, Vainu Bappu discovered a comet This comet was named BappuBokNewkirk, after Bappu and his colleagues Bart Bok and Gordon Newkirk who worked out the details of this comet He completed his PhD in 1952 and joined the Palomar observatory on the prestigious Carnegie Fellowship There, he and Colin Wilson discovered a relationship between the luminosity of particular kinds of stars and some of their spectral characteristics This important observation came to be known as the BappuWilson effect and is used to determine the luminosity and distance of these kind of stars
He returned to India in 1953 and largely through his efforts, he set up the Uttar Pradesh State Observatory in Nainital In 1960 he left Nainital to take over as the Director of the Kodaikanal Observatory He modernised the facilities there and it is today an active centre of astronomical research He however realised that the Kodaikanal Observatory was inadequate for making stellar observations and started searching for a good site for a stellar observatory As a result of his efforts, a totally indigenous 23 meter telescope was designed, fabricated and installed in Kavalur, Tamil Nadu Both the telescope and the observatory were named after him when it was commissioned in 1986
He was awarded the Donhoe CometMedal (1949) by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, elected as Honorary Foreign Fellow of the Belgium Academy of Sciences and was an Honorary Member of the American Astronomical Society He was elected President of the International Astronomical Union in 1979 .....
Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan
17. Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan was born in Kumbakonam district of Tamil Nadu in 7 August 1925 in a welltodo family He earned his Bachelors degree in Zoology in Maharajas College in Trivandrum, Kerala and later went on to again earn a Bachelors degree in Agricultural Sciences from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University He described that his motivation for choosing his career path in agricultural sciences was the Bengal famine of 1943 He then took up a career in plant genetics mainly focussing on plants that served as source of food for humans He is known as the Father of Green Revolution in India for his leadership and success in introducing high yield varieties of wheat and rice in India He was the first recipient of World Food Prize in 1987 He has worked worldwide in collaboration with students and colleagues on a range of subjects pertaining to plant breeding, agricultural research and development and conservation of natural resources He has been honored by Government of India with Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan for his contributions He is currently the chairman of the National Commission on Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security of India .....
A P J Abdul Kalam
18. APJ Abdul Kalam was born in a poor Tamil Muslim family in the Rameshwaram district of Tamil Nadu on 15 October 1931 Right from his childhood, he was an average student, but teachers described him as a hardworking and a bright student with exceptional love for mathematics and science He graduated in physics from Saint Josephs College, Tiruchirappalli in 1954 and later graduated from Madras Institute of Technology in Aerospace Engineering in 1960 It was a time when Aerospace Engineering in India was in its nascent stages He joined Aeronautical Development Establishment of DRDO and started his career designing small helicopter for Indian Army In 1969, he was transferred to ISRO and made the project director of Indias first satellite launch vehicle SLV, which later successfully deployed Rohini satellite in 1979 In the 1970s, he was also involved in two other important projects to develop indigenous ballistic missiles on the technology used to launch SLV vehicle He played a vital role in developing most of Indias current missiles under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program including the most famed Agni range of missiles He also served as 11th President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007 .....
Aryabhata
19. ?ryabha?a was an Indian mathematician and astronomer, and the author of the MahaSiddhanta The numeral II is given to him to distinguish him from the earlier and more influential ?ryabha?aAryabhata IIs most eminent work was Mahasiddhanta The treatise consists of eighteen chapters and was written in the form of verse in Sanskrit The initial twelve chapters deals with topics related to mathematical astronomy and covers the topics that Indian mathematicians of that period had already worked on The various topics that have been included in these twelve chapters are: the longitudes of the planets, lunar and solar eclipses, the estimation of eclipses, the lunar crescent, the rising and setting of the planets, association of the planets with each other and with the stars
The next six chapters of the book includes topics such as geometry, geography and algebra, which were applied to calculate the longitudes of the planets In about twenty verses in the treatise, he gives elaborate rules to solve the indeterminate equation: by = ax + c These rules have been applied to a number of different cases such as when c has a positive value, when c has a negative value, when the number of the quotients is an even number, when this number of quotients is an odd number, etc .....
Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri
20. Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (14 September 1923 ? 18 June 2005) was a leading Indian physicist, renowned for his research in general relativity and cosmology. His most significant contribution is the eponymous Raychaudhuri's equation, which demonstrates that singularities arise inevitably in general relativity and is a key ingredient in the proofs of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Raychaudhuri was also revered as a teacher during his tenure at Presidency College, Kolkata. Many of his students have gone on to become established scientists.Raychaudhuri was born to Surabala and Sureshchandra Raychaudhuri on September 14, 1923 in Barisal of undivided Bengal in British India, which is now a part of Bangladesh. His father taught mathematics at a school in Kolkata. His father's cousin, Professor Hemchandra Raychaudhuri was a renowned historian and the Carmichael Professor of History at the University of Calcutta.
Raychaudhuri received his early schooling at Tirthapati Institution in Kolkata and went on to complete matriculation from Hindu School. He demonstrated an aptitude for mathematics at an early age. He graduated from Presidency College in 1942 and completed his M.Sc. at Calcutta University in 1944.
After earning his master's degree, Raychaudhuri spent four years doing experimental work.During this time, working in complete isolation, he taught himself differential geometry and the theory of general relativity. In 1952 he took a research job with the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), but to his frustration was required to work on the properties of metals rather than general relativity, which was not yet considered to be truly part of the mainstream of physics. Despite these adverse pressures, he was able to derive and publish the equation which is now named for him a few years later.Some years later, having learned that his 1955 paper was highly regarded by notable physicists, such as Pascual Jordan, Raychaudhuri was sufficiently emboldened to submit a doctoral dissertation, and received his degree in 1959.In 1961, Raychaudhuri joined the faculty of his alma mater, Presidency College in Calcutta. Ironically, his work was not widely recognized in India until the nineteen seventies, when he became a well known scientific hero. Shortly before his death, a documentary film on his career was completed. .....
Abhas Mitra
21. Abhas Mitra (born June 3, 1955) is an Indian astrophysicist best known for his distinct views on several frontline astrophysics concepts, particularly black holes and Big Bang Cosmology Mitra have regularly questioned the mainstream cosmological concepts of Big Bang and Black Hole, He claims to have offered exact proofs that (i) The socalled Black Holes cannot be true black black holes even within the context of classical General relativity and (ii) The Big Bang solution is illusory and actual universe must be fundamentally different from the big bang paradigmConsequently Dark Energy, his research claims, is an illusion caused by the departure of the complex universe from the simple big bang modelAs of 2014, he heads the theoretical astrophysics section of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India
Though Mitra stresses that the `Black Hole solutions are correct, his contention is that Black Hole masses, arising from relevant integration constants, are actually zero His peer reviewed paper published in Journal of Mathematical Physics of the American Institute of Physics supports this contention by showing that Schwarzschild black holes have M = 0[27] If so, (i) The socalled massive Black Hole Candidates (BHCs) must be quasiblack holes rather than exact black holes and (ii) During preceding gravitational collapse, entire mass energy and angular momentum of the collapsing objects must be radiated away before formation of exact mathematical black holes And since the formation of a mathematical zero mass black hole requires infinite proper time, continued gravitational collapse becomes eternal, and the socalled black hole candidates must be Eternally Collapsing Objects (ECO)Mitras peer reviewed papers describe why continued physical gravitational collapse should lead to formation of ECOs rather than true black holes, and the mathematical ``black hole states can be achieved only asymptotically An ECO is essentially a quasistable ultracompact ball of fire (plasma) which is so hot due to preceding gravitational contraction that its outward radiation pressure balances its inward pull of gravity Some American astrophysicists claimed to have verified this prediction that astrophysical Black Hole Candidates are actually ECOs rather than true mathematical black holes The corresponding Harvard University Press Release acknowledges Mitras original contribution in this context .....
Abhay Ashtekar
22. Abhay Vasant Ashtekar (born July 5, 1949) is an Indian theoretical physicist He is the Eberly Professor of Physics and the Director of the Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry at Pennsylvania State University As the creator of Ashtekar variables, he is one of the founders of loop quantum gravity and its subfield loop quantum cosmology He has also written a number of descriptions of loop quantum gravity that are accessible to nonphysicists In 1999, Ashtekar and his colleagues were able to calculate the entropy for a black hole, matching a legendary 1974 prediction by Hawking Oxford mathematical physicist Roger Penrose has described Ashtekars approach to quantum gravity as The most important of all the attempts at quantizing general relativity
Abhay Ashtekar grew up in several cities, including Mumbai, in the state of Maharashtra, India After completing his undergraduate education in India, Ashtekar enrolled in the graduate program for gravitation at the University of Texas at AustinHe went on to complete his PhD at the University of Chicago under the supervision of Robert Geroch in 1978 and held several appointments at Oxford, Paris, Syracuse before settling at Penn StateHe married Christine Clarke in 1986 and the two have a son, Neil Ashtekar .....
Anil Bhardwaj
23. Anil Bhardwaj (born June 1, 1967) is the Director of the Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Trivandrum, India He is the recipient of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in 2007, and was awarded NRC Senior Research Associteship by US National Academy of Science in 2003 He worked at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, during January 2004 to October 2005 He was awarded fellowship grant by United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs, Vienna, Austria, in 1996 He is a Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore; Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi; Indian Geophysical Union, Hyderabad; and Kerala Academy of Sciences, Trivandrum He was also awarded ISRO Team Excellence Award for Chandrayaan1 Science and Mission in 2008 He is a member of International Astronomical Union Currently, he is the member of INSAICSU Committee for COSPAR, SCOSTEP and URSI, and ViceChair of COSPAR Commission B
Dr Bhardwaj did his graduation in Maths, Statistics, and Physics with Honours, and obtained his Master of Science degree in Physics from Lucknow University He received his Doctorate Degree in Applied Physics (Planetary and Space Science) in 2002 from Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi As a Planetary and Space Scientist, Dr Bhardwajs research interests include theoretical and observational studies of planetary surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and their coupling with magnetospheric plasma and solar wind His Current Research Interests are: Aurora and airglow processes in planetary atmospheres, chemistry of planetary ionospheres, auroral plasma processes on comets and its implications on coma chemistry, Monte Carlo simulations of processes in atmosphere, solar windlunar interaction, ENA imaging of the lunar surface and Earths magnetosphereionosphere system, groundbased and spacebased multiwavelength (Xray, UV, visible, radio) imaging and spectroscopy of emissions from planetary bodies, and comparative planetology The planetary bodies on which worked include, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Triton, Titan, Io plasma torus, Rings of Saturn, Venus, Mars, Earth, Moon, and Comets Dr Bhardwaj has been the Principal Investigator of the SARA (SubkeV Atom Reflecting Analyzer) experiment on the Chandrayaan1 mission .....
Anil Kakodkar
24. Anil Kakodkar is an Indian nuclear scientist and mechanical engineer He was the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India and the Secretary to the Government of India, he was the Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay from 19962000 He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, Indias second highest civilian honour, on January 26, 2009 Apart from playing a major role in Indias nuclear tests asserting sovereignty, Kakodkar champions Indias selfreliance on thorium as a fuel for nuclear energy
Kakodkar was born in 1943 (November 11, 1943), in Barwani princely state (present day Madhya Pradesh state) to Kamala Kakodkar and Purushottam Kakodkar, both Gandhian freedom fighters He had his early education at Barwani and at Khargone, until moving to Mumbai for postmatriculation studiesKakodkar graduated from Ruparel College, then from VJTI, University of Mumbai with a degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1963 He joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1964 He obtained a masters degree in experimental stress analysis from the University of Nottingham in 1969
He joined the Reactor Engineering Division of the BARC and played a key role in design and construction of the Dhruva reactor, a completely original but hightech project He was a part of the core team of architects of Indias Peaceful Nuclear Tests in 1974 and 1998 Further he has led the indigenous development in Indias Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor Technology His work in the rehabilitation of the two reactors at Kalpakkam and the first unit at Rawatbhata, which at one stage were on the verge of being written off, are examples of his engineering capability In 1996 he became Director of the BARC and since 2000 he is leading the Atomic Energy Commission of India and also is the secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy He has published over 250 scientific papers He believes that India should be selfreliant in energy, especially by use of the cheap national thorium resources Today, he continues to engage in designing the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, that uses thoriumuranium 233 as the primary energy source with plutonium as the driver fuel The unique reactor system, with simplified but safe technology, will generate 75 per cent of electricity from thorium .....
Animesh Chakravorty
25. Animesh Chakraborty (born June 30, 1935) is a Bengali Indian academic and a professor of chemistry In 1975, he was awarded the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology in chemistry by the Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchAfter his graduation from the Scottish Church College, he did his postgraduation from the University of CalcuttaHe had subsequently earned a doctorate in chemistry from the University of CalcuttaHe had started as a research associate at the MIT and Harvard He had also served as professor and head of the department of chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, and as professor and head of the department of inorganic chemistry at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science at the University of Calcutta, and as a visiting professor at the Texas A&M University He was also the Hindustan Lever Research Professor at the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research He had guided fifty eight PhDs and numerous postdoctoral associates, many of the former students have become well known personalities and are doing outstanding work in academic and industrial organizations in India and abroad .....
Anna Mani
26. Anna Mani (23 August 1918 ? 16 August 2001) was an Indian physicist and meteorologist.She was the Deputy Director General of the Indian Meteorological Department. She made significant contributions in the field of meteorological instrumentation. She conducted research and published numerous papers on solar radiation, ozone and wind energy measurements.Anna Mani was born in Peerumedu, Travancore. Her father was a civil engineer. She was the seventh of eight children in her family. During her childhood, she was a voracious reader. She was impressed by the activities of Gandhi during Vaikom satyagraha. Inspired by the nationalist movement, she took to wearing only Kh?d? garments. She wanted to pursue medicine, but she decided in favour of physics because she liked the subject. In 1939, she graduated from the Presidency College in Madras, with a B.Sc Honors degree in physics and chemistry.After graduating from the Presidency college, she worked under Prof. C V Raman, researching the optical properties of ruby and diamond.She authored five research papers, but she was not granted a PhD because she did not have a master's degree in physics. Then she moved to Britain to study pursue physics, but she ended up studying meteorological instruments at Imperial College London. After returning to India in 1948, she joined the Meteorological department in Pune. She published numerous research papers on meteorological instrumentation. She retired as the deputy director general of the Indian Meteorological department in 1976. She authored two books, The Handbook for Solar Radiation data for India in 1980 and Solar Radiation over India in 1981. She won the K.R. Ramanathan Medal in 1987. .....
Arun Majumdar
27. Arun Majumdar is a materials scientist, engineer, and Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay graduate who was President Barack Obamas nominee for the Under Secretary of Energy between November 30, 2011 and May 15, 2012He formerly ran the Environmental Energy Technologies Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where he was also deputy director of LBNL as well as professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley He was nominated to be the first director of the US Department of Energys Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy (ARPAE) and appointed to that position in September 2009 On May 15, 2012, the White House withdrew Majumdars nominationOn Dec 17, 2012, Google announced that Arun joined Google to drive Googleorgs energy initiatives and advise the company on their broader energy strategy Arun is a leading scientist in the fields of thermoelectric materials, heat and mass transfer, thermal management, and waste heat recovery He has published several hundred papers, patents, and conference proceedings, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering On August 16, 2012, Arun Majumdar copublished a paper in Nature with United States Secretary of Energy Steven Chu on Opportunities and Challenges for a Sustainable Energy Future, as well as gave a talk on the paper on the subject at Stanford University .....
Arun Netravali
28. Arun N Netravali (born 26 May 1946 in Mumbai, India) is an IndianAmerican computer engineer who has contribution in digital technology including HDTV He conducted seminal research in digital compression, signal processing and other fields Netravali was the last President of Bell Laboratories and Chief Scientist for Lucent Technologies before they went bankrupt He was born in Indore He received his undergraduate degree from the IIT Bombay, India, and an MS and a PhD from Rice University in Houston, Texas all in electrical engineering He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Columbia University, and Rutgers University .....
Arvind Bhatnagar
29. Arvind Bhatnagar made significant contributions to Solar Astronomy, and founded several planetaria across India He was the founderdirector of the Udaipur Solar Observatory, and the founder director of Nehru Planetarium of Bombay Prof Arvind Bhatnagar was known internationally for his significant contributions to Solar Astronomy He was the founderdirector of the Udaipur Solar Observatory He also took immense interest in popularization of astronomy and helped establishing several planetaria across India Arvind Bhatnagar was born in Beawar,Rajasthan on 19 November 1936 After completing his MSc in Physics,he joined the UP State Observatory, Nainital, in 1958 and worked there until 1961 He obtained his PhD degree in Solar Physics in 1964 from Agra University while working at the Kodaikanal Observatory under the guidance of Prof M K Vainu Bappu
He was awarded the Carnegie Fellowship to work at Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, USA, during 196870 Afterwards he worked as a Resident Astronomer at the Big Bear Solar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA till 1972In 1972, Prof Bhatnagar returned to India to establish a unique island solar observatory in the middle of Lake Fatehsagar in Udaipur under the aegis of the Vedhshala,Ahmedabad This lake site was carefully selected by him after taking into consideration the facts that Rajasthan received the maximum sunshine and the large body of lake water helps to stabilize the air turbulence arising due to heating of ground by the solar radiation Due to his efforts, the solar observatory was taken over by the Department of Space in December 1981 for its speedy growth, and was affiliated to the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad The Udaipur Solar Observatory has become internationally renowned as one of the major centers for highresolution solar observations It is also one of the six observatories located around the world participating in the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) for the study of solar interior
Another important event in Dr Arvind Bhatnagars Scientific tryst was on 24 October 1995, during the Total Solar Eclipse, where Dr Arvind Bhatnagar supervised the MiG25 aircraft flying at 80,000 feet altitude as they traveled along the path of the eclipse at 3,000 km/h, gaining several precious minutes of observation denied to researchers stuck on the groundThis was an attempt by Indian Scientists to pin down the exact diameter of the sunwhich today still remains unknown, by precisely measuring the suns shadow cast on the earth Three Indian Air Force planes were deployed with cameramen and scientists to examine the umbra Separately, a pair of IAF MiG25 fighters were fitted with equipment to photograph the outer solar corona and also the dust rings around it, in the darkest, clearest possible sky
In 1996, Prof Bhatnagar started a novel project called SUCHE (Swatch, Healthy,Urban, Clean and Hygienic Environment) Abhiyan in several localities of Udaipur under ASTHA Sansthan for solid waste management through public participation He was also appointed as one of the High Court Commissioners to monitor the directives of the High Court in connection with protection of the lake system of UdaipurProf Arvind Bhatnagar died on the evening of 18 May 2006 at Udaipur leaving behind a large void in both scientific as well as social front .....
Ashok Gadgil
30. Ashok Gadgil (born 1950 in India) Is Director of the Energy and Environmental Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley He specializes in heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and design for development He also has substantial experience in technical, economic, and policy research on energy efficiency and its implementation particularly in developing countries He is best known for his work with two developingworld technologies: UV Waterworks (a simple and effective and inexpensive water disinfection system), and the BerkeleyDarfur Stove (a lowcost stove to that saves fuelwood in internally displaced persons camps in Darfur)Dr Gadgil holds a PhD in Physics from the University of California, Berkeley and an MSc in Physics from Indian Institute of Technology, KanpurAt LBNL Dr Gadgil is Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, with a staff of approximately 550 Earlier, he led a group of about 20 researchers conducting experimental and modeling research in indoor airflow and pollutant transport Most of that work was focused on protecting building occupants from the threat of chemical and biological attacks In recent years, he has worked on ways to inexpensively remove arsenic from Bangladesh drinking water, and on improving cookstoves for Darfur (Sudan) refugees Concurrently, Dr Gadgil is Professor of Environmental Engineering at University of California, Berkeley Dr Gadgil has substantial experience in technical, economic, and policy research on energy efficiency and its implementation particularly in developing countries He has authored or coauthored more than 90 journal papers, and more than 100 conference papers In 1998 and again in 2006, Dr Gadgil was invited by the Smithsonian Institutions Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation to speak at the National Museum of American History about his life and work .....
Ashoke Sen
31. Ashoke Sen is an Indian theoretical physicist and distinguished professor at the HarishChandra Research Institute, Allahabad He also is the Morningstar Visiting professor at MIT His main area of work is String Theory He was among the first recipients of the Fundamental Physics Prize for opening the path to the realisation that all string theories are different limits of the same underlying theory This richly endowed prize has been set up by the Russian billionaire Yuri Milner for rewarding scientific breakthroughs Ashoke Sen was the only recipient from Asia of this inaugural prize
He was born in Calcutta, and is the elder son of Anil Kumar Sen, a former professor of physics at the Scottish Church College, and Gouri Sen, a homemaker After completing his schooling from the Sailendra Sircar Vidyalaya in Kolkata, he earned his bachelors of science degree in 1975 from the Presidency College under the University of Calcutta, and his masters three years later from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur He did his doctoral work in physics at Stony Brook UniversityAshoke Sen made a number of major original contributions to the subject of string theory, including his landmark paper on strongweak coupling duality or Sduality, which was influential in changing the course of research in the field He pioneered the study of unstable Dbranes and made the famous Sen conjecture about open string tachyon condensation on such branes His description of rolling tachyons has been influential in string cosmology He has also coauthored many important papers on string field theory In 1998 he won the fellowship of the Royal Society on being nominated by the theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking His contributions include the entropy function formalism for extremal black holes and its applications to attractors His current research interests are centered around the attractor mechanism and the precision counting of microstates of black holes .....
Birbal Sahni
32. Birbal Sahni (14 November 1891 ? 10 April 1949) was an Indian paleobotanist who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent, was also a geologist who took an interest in archaeology. He founded the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany in Lucknow, India. His greatest contributions lie in the study of botany of the plants of India as well as paleobotany. Apart from writing numerous influential papers on these topics he also served as the President of the National Academy of Sciences, India and as an Honorary President of the International Botanical Congress, Stockholm. He died on 10 April 1949.In 1917, Sahni joined Professor Seward to work on a 'Revision of Indian Gondwana plants' (1920, Palaeontologica Indica). In 1919 he briefly worked in Munich under the German plant morphologist Goebel. In 1920 he married Savitri Suri, daughter of Sunder Das Suri who was an Inspector of Schools in Punjab. Savitri took an interest in his work and was a constant companion. Sahni returned to India and served as Professor of Botany at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Punjab University for about a year. He was appointed the first Professor and Head of the Botany Department of the Lucknow University in 1921. The University of Cambridge recognized his researches by the award of the degree of Sc. D. in 1929. In 1932 Palaeontologica Indica included his account of the Bennettitalean plant that he named Williamsonia Sewardi, and another description of a new type of petrified wood, Homoxylon, bearing resemblance to the wood of a living homoxylous angiosperm, but from the Jurassic age. During the following years he not only continued his investigations but collected around him a group of devoted students from all parts of the country and built up a reputation for the University which soon became the first Center for botanical and palaeobotanical investigations in India. Sahni maintained close relations with researchers around the globe, being a friend of Chester A. Arnold, noted American paleobotanist who later served his year in residence from 1958-1959 at the institute. He was a founder of The Paleobotanical Society which established the Institute of Palaeobotany on 10 September 1946 which initially functioned in the Botany Department of Lucknow University but later moved to its present premises at 53 University Road, Lucknow in 1949. On 3 April 1949 the Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundation stone of the new building of the Institute. A week later, on 10 April 1949, Sahni succumbed to a heart attack.
Sahni was recognized by several academies and institutions in India and abroad for his research. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in 1936, the highest British scientific honor, awarded for the first time to an Indian botanist. He was elected Vice-President, Palaeobotany section, of the 5th and 6th International Botanical Congresses of 1930 and 1935, respectively; General President of the Indian Science Congress for 1940; President, National Academy of Sciences, India, 1937?1939 and 1943-1944. In 1948 he was elected an Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Another high honor which came to him was his election as an Honorary President of the International Botanical Congress, Stockholm in 1950, but he died before he could serve. After his demise, Sahni's samadhi was placed within the Institute of Paleobotany as a reminder of his groundbreaking work. .....
Brahmagupta
33. Brahmaguptawas an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote two important works on Mathematics and Astronomy: the Br?hmasphu?asiddh?nta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) (628), a theoretical treatise, and the Kha??akh?dyaka, a more practical text There are reasons to believe that Brahmagupta originated from Bhinmal Brahmagupta was the first to give rules to compute with zero The texts composed by Brahmagupta were composed in elliptic verse, as was common practice in Indian mathematics, and consequently has a poetic ring to it As no proofs are given, it is not known how Brahmaguptas mathematics was derivedIn the Br?hmasphu?asiddh?nta verses 7 and 8 of chapter XXIV state that Brahmagupta composed this text at the age of thirty in ?aka 550 (= 628 CE) during the reign of King Vy?ghramukha, we can thus gather that he was born in 598 Commentators refer to him as a great scholar from Bhinmal, a city in the state of Rajasthan of Northwest India In ancient times Bhillamala was the seat of power of the Gurjars His father was Jisnugupta He likely lived most of his life in Bhillamala (modern Bhinmal in Rajasthan) during the reign (and possibly under the patronage) of King Vyaghramukha As a result, Brahmagupta is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya, that is, the teacher from Bhillamala He was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, and during his tenure there wrote four texts on mathematics and astronomy: the Cadamekela in 624, the Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628, the Khandakhadyaka in 665, and the Durkeamynarda in 672 The Brahmasphutasiddhanta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) is arguably his most famous work The historian alBiruni (c 1050) in his book Tariq alHind states that the Abbasid caliph alMamun had an embassy in India and from India a book was brought to Baghdad which was translated into Arabic as Sindhind It is generally presumed that Sindhind is none other than Brahmaguptas BrahmasphutasiddhantaAlthough Brahmagupta was familiar with the works of astronomers following the tradition of Aryabhatiya, it is not known if he was familiar with the work of Bhaskara I, a contemporary Brahmagupta had a plethora of criticism directed towards the work of rival astronomers, and in his Brahmasphutasiddhanta is found one of the earliest attested schisms among Indian mathematicians The division was primarily about the application of mathematics to the physical world, rather than about the mathematics itself In Brahmaguptas case, the disagreements stemmed largely from the choice of astronomical parameters and theoriesCritiques of rival theories appear throughout the first ten astronomical chapters and the eleventh chapter is entirely devoted to criticism of these theories, although no criticisms appear in the twelfth and eighteenth chapters .....
D Bap Reddy
34. Dwaram Bap Reddy is a scientist and administrator who served at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bap Reddy was among the earliest Indian Reddys to come to United States and arrived in 1946 He received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, United States in 1950 He served from 1978 to 1982 as the Deputy Regional Representative (Director of FAO with Diplomatic status level) of Asia and Pacific for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO), the primary world wide nongovernmental organization responsible for food and agricultural issues He served as Acting Assistant DirectorGeneral and Regional Representative (ranked as a Senior National Official equivalent to Acting Deputy Minister, whose equivalent India post is Acting Minister of State of Agriculture with same privileges and immunities accorded to diplomatic envoys in accordance with international law) of Asia and Pacific for FAO in 1980 He was FAO Representative (Director of FAO with rank same as of ConsulGeneral and rank also that of Level 5 of the Washington Executive Schedule) in Indonesia from 1982 to 1986 and also FAO Representative (with the same privileges and immunities accorded to all UN agencies heads) in Nepal in 1987 He served in Diplomatic Status level position for ten years During his service he met various dignitaries, leaders and heads of government Prior to serving with the FAO, he was an active researcher with more than 200 papers and articles to his credit He was directly involved in the establishment of the plant protection counters at Indian ports of entry, a vital element in protecting Indias food supply In 1964 he was appointed by the Government of India to a Ministerial level Committee on the Harmful Effects of Pesticides The Committee was headed by MS Thacker, a Member of the Planning Commission Apart from making many useful recommendations, the Committee advocated the introduction of National Pesticide Legislation
During the Eleventh Session of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission which has a membership of 24 countries, for which he was the Executive Secretary, the member nations paid a tribute to his contributions; to quote: Dr Reddy has been a driving force in plant protection throughout the Region For extended periods he has carried out extensively and efficiently a wide range of activities,with little permanent assistance In so as this Committee is concerned he has effectively organized six of the biennial meetings of the Committee as well as numerous projects on plant protection in the Region have received his continuing attention Members of the Committee join in thanking Dr Reddy for being the enthusiast who placed Plant Protection in South East Asia and the Pacific Region in a position where it is now receiving due considerationnvited by The Royal Society of London to deliver a Special Lecture on Food Production(1965)In his honor, the Plant Protection Association of India has instituted a national award, the Dr D Bap Reddy National Award for Integrated pest management, which is awarded annually to entomologists .....
Dronamraju Krishna Rao
35. Dronamraju Krishna Rao (born January 14, 1937) is an Indianborn geneticist and president of the Foundation for Genetic Research in Houston, Texas He was born in Pithapuram, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India One focus of his work has been the research of J B S HaldaneDronamraju went to MR College in Vizianagaram, Andhra University to study botany and earned a bachelors degree in 1955 He received a masters degree from Agra University in 1957; he studied plant breeding and genetics When JBS Haldane moved to India in 1957, it gave Dronamraju an opportunity to pursue biological and genetic research After finishing an MSc, he wrote to Haldane for an opportunity to pursue research career under his direction at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta
Early in his research career, he discovered the first case of a gene on the human Y chromosome and published a paper in 1960 It was also part of his PhD thesis at the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta Dronamrajus research with Haldane at the Indian Statistical Institute included many areasDronamrajus research covers the visits of several species of lepidoptera to different colored flowers of Lantana camara reported the discovery of a speciesspecific pattern of color preference behavior by pollinating insectsHe did research in human genetics in India In 1966, Dronamraju completed his PhD from the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta He studied under J B S Haldane The topic of his doctoral thesis was Genetic Studies of the Andhra Pradesh population Dronamrajus early research in human genetics (and the independent work of LD Saghvi at the Tata Cancer Center in Mumbai) eventually led to the foundation of the Indian Society of Human Genetics .....
Eluvathingal Devassy Jemmis
36. Eluvathingal Devassy Jemmis (born October 31, 1951) is a Professor of theoretical chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India He was also the Director of Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram (IISERTVM) His primary area of research is applied theoretical chemistry with emphasis on structure, bonding and reactivity, across the periodic table of the elements Apart from many of his contributions to applied theoretical chemistry, an equivalent of the structural chemistry of carbon, as exemplified by the Huckel 4n+2 Rule, benzenoid aromatics and graphite, and tetrahedral carbon and diamond, is brought in the structural chemistry of boron by the Jemmis mno rules which relates polyhedral and macropolyhedral boranes to allotropes of boron and boronrich solids He has been awarded Padma Shri in Science and Engineering category (year 2014) by the Government of India
Jemmis is engaged in the study of structure and reactivity of molecules, clusters and solids using theoretical methods A constant attempt is made by his group to find common threads between problems of different areas, viz between organic and organometallic chemistry; amongst the chemistry of various main group elements; between polymorphs of elements and their compounds; etc His research group not only gets numbers as an answer to a problem, but also tries to find out why the numbers turn out the way they do, based on overlap of orbitals, perturbation theory and symmetry, and devise transferable models Significant results have been obtained in understanding the reactions of transition metal organometallics, week Hbond, electronic structure of threedimensional aromatic compounds, polyhedral boranes, carboranes, silaboranes, electron counting rules for polycondensation, and structure of boron allotropes The latter involved an extension of the Wades Rules for polyhedral boranes to macropolyhedral boranes and the Huckel 4n+2 Rule to three dimensions The Jemmis mno rules for polyhedral boranes have found a place in textbooks and are being taught in Inorganic Chemistry Courses in leading educational institutions around the world Just as the basic tenets of the structural chemistry of carbon has stood the test of time, and led to major developments in carbon, the edifice of the structural chemistry expounded by Jemmis has already begun to do so for boron Several of his predictions have been proved experimentally He has mentored 20 PhD students and several postdoctoral and students and research associates, and published about 200 research articles .....
G Madhavan Nair
37. G Madhavan Nair (born October 31, 1943) is the former Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation and Secretary to the Department of Space, Government of India since September 2003 He is also the Chairman, Space Commission and acts as the Chairman of Governing Body of the Antrix Corporation, Bangalore Madhavan Nair was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, Indias second highest civilian honour, on January 26, 2009He also served as the Chairman, Board of Governors, Indian Institute of Technology Patna until he stepped down voluntarily due to his alleged involvement in AntrixDevas deal
Nair was born at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India in an Middle Class Nair Family He also studied as a youth in Kanyakumari District He graduated with a BSc in Engineering (1966) from College of Engineering, Trivandrum, of the University of Kerala with specialization in Electronics & Communication Engineering After his graduation, Nair attended a training program at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) Training School, Mumbai
Nair is a leading technologist in the field of rocket systems and has made significant contribution to the development of multistage satellite launch vehicles, achieving selfreliance in independent access to space using indigenous technologies Nair and his team have advanced their work in the face of several challenges in the regime of technology denials by adopting several innovations and novel techniques to realise world class launch vehicle systems India today has a pride of place amongst the spacefaring nations in launch vehicle technology Specifically, as Project Director, he led the development of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) which has since become the workhorse for launching mainly Indian remote sensing satellites
As Director of ISROs largest R & D Centre, the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, he also saw Indias Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) successfully come to fruition Further, as Director of the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre of ISRO, he played a central role in the design and development of the crucial cryogenic engine for GSLV .....
Gautam Radhakrishna Desiraju
38. Gautam Radhakrishna Desiraju (born August 21, 1952) is an Indian chemist who works in the Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore He works in the area of structural chemistry and crystal engineering Desiraju has played a major role in the development of crystal engineering for nearly three decades He, among others, has been responsible in recent times for the acceptance of the theme of weak hydrogen bonding in structural and supramolecular chemistry His books on crystal engineering (1989) and on the weak hydrogen bond in structural chemistry and biology (1999) are especially notable He has coauthored a textbook in crystal engineering (2011) He is one of the most highly cited Indian chemists and has been recognised by a number of awards such as the Alexander von Humboldt Forschungspreis and the TWAS award in Chemistry He was elected President of the International Union of Crystallography for the triennium 20112014
Gautam Desiraju was born 21 August 1952 in Chennai, India, formerly Madras Desiraju obtained his BSc (1972) from St Xaviers College, Bombay and PhD (1976) from University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign where he worked under the supervision of David Y Curtin and Iain C Paul He worked between 1976 and 1978 in the Research Laboratories of Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY From 1978 to 1979 he was a research fellow in the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore He joined the University of Hyderabad in 1979 as a lecturer and was promoted as reader in 1984 and professor in 1990 He spent a year (1988 .....
Ennackal Chandy George Sudarshan
39. Ennackal Chandy George Sudarshan (also known as E C G Sudarshan; born 16 September 1931) is an Indian theoretical physicist and a professor at the University of Texas Sudarshan has been credited with numerous contributions to the field of theoretical Physics including Optical coherence, SudarshanGlauber representation, VA theory, Tachyons, Quantum Zeno effect, Open quantum system, Spinstatistics theorem, noninvariance groups, positive maps of density matrices, quantum computation among others His contributions include also relations between east and west, philosophy and religion
George Sudarshan was born in a Syrian Christian family in Pallam, Kottayam district, Kerala, India Despite being raised in a Christian family, he later left the religion and called himself a VedantinHe mentions disagreements with the Churchs view on God and lack of spiritual experience as reasons why he left the ChurchHe studied at CMS College Kottayam, and graduated with honors from the Madras Christian College in 1951 He obtained his masters degree at the University of Madras in 1952 He moved to Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and worked there for a brief period with Homi Bhabha as well as others Subsequently, he moved to University of Rochester in New York to work under Robert Marshak as a graduate student In 1958, he received his PhD degree from the University of Rochester At this point he moved to Harvard University to join Julian Schwinger as a postdoctoral fellow .....
Ravi Gomatam
40. Ravi Veeraraghavan Gomatam (born 1950, in Chennai, India) is the Director of Bhaktivedanta Institute (Berkeley and Mumbai) and the newly formed Institute of Semantic Information Sciences and Technology (Berkeley and Mumbai) He is also Adjunct Professor at Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, India Gomatam is one of the pioneers in the field of consciousness studies, which is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field He organized the First International Conference on the Study of Consciousness within Science in January 1990 in San Francisco The speakers at the 2day conference included two Nobel Laureates (Sir John Eccles and George Wald) as well as twelve other distinguished researchers in the field (including Henry Stapp, John Searle, ECG Sudarshan, Karl H Pribram, Herbert Frohlich)Subsequently, Gomatam conceived and launched the worlds first MS/PhD programs in consciousness studies, in collaboration with the Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani (one of Indias foremost technological universities) The program was inaugurated in 1997 by Charles Hard Townes, Nobel Laureate in physics (1964) and recipient of Templeton Prize (2005) Gomatam also teaches graduate students in this program Graduates of this program have gone on to do further studies at distinguished institutions, including Harvard, Leeds and Utrecht universities Consciousness Studies is a developing, interdisciplinary scientific field, which Gomatam has particularly reconceived in a novel, original fashion, as a new way of studying matter Gomatams own field of research is foundations of quantum mechanics, wherein he is introducing a few new ideas, including those of Objective, Semantic Information and a notion of Relational Properties that is different from that of Rovelli and others His new ideas have received notice for their potential He has related research interests in semantic computation, systems sciences, artificial intelligence, philosophy of science and philosophy of language .....
H R Krishnamurthy
41. Hulikal Ramaiengar Krishnamurthy (born 1951) is an Indian theoretical physicist He specializes in theoretical condensed matter physics, especially quantum manybody theory and statistical physics He is the chairman of the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science He is one of the research scholars who worked under Prof Kenneth G Wilson His main work was titled Renormalization Group Approach to the Anderson Model of Dilute Magnetic Alloys
Hulikal Ramaiengar Krishnamurthy obtained his BSc (Hons) in Physics (1970) from Bangalore University and MSc (Physics) (1972) from IIT, Kanpur He studied in Cornell University (197276) as IBM fellow, working with Kenneth G Wilson and John W Wilkins In his PhD thesis, he extended Wilsons numerical renormalization group solution for the Kondo problem to the symmetric Anderson impurity model The extension to the asymmetric case was completed during his postdoctoral tenure (197678) at the University of Illinois Krishnamurthy returned to India and joined the Department of Physics, IISc, Bangalore (1978) and became a Professor (1996) He has held sabbatical positions at Princeton University, Harvard University, Ohio State University, University of Cincinnati, UC Davis and Georgetown University .....
Jayant Vishnu Narlikar
42. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar (born July 19, 1938) is an Indian astrophysicist. Narlikar is a proponent of steady state cosmology. He developed with Sir Fred Hoyle the conformal gravity theory, commonly known as Hoyle?Narlikar theory. It synthesizes Albert Einsteins Theory of Relativity and Mach's Principle. It proposes that the inertial mass of a particle is a function of the masses of all other particles, multiplied by a coupling constant, which is a function of cosmic epoch. In cosmologies based on this theory, the gravitational constant G decreases strongly with time.
Narlikar was born in Kolhapur, India on July 19, 1938 in a family of Karhade Brahmin scholars. His father, Vishnu Vasudev Narlikar, was a mathematician who served as a professor and later as the Head of the Department of Mathematics at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Jayant's mother, Sumati Narlikar, was a scholar of Sanskrit language. Jayant studied in Kendriya Vidyalaya Banaras (till class 12) and Banaras Hindu University (12th Onwards) campus, Varanasi.
Narlikar received his Bachelor of Science degree from Banaras Hindu University in 1957. He then began his studies at Fitzwilliam House, Cambridge University in England, where he received a B.A. in mathematics in 1959 and was Senior Wrangler. This appears to have been the first time, and perhaps the only time, that a student was Senior Wrangler who was a non-collegiate member of the University at the time. In 1960, he won the Tyson Medal for astronomy. During his doctoral studies at Cambridge, he won the Smiths Prize in 1962. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1963 under the guidance of Fred Hoyle, he served as a Berry Ramsey Fellow at King's College in Cambridge and earned an M.A. in astronomy and astrophysics in 1964. He continued to work as a Fellow at King's College until 1972. In 1966, Fred Hoyle established the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy in Cambridge, and Narlikar served as the founder staff member of the institute during 1966-72.
In 1972, Narlikar took up Professorship at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai, India. At the TIFR, he was in charge of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group. In 1988, the Indian University Grants Commission set up the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) in Pune, and Narlikar became the Founder-Director of IUCAA. Narlikar is internationally known for his work in cosmology, especially in championing models alternative to the popular Big Bang model. During 1994-1997, he was the President of the Cosmology Commission of the International Astronomical Union. His research work has involved Machs Principle, quantum cosmology, and action-at-a-distance physics. During 1999-2003, Narlikar headed an international team in a pioneering experiment designed to sample air for microorganisms in the atmosphere at heights of up to 41 km. Biological studies of the collected samples led to the findings of live cells and bacteria,[citation needed] which introduced the possibility that the earth is being bombarded by microorganisms, some of which might have seeded life itself on earth.[citation needed][dubious ? discuss] Narlikar was appointed as the Chairperson of The Advisory Group for Textbooks in Science and Mathematics, the textbook development committee responsible for developing textbooks in Science and Mathematics, published by NCERT, which are used widely as standard textbooks in many Indian schools. .....
K R Ramanathan
43. Kalpathi Ramakrishna Ramanathan (28 February 1893 ? 31 December 1984) was an Indian physicist and meteorologist. He was the first Director of Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad. Ramanathan was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1965 and Padma Vibhushan in 1976.Born in Kalpathi, Palakkad, to a Sanskrit scholar, Ramanathan received a B.A. degree from the Government Victoria College, Palakkad and an M.A. degree in physics from the Presidency College, Madras. He began his academic career as a demonstrator in physics at the Maharajahs College of Science in Thiruvananthapuram. He was later appointed as the Honorary Director of Observatory in Thiruvananthapuram.
In 1921, Ramanathan moved to Calcutta to collaborate with Sir C. V. Raman on the studies of X-ray diffraction in the liquids. For this work he received D.Sc. degree from University of Madras. This was the first time that a D.Sc. degree was awarded by University of Madras. In 1922 Ramanathan joined Rangoon University as Assistant Professor of physics. In 1925 he was appointed as a senior scientist in the India Meteorological Department and remained there until his retirement in 1948. The same year he joined the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmadabad as its first Director. He established Dobson ozone spectrophotometer stations in India. He retired in 1966, but continued to serve PRL as Emeritus Professor until his death in 1984 at the age of 91. .....
K Radhakrishnan
44. K Radhakrishnan is an Indian scientist and the present chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) He is also the chairman of the board of management, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology He has also served as the director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram He is a life fellow of the Indian Geophysical Union and is also an accomplished vocalist (Carnatic music) and Kathakali artist Radhakrishnan took charge as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on 31 October 2009 succeeding G Madhavan NairRadhakrishnan hails from Irinjalakuda in Thrissur District, Kerala After his studies from Christ College, Irinjalakuda, he completed his BSc degree in Electrical Engineering in 1970 from the Government Engineering College, Thrissur He started his career in the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as an Avionics Engineer at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum, in 1971 While at ISRO, he joined the masters programme in management at Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore He received his masters degree in management in 1976 In 2000, he obtained his doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Radhakrishnan is a Carnatic Music and Kathakali enthusiastHe has excelled in music, dance and other art forms during his educational period He himself has given vocal stage performances .....
Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan
45. "Padma Bhushan Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, FRS, (4 December 1898 ? 14 June 1961) was an Indian physicist. He was a co-discoverer of Raman scattering, for which his mentor C. V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics.Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, Iyengar generally referred to as K. S. Krishnan or KSK, was born on December 4, 1898 in Watrap, Tamil Nadu. His father was a farmer-scholar deeply versed in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. He had his early schooling in G.S. Hindu Higher Secondary school, Srivilliputhur near to his native village, after which he attended the American College, Madurai and the Christian College, Madras where after gaining his degree in Physics he became a Lecturer in Chemistry.In 1920, Krishnan went to work with C.V. Raman at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (then Calcutta). There he engaged himself in experimental study of the scattering of light in a large number of liquids and its theoretical interpretations. He played a significant role in the discovery of the Raman Effect.
In 1928 he moved to the Dacca University (now in Bangladesh) as the Reader in the physics department where he studied magnetic properties of crystals in relation to their structure. Krishnan, along with other rising scientists such as Santilal (S.) Banerjee, B.C. Guha, and Asutosh Mookerjie developed an elegant and precise experimental technique to measure the magnetic anisotropy of dia - and paramagnetic crystals. Their findings were published by the Royal Society of London in 1933 under the title, Investigations on Magne-Crystallic Action.
In 1933 he returned to Kolkata to take up the post of Mahendralal Sircar Professor of Physics in the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science where he continued to collaborate fruitfully with Dr. Santilal Banerjee to elaborate on the magnetic properties of crystals in relation to their structure. Their joint papers and communications (published in Nature, Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, and by the Royal Society), remain to this day, aside from a number of other pathbreaking contributions they also published in various Physics journals, the most definitive scientific studies on the structure and tendencies of small crystals. Their experiments in Dhaka and continued collaborative research in Kolkata led to what is now known as the Krishnan Banerjee method in measuring the magnetic susceptibility of small crystals.
In 1940 Krishnan was elected as Fellow of the Royal Society. His Royal Society candidature certificate in 1935 read: Distinguished for his investigations in molecular optics and in magne-crystalline action:collaborated with Sir C.V. Raman in extensive theoretical and experimental studies on light scattering, molecular optics and in the discovery of the Raman Effect (1928). More recently has been publishing many valuable investigations (Phil Trans Royal Society and elsewhere) on the significance of magnetic anisotropy in relation to crystal architecture and thermo-magnetic behaviour at the lowest temperatures. Has published important work on pleochroism in crystals and its relation to photo-dissociation. Leader of an active school of research in Calcutta.In 1942, he moved to Allahabad University as Professor and Head of the Department of Physics where he took up the physics of solids, in particular of metals. He was knighted in the 1946 Birthday Honours List and awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1954. He was the first recipient of the prestigious Bhatnagar Award in 1958." .....
Kedareswar Banerjee
46. Kedareswar Banerjee (September 15, 1900 ? April 30, 1975) was an X-ray crystallographer and director of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata. Early in his career he determined the structures of naphthalene and anthracene. In 1931, he worked with Sir William Henry Bragg and developed one of the first direct methods of crystal structure determination. He was Professor of Physics at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science from 1943 to 1952 and Director of the Association from 1959 until his retirement in 1965. Between 1952 and 1959 he was Head of the Department of Physics at Allahabad University. His interests in crystallography were widespread and, with his death, India has lost a renowned teacher. K. Banerjee joined the research group of Sir C. V. Raman at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, a premier Indian research institute of India. He worked in various institutions including IACS, the India Meteorological Department, University of Dhaka and Allahabad University and finally retired as the Director of IACS, Calcutta in 1965. Prof. Banerjee explained some points of crystal research to Homi J. Bhabha (21 Dec. 1956) also .
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Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao
47. Prof. Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao (9 September 1898 ? 20 June 1972) was an Indian physicist in the field of Spectroscopy. Rangadhama Rao is best known for his work on spectroscopy, his role in the development of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR), and his long association with the physics laboratories of Andhra University. In his later years, he became known for his position as the Principal of all the colleges of Andhra University before their divisions into separate colleges, viz., AU College of Arts and Commerce, AU College of Engineering, AU College of Law, AU College of Pharmacy and AU College of Science and Technology. Rangadhama Rao was known both for his scientific ability and his interpersonal relations and volatile personality
In 1924, Dr. K. Rangadhama Rao joined Dr. A.L.Narayan as a research scholar in University of Madras. Both of them worked tenaciously to build up a first rate spectroscopic laboratory second to none in the country. They had then with them a constant deviation spectrograph, a small quartz spectrograph and a medium quartz spectrograph. All these were of low dispersion and low resolving power. At this stage of their work, they required an instrument of high dispersion and high resolving power, which they could not afford. So, K.R.Rao went to Calcutta, where a ten-foot concave grating was available in the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science of which C. V. Raman was Director and with the facilities provided there, they further extended their work on analysis of spectra in the visible and ultraviolet regions. He was guided in his research career by Prof. A.Fowler at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London in 1930 in Atomic Spectra for two years for which he was awarded the D.Sc. Degree from London University. In 1930, he had the opportunity of working under Prof. F.Paschen at the Physikalische Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin for six months and under Prof. Manne Seigbahn in Upsala, Sweden on Vacuum Spectroscopy for another six months. His interest in the field of Spectroscopy was so much that he built a Vacuum Spectrograph of his design with his own expenses at Potsdam, Germany. Prof. K.R.Rao's contribution towards physics has placed him in a high position even in his times. His contributions include development of Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecular Spectroscopy laboratory dealing with High Resolution Vibrational structure in electronic transitions, U.V.Absorption, Infrared Absorption, Raman scattering, Fluorescence and Phosphorescence and Crystal Spectra. He also reached the level of construction of microwave test benches and using these techniques he created different lines of investigations in dielectrics. He contributed to the development of Radio Frequency Spectroscopy which branched into Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. In India, work on NQR was first initiated by Prof. K. Rangadhama Rao in the Physics laboratories of Andhra University.
Kotcherlakota Rangdhama Rao was the Principal of Andhra University Colleges from 1949-57. He was appointed as Emeritus Professor of Physics at Andhra University (1966?72) and was special officer for the establishment of Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi (1954). .....
M S Swaminathan
48. Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian geneticist and international administrator, renowned for his leading role in Indias Green Revolution, a program under which highyield varieties of wheat and rice seedlings were planted in the fields of poor farmers Swaminathan is known as Indian Father of Green Revolution for his leadership and success in introducing and further developing highyielding varieties of wheat in India He is the founder and chairman of the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation His stated vision is to rid the world of hunger and poverty Swaminathan is an advocate of moving India to sustainable development, especially using environmentally sustainable agriculture, sustainable food security and the preservation of biodiversity, which he calls an evergreen revolution From 1972 to 1979 he was director general of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research He was Principal Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture from 1979 to 1980 He served as Director General of the International Rice Research Institute (1982 .....
Man Mohan Sharma
49. Man Mohan Sharma (born May 1, 1937 in Jodhpur, Rajasthan) is an Indian chemical engineer He was educated at Jodhpur, Mumbai and Cambridge At the age of 27 years, he was appointed Professor of Chemical Engineering in the Institute of Chemical Technology (UDCT), Mumbai He later went on to become the Director of Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT/ UDCT/ UICT), the first chemical engineering professor to do so from ICT
In 1990, he became the first Indian engineer to be elected as a Fellow of Royal Society, UK He was awarded the Padma Bhushan (1987) and the Padma Vibhushan (2001) by the President of India he has also been awarded the Leverhulme Medal of the Royal Society, the SS Bhatnagar Prize in Engineering Sciences (1973), FICCI Award (1981), the Vishwakarma medal of the Indian National Science Academy (1985), GM Modi Award (1991), Meghnad Saha Medal (1994), and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (2001)
Man Mohan Sharma obtained Bachelor of Chemical Engineering (1958) from UDCT (ICT) and subsequently MSc (Tech) in 1960 He obtained PhD (Chemical Engineering) (1964) at Cambridge University with PV Danckwerts In 1964, he returned to India as Professor at the University of Bombay, and later became Director of the University Department of Chemical Technology (UDCT), now ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology A Deemed University) He remained Director, UICT for 33 years He has been honored by several universities including IITs by honorary doctorates
Sharma made contributions to chemical engineering science and technology His studies on Bronsted based catalysis in CO2 hydration (published in the Transactions of Faraday Society) and subsequently kinetics of COS absorption in aqueous amines and alkanolamines brought out linear free energy relationship between CO2 and COS absorption in solutions of amines and alkanolamines He has contributed extensively on the role of microphases in multiple reactions which he pioneered He also became an independent Editor of Chemical Engineering Science at a young age He taught different subjects in chemical engineering and encouraged his doctoral students, from the very beginning, to publish independently their work in renowned journals Under his stewardship, UICT got autonomy of UGC He brought about allaround improvement in all the departments of the Institute leading to exceptionally high number of PhDs each year based on the number of faculty members He served in Petroleum and Natural Gas as Chairman of the SAC and in the SAC to Cabinet and PM He was INSA Council Member (198082) and Vice President (198788) .....
Nagendra Kumar Singh
50. Nagendra Kumar Singh is an Indian agricultural scientist He is a National Professor (Dr BPPal Chair) under ICAR at National Research Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi He was born in a small village called Rajapur in the Mau District of Uttar Pradesh He is known for his research in the area of plant genomics and biotechnology, particularly for his contribution in the decoding of rice, tomato and pigeonpea genomes and understanding of wheat seed storage proteins and their effect on wheat quality He has also made significant advances in comparative analysis of rice and wheat genomes and mapping of genes for salt tolerance and basmati quality traits in rice
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Narendra Karmarkar
51. Narendra Krishna Karmarkar (born 1957) is an Indian mathematician, who developed Karmarkars algorithm He is listed as an ISI highly cited researcherNarendra Karmarkar was born in Gwalior After securing an All India Rank 1 in the Joint Entrance Examination conducted by the prestigious IITs (IITJEE), he took admission in the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Karmarkar received his BTech in Electrical Engineering from IIT Bombay in 1978, MS from the California Institute of Technology and PhD in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley[citation needed] He invented a polynomial algorithm for linear programming also known as the interior point method The algorithm is a cornerstone in the field of Linear Programming He published his famous result in 1984 while he was working for Bell Laboratories in New Jersey Karmarkar was a professor at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai He is currently working on a new architecture for supercomputing Some of the ideas are published at the IEEE website Fab5 conference organised by MIT center for bits and atoms .....
Padmanabhan Balaram
52. Padmanabhan Balaram is an Indian biochemist and the director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, IndiaBalaram received his Bachelors degree in Chemistry from Fergusson College, University of Pune followed by a Masters degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and his PhD degree from Carnegie Mellon University with Aksel A BothnerBy After a postdoctoral stint at Harvard University with Nobel laureate Robert Burns Woodward, he returned to the Indian Institute of Science, where he has been ever since as a faculty member in the Molecular Biophysics Unit During his PhD, Balaram studied the use of negative Nuclear Overhauser effect signals as probes of macromolecular conformations As a postdoc with Woodword, Balaram worked on the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycinBalarams main area of research has been the investigation of the structure, conformation, and biological activity of designed and natural peptides To do this, he has extensively used techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, and Circular Dichroism, along with Xray crystallography He has been a major contributor to the evaluation of factors influencing the folding and conformations of designed peptides, and has investigated structural elements playing a key role in the formation of secondary structural motifs such as helices, beta turns, and sheets Along with Isabella Karle, a frequent collaborator, he has also pioneered the use of alphaamino isobutyric acid to induce and retain helicity and constrain peptide conformations Balaram has authored more than 400 research papers, and is a fellow of the Indian National Science AcademyHe was also a colleague of late Prof G N Ramachandran at the Molecular Biophysics Unit of IISc He is presently the director of the Indian Institute of Science and is also the editor of the journal Current Science .....
Pamposh Bhat
53. Pamposh Bhat (born September 19, Bhopal, India) is a New Delhi based environmentalist and award winning writer Bhat has been awarded the prestigious Rajbhasha Award for Poetry in 1995 for her work Kshitij Ki Khoj Mein (In search of the Horizon) Active in public life, she serves as the chairperson of the board of trustees for Jwala, a civil society group that seeks to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in India She is a former member of the governing council of the [Solar Energy Society of India]At present member of Central Electricity Regulatory Commission advisory committee
Bhat studied at St Josephs Convent at Bhopal and attended the University of Bhopal (now Barkatullah University) where she studied Science as an undergraduate student and was awarded an MSc in Chemistry by the University She began her career at the University of Kashmir as a research scholar engaged by the University Grants Commission on a Phytochemistry research Project She developed a strong interest in environmental policy during her tenure as a researcher and joined the United Nations Asia and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (UNAPCTT) of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific At UNAPCTT she worked to promote the use of renewable energy and environmentally sound technologies in the country During her time at UNAPCTT she also edited VATIS Update a journal of technological developments and events in the field of Nonconventional Energy She is married to a prominent IAS officer of J&K SL Bhat who is currently the chief of JK Public Service Commission Bhat joined GTZIndia, a German bilateral development agency in 2003 Her mandate at GTZIndia was to promote the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the country and help build a sustainable carbon market in India An expert on climate change and renewable energy policy, she also held position of the country manager of the BMU CMD/JI Initiative in India As an expert on the CDM, she has been retained as a climate policy advisor by the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and West BengalShe is currently working as an advisor,climate change adaptation Programme,International Finance Corporation,world bank group and is a member of International advisory board of Abengoa,a company in the energy and environment sectors, generating energy from the sun, producing biofuels, desalinating sea water and recycling industrial waste .....
Pisharoth Rama Pisharoty
54. Pisharoth Rama Pisharoty was an Indian physicist and meteorologist, and is considered to be the father of remote sensing in IndiaP R Pisharoty was born on February 10, 1909 in the town of Kollengode in the Indian state of KeralaHis parents were Sivaramakrishnan alias Gopala Vadhyar and Lakshmi Pisharassiar He had two brothers: Balakrishnan and Rajagopal, and three half brothers: Vaidyanathan, Rose Vadhyar and Gopalakrishnan He completed his early education in Kerala Having done his Physics BA honours from St Josephs College, Trichinopoly, Madras state, he went on to do his MA (Physics) from Madras University He then worked as a college lecturer in Physics at Loyola College at Chennai during 19321941 During the summer vacations he used to work under Prof C V Raman at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore On the recommendation of Raman, Pisharoty joined the India Meteorological Department in 1942, where he carried out research on thunderstorms, western disturbances, movement of monsoon depressions, orographic rain, etc He then joined the University of California for further studies where he worked under meteorologist Jacob Bjerknes His published two reports titled Some aspects of geostrophic poleward sensible heat and The kinetic energy of the atmosphere He obtained his MS (in Meteorology) and PhD degrees by 1954 .....
Pranav Mistry
55. Pranav Mistry (born 1981) is an Indian computer scientist and Inventor At present, he is the head of Think Tank Team and Vice President of Research at Samsung He is best known for his work on SixthSense and Samsung Galaxy Gear His research interests include Wearable Computing, Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing, Gestural interaction, AI, Machine vision, Collective intelligence and Robotics World Economic Forum honored Mistry as one of the Young Global Leader 2013He is from Palanpur, which is situated in northern Gujarat in India He has completed Bachelors degree in Computer Science and Engineering from the Nirma Institute of Technology in Gujarat Pranav holds a Masters degree in Media Arts and Sciences from MIT and Master of Design from Industrial Design Center, IIT Mumbai Later he was a research assistant and a PhD candidate at MIT Media LabHe joined Samsung electronics as the Director of Research in 2012, and now serves as the Vice President of Research and leads the Think Tank Team He introduced Samsung Galaxy Gear smart watch in September 2013 Before joining MIT, Pranav worked as a UX Researcher with Microsoft .....
Prem Chand Pandey
56. Prem Chand Pandey is an Indian scientist and academic in the fields of Satellite Oceanography, Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Science, Antarctic and Climate ChangePandey obtained his Masters and Bachelors degrees in Electronics and science respectively from Allahabad University, Allahabad He completed his DPhil degree from the same university(on microwaves) in 1972 In 1966, Pandey became a lecturer in DAV Degree college, Azamgarh From 1968 to 1972 he was Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Research Fellow at the microwave research laboratory of the Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, and from 1973 to 1977 a research officer at the Central Water and Power Research Station, Khadakwasla In 1977 he joined the Space Applications Centre(SAC)/ ISRO, Ahmedabad and became the founder head of the Oceanic Sciences Division/ Meteorology and Oceanography Group/ Remote Sensing Applications Area (OSD/ MOG/ RESA) He worked for the next twenty years at SAC In the 1980s he was also a research associate at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, where he worked on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and SEASAT programs During 19972005, he was the founding director of the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR)/Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Goa At the initiative of Murali Manohar Joshi he founded the K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies (KBCAOS) to initiate the Atmospheric and Ocean Science Studies in Allahabad University which is now full fledged faculty academic centre of Allahabad University He was Visiting Professor at Center for Ocean, River, Atmosphere and Land Sciences (CORAL), IIT Kharagpur (IITKgp) since 2005 to 2007 and also he was an Emeritus Professor at IITKgps same center since 2007 to August, 2011, where he played key role in establishment of the CORAL Currently he joined as a Professor at School of Earth, Ocean and Climate Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar with effect from 1 September 2011 .....
Raghunath Anant Mashelkar
57. Raghunath Anant Mashelkar is also known as Ramesh MashelkarHe is the former Director General of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), a chain of 38 publicly funded industrial research and development institutions in IndiaMashelkar studied at the University of Bombays Department of Chemical Technology (now the Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai) where he obtained a Bachelors degree in Chemical engineering in 1966, later on a PhD degree in 1969Mashelkar is presently the President of Global Research Alliance, a network of publicly funded research and development institutes from AsiaPacific, South Africa, Europe and USA with over 60,000 scientists He is also the Chairperson of Indias National Innovation Foundation He is also appointed as the first Chairperson of Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)Mashelkar is the former President of the Indian National Science Academy and the UK Institution of Chemical Engineers (2007 .....
Raj Reddy
58. Dabbala Rajagopal Raj Reddy (born June 13, 1937) is a IndianAmerican computer scientist and winner of the Turing Award, is one of the early pioneers of artificial intelligence and has served on the faculty of Stanford and Carnegie Mellon for over 40 years He was the founding Director of the Robotics Institute at CMU He was instrumental in helping to create Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies in India, to cater to the educational needs of the lowincome, gifted rural youth He is also the Chairman of International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad He is the first person of Asian origin to receive the ACM Turing Award, in 1994, the highest award in Computer Science, for his work in the field of artificial intelligence
Reddy is the Moza Bint Nasser University Professor of Computer Science and Robotics in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University From 1960, Reddy worked for IBM in Australia He was an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University from 1966 .....
Roddam Narasimha
59. Roddam Narasimha (born 20 July 1933) is an Indian aerospace scientist and fluid dynamicist He was a Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Director of National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) and the Chairman of Engineering Mechanics Unit at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore, India He is now an Honorary Professor at JNCASR and concurrently holds the Pratt & Whitney Chair in Science and Engineering at the University of Hyderabad Narasimha has been awarded the Padma Vibushan, Indias second highest civilian award, in 2013
He obtained his BE from Mysore University in 1953 and his ME from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1955 He worked with Satish Dhawan during his time at IISc He then worked with Hans Liepmann at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States to obtain his PhD degree in 1961 (PhD thesis) He joined the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in 1962 and was associated with the Department of Aerospace Engineering in various capacities from that date till 1999 In 1982, he founded the Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (now Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences), which he headed till 1989 He was the Director of the NAL from 1984 till 1993 For many years he held a visiting position at Caltech as the Clark B Millikan Professor and Sherman Fairchild distinguished scholar Between 1989 and 1990 he was the Jawaharlal Nehru professor of Engineering at Cambridge University in England He had also held visiting positions at NASA Langley, University of Strathclyde, University of Brussels, and Adelaide University From 1990 to 1994 he was INSA Golden Jubilee Research Professor, and from 1994 to 1999 the ISRO K R Ramanathan distinguished Professor at IISc and JNCASR He was the Director of the NIAS during 19972004 Narasimhas research has been chiefly concerned with Aerospace Fluid Dynamics and certain related problems in the atmosphere He has made extensive studies of transitions between laminar and turbulent flow (going in either direction), the structure of shock waves, various characteristics of fully developed turbulent flow (eg their memory, the bursting phenomenon in boundary layers), the fluid dynamics of clouds, nearsurface temperature distributions and eddy fluxes in atmospheric boundary layers He has been closely associated with Aerospace technology development in India at both technical and policymaking levels During 197779, he was the Chief Project Coordinator at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited .....
Somya Ranjan Mahapatra
60. Somya Ranjan Mahapatra is an Indian Computer Scientist At present, he is Software Developer of Microsoft He is best known for his work on Development New Software His research interests include Wearable Computing, Augmented reality, Ubiquitous computing, Gestural interaction, AI, Machine vision, Collective intelligence and RoboticsWorld Economic Forum honored Somya as one of the Young Global Leader 2013
He is from Cuttack, which is situated in Odisha in India He has Completed 12 Science from the DAV Public School in OdishaSomya Studing a Diploma Engineering in Electronics and TeleCommunication from Institute of Textile Technology and Diploma of Certified Ethical Hacker from National Cyber Security Institute, NIC India Later he was a research assistantHe joined Nokia Research center as the Application Developer in 2010 He introduced Nokia 888 Design Graphin Led Mobile Watch in March 2011Somya worked as a UX Researcher with Microsoft .....
Suri Bhagavantam
61. Suri Bhagavantam About this (October 14, 1909 February 6, 1989), was an Indian scientist and administrator He was Vice chancellor of Osmania University and Director of Indian Institute of Science and Defence Research and Development OrganizationBhagavantam was born in Agiripalli village in Andhra Pradesh After primary education in Gudivada, he obtained Bachelor in Science degree in Physics from Nizam College, Hyderabad under Madras University Impressed by the discoveries of C V Raman, he left to Calcutta and joined him in 1928 After the Nobel Prizewinning discovery, he chose Bhagavantam as his collaborator to further his research work He did his Masters degree in Science from Madras University during this period When Raman joined the Indian Institute of Science as its Director in 1933, he recommended Bhagavantam to join Andhra University, Waltair as lecturer in Physics During that period, he became a very popular lecturer and rose to become Professor and Head of the department in 1938 and Principal of University College in 1941 The university conferred on him the DSc degree (Honoris causa) He wrote the well known book titled The Theory of Groups and its Physical Applications along with Venkata Rayudu This book was published in three editions and was translated into Russian language It is often said that a whole generation of Spectoscopists are brought on this book The other book he wrote here is entitled Scattering of Light and Raman Effect After Indian independence, he joined as Scientific adviser in the Indian High Commission in London under V K Krishna Menon between 194849 He traveled many European countries and delivered scientific lectures He returned to India in 1949 and joined Osmania University as Head of Physics department During his period there is a spurt in research activity and more than 12 PhD students got their doctorates He was chosen as Vice chancellor in 1952 In 1957 he joined as Director of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and served in that position for 5 year period He was appointed as the Scientific Adviser to Government of India under the Ministry of Defence headed by Krishna Menon He joined as Director of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in 1962 after the IndoChinese War when Sri Y B Chavan was the Defence Minister During the nineyear tenure Dr Bhagavantam was instrumental in setting up a chain of laboratories throughout India for the development of missiles, aircraft, aeroengines, combat vehicles like tanks, electronic warfare systems, high explosives and underwater weapons He retired from the service in 1969 His birth centenary celebrations are held at Osmania University in 2009 .....
S Ramaseshan
62. Sivaraj Ramseshan (October 10, 1923 ? December 29, 2003) was an Indian scientist known for his work in the field of crystallography. Ramaseshan served as Director of the Indian Institute of Science and was awarded the Padma Bhushan. Ramaseshan is the nephew of Indian scientist and Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman and cousin of Subramanyan Chandrasekhar.Ramaseshan was born on October 10, 1923 in Madras to Sitalakshmi sister of Indian scientist Sir C. V. Raman. He had his schooling in Nagpur and started his forays into science as a research student under his uncle, Sir C. V. Raman.On completion of his doctorate, Ramaseshan joined the Indian Institute of Science as a lecturer. During this time, he developed an interest in X-ray crystallography and was instrumental in improving the material science division in the National Aerospace Laboratories. Ramaseshan also taught as a professor in the Indian Institute of Technology. .....
Samir K Brahmachari
63. Samir Kumar Brahmachari (born 1 January 1952) is an Indian biophysicist and Former Director General of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) and Former Secretary, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Government of India He is the Founder Director of Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), New Delhi and the Chief Mentor of Open Source for Drug Discovery (OSDD) Project He is the recipient of JC Bose Fellowship Award, DST (2012)ProfBrahmachari gained a BSc degree in chemistry from the University of Calcutta in 1972, followed by an MSc (pure chemistry) in 1974 In 1978 he earned a PhD in Molecular Biophysics from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore He followed this with postdoctoral research at Paris Diderot University and a position as a visiting scientist at the Memorial University of Newfoundland He started his academic career as a Research Associate at the Molecular Biophysics Unit in Indian Institute of Science, and in 1981 became a Lecturer In 1986 he became an Assistant Professor and Associate Professor in 1992 In 1997 he became a Professor and simultaneously served as a Visiting Professor at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry On 11 August 1997 he was appointed as the Director of CSIRCenter for Biochemical Technology (CBT) As the Director of CBT he was instrumental in reestablishing it as the CSIRInstitute of Genomics and Integrative Biology an institute where genomics and informatics have been seamlessly integrated Setting up a true example of path breaking discoveries in researchlimiting settingsHe assumed responsibility as the Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India on 12 November 2006
As a member of the Expert Group on Human Rights and Biotechnology Commission of United Nations, he has addressed issues of unethical exploitation of genetic resources of the Third World and has championed the concept of Rights of patients in benefit[citation needed] He has held the membership of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) Council (20042011) He is currently on the Advisory Board of the X Prize in Genomics and the Scientific Advisory Board of National Center of Biomedical Ontology (NCBO), Stanford University[citation needed] He has also been serving as the Adjunct Professor, Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, since 2003 and holds the Joseph Austin McCartney & Ruth McCartney Hauck named Visiting Professorship, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA, since 2012 He also holds Honorary Lifetime Professorship to the University of DelhiHe is also the academy professor of AcSIR (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research ) .....
Shivram Bhoje
64. Shivram Baburao Bhoje (born 9 April 1942) is a distinguished Indian nuclear scientist who worked in the field of fastbreeder nuclear reactor technology for forty years in the design, construction, operation, and research and development Indian government has honored him with Padma Shri in 2003, the fourth highest civilian award in India, for his distinguished service to science and engineering fieldsBhoje was born on 9 April 1942 in Kasaba Sangaon, a small village in Kolhapur district which falls under Kagal Taluka jurisdiction He completed his schooling in Dadasaheb Magadum high school, Kasaba Sangaon He was famous for his knowledge in mathematics and science in his school After completing schooling, he moved to Rajaram College Kolhapur to complete his junior college education He completed his Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1965 from College of Engineering Pune, COEP, University of PuneBhoje completed one year training in Nuclear Science and Engineering at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Training School and joined as a Scientific Officer at BARC, Trombay He started working in the Fast Reactor Section for design of an experimental reactor He was on a oneyear deputation to the Centre dEtudes Nucleare Cadarache, France, as a member of the design team of the 13mW fastbreeder test reactor (FBTR) in 196970
After returning to India in 1971, he worked at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam Initially he was incharge of design of 40 MW Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) reactor assembly On completion of the design, he was responsible for the construction of FBTR He redesigned the reactor core with new carbide fuel In 1988 he became the Reactor Superintendent of FBTR He removed the initial problems and raised the reactor power in steps, after commissioning of all the systems The reactor was connected to the grid and electricity was generated in July 1997 at 10 MW power In September 2002 the indigenously designed and fabricated fuel reached a burn up of 100,000 MWd/t without any failure
In 1985, he was designated as the Head of Nuclear Systems Division and was responsible for the preliminary design of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) He developed the capability in the centre to carry out sophisticated analysis for design In 1992, he became the Director, Reactor Group and was responsible for the operation of FBTR and design and engineering R &D of PFBR He developed PFBR design safety criteria as per AERB norms He served as the Member and Chairman of several committees of Department of Atomic Energy (India) .....
Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar
65. Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar (22 July 1930 2 November 2012 was an Indian American mathematician known for his contributions to algebraic geometry He, at the time of his death, held the Marshall distinguished professor of mathematics chair at Purdue University, and was also a professor of computer science and industrial engineering He is known for Abhyankars conjecture of finite group theory His latest research was in the area of computational and algorithmic algebraic geometryAbhyankar was born in a Maharashtrian Konkanastha Brahmin family He earned his BSc from Royal Institute of Science in 1951, his AM at Harvard University in 1952, and his PhD at Harvard in 1955 His thesis, written under the direction of Oscar Zariski, was titled Local uniformization on algebraic surfaces over modular ground fields Before going to Purdue, he was an associate professor of mathematics at Cornell University and Johns Hopkins University Shreeram was appointed the Marshall Distinguished Professor of Mathematics at Purdue in 1967 His research topics include algebraic geometry (particularly resolution of singularities, a field in which he made significative progress over fields of finite characteristic), commutative algebra, local algebra, valuation theory, theory of functions of several complex variables, quantum electrodynamics, circuit theory, invariant theory, combinatorics, computeraided design, and robotics He popularized the Jacobian conjecture .....
Visvesvaraya
66. Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya KCIE (popularly known as Sir MV; 15 September 1860 ? 14 April 1962) was a notable Indian engineer, scholar, statesman and the Diwan of Mysore during 1912 to 1918. He was a recipient of the Indian Republic's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire (KCIE) by King George V for his contributions to the public good. Every year, 15 September is celebrated as Engineer's Day in India in his memory. He is held in high regard as a pre-eminent engineer of India. He was the chief designer of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, as well as the chief engineer responsible for the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in Mandya.Upon graduating as an engineer, Visvesvaraya took up a job with the Public Works Department (PWD) of Mumbai and was later invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. He implemented an extremely intricate system of irrigation in the Deccan area. He also designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at the Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates were employed to raise the flood supply level of storage in the reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained by a flood without causing any damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam in Gwalior and the Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/ Mysore,Karnataka. In 1906?07, the Government of India sent him to Aden to study water supply and drainage system and the project prepared by him was implemented in Aden successfully. Visvesvaraya achieved celebrity status when he designed a flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad. He was instrumental in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion. Visvesvaraya supervised the construction of the KRS Dam across the Kaveri River from concept to inauguration. This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia when it was built. He was rightly called the Father of modern Mysore state (now Karnataka): During his period of service with the Government of Mysore state, he was responsible for the founding of, (under the Patronage of Mysore Government), the Mysore Soap Factory, the Parasitoide Laboratory, the Mysore Iron & Steel Works (now known as Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited) in Bhadravathi, the Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic Institute, the Bangalore Agricultural University, the State Bank of Mysore, The Century Club, Mysore Chambers of Commerce and numerous other industrial ventures. He encouraged private investment in industry during his tenure as Diwan of Mysore. He was instrumental in charting out the plan for road construction between Tirumala and Tirupati. He was known for sincerity, time management and dedication to a cause. .....
Siva S Banda
67. Siva Subrahmanyam Banda (born 1951) is an IndianAmerican aerospace engineer He is Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and senior scientist for Control Theory for the Air Vehicles Directorate at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at WrightPatterson Air Force Base He has taught at Wright State University, the University of Dayton, and the Air Force Institute of Technology
Dr Banda joined the US Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in 1981 as an aerospace research engineer in the Flight Controls Division He started his career as an inhouse researcher He then served as group leader and program manager before being promoted to branch chief He now serves as the Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and Senior Scientist for the Air Vehicles Directorate at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at WrightPatterson Air Force Base He has also acted as a consultant, mentor, and technical leader for basic research in flight control systems He has made pioneering and lasting contributions to the areas of robust multivariable control theory dealing with uncertainties, online system identification, and reconfigurable flight control .....
Subhash Mukhopadhyay
68. Subhash Mukhopadhyay (16 January 1931 ? 19 June 1981) was a physician from Kolkata, India, who created the world's second and India's first child using in-vitro fertilisation, Durga who was born 67 days after the first IVF baby in United Kingdom. Unfortunately, he was harassed by the state government, and not allowed to share his achievements with the international scientific community. Dejected, he committed suicide on 19 June 1981. His life and death has been the subject of countless newspaper reviews and inspired the Hindi movie Ek Doctor Ki Maut (Death of a doctor), directed by Tapan Sinha.He was born on 16 January 1931 in Hazaribagh, Bihar (now in Jharkhand), India. He studied and graduated (in 1955) with an honours degree in physiology from the Calcutta National Medical College, which was then affiliated with the prestigious University of Calcutta. He later earned a doctorate from the University of Calcutta in 1958 reproductive physiology under the stewardship of Prof. Sachchidananda Banerjee. Later he earned a second doctorate from the University of Edinburgh in 1967 in reproductive endocrinology,He created history when he became the first physician in India (and second in the world after British physicians Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards) to perform the In vitro fertilisation resulting in a test tube baby Durga (alias Kanupriya Agarwal) on 3 October 1978. Facing social ostracisation, bureaucratic negligence, reprimand and insult instead of recognition from the West Bengal government, and refusal of the Government of India to allow him to attend international conferences, he committed suicide in his Calcutta residence on 19 June 1981. .....
Sujoy K Guha
69. Sujoy Kumar Guha is an Indian biomedical engineer He was born in Patna, India, in 1939 He did his undergraduate degree (BTech) in electrical engineering from IIT Kharagpur, followed by a Masters Degree in electrical engineering at IIT, and another Masters degree from the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign He later received his PhD in Medical Physiology from St Louis University He then founded the Centre for Biomedical Engineering , IIT Delhi and AIIMS and also obtained his MBBS degree from Delhi University One of the founders of Biomedical engineering in India, Prof Guha is internationally renowned in the areas of Rehabilitation Engineering, Bioengineering in Reproductive Medicine and Technology for Rural Health Care He has received several awards and has more than 100 research papers in cited journals His major contributions have been in the indigenously developed nonhormonal polymer based injectable male contraceptive (RISUG) for which the Final PhaseIII Clinical trials are underway; Problemsolving at a national level regarding contraceptives in mass usage, especially Copper T; individualized spot airconditioning system for hospital patients and rehabilitation of the blind, with emphasis on opening automobile repair as an employment avenue .....
Sunil Mukhi
70. Sunil Mukhi is an Indian theoretical physicist working in the areas of string theory, quantum field theory and particle physicsHe earned a PhD in Theoretical Physics in 1981 from the State University of New York at Stony Brook After spending two years at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy, he returned to India where he has worked at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India since 1984 In November, 2012 he joined Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune as the head of physics departmentHis major publications deal with fundamental properties of string theories, and include the conformal invariance of supersymmetric twodimensional field theories which describe the worldsheet dynamics of strings, the study of supersymmetric solitons using index theorems, the discovery of a new duality between string theory and Mtheory, the identification of string networks as supersymmetric states and the discovery of a novel Higgs mechanism in the worldvolume theory of Mtheory membranes .....
Sushruta Samhita
71. The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit redaction text on surgery The original work is attributed to Sushruta, likely a historical physician from the 6th century BC Varanasi, although the text as preserved dates to the 3rd or 4th century AD It is one of three foundational texts of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), alongside the Charaka Samhita and the medical portions of the Bower Manuscript The original text however is lost and modifications and edited versions are currently available (Ruthkow IM (1961) Great Ideas in the History of Surgery, pp 57 Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company in Anatomy in ancient India: a focus on the Susruta Samhita Journal of Anatomy 2010)
The Sushruta Samhita, in its current form, contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources The text discusses surgical techniques of making incisions, probing, extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization, tooth extraction, excisions, and trocars for draining abscess draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid, the removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesiculolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines, and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, viz, traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery .....
Swapan Chattopadhyay
72. Swapan Chattopadhyay (born December 26, 1951) is a particle accelerator physicist noted for his pioneering contributions of innovative concepts, techniques and developments in high energy particle colliders, coherent and incoherent light sources, ultrafast sciences in the femto and atto second regimes, superconducting linear accelerators and various applications of interaction of particle and light beams He has directly contributed to the development of many accelerators around the world, eg the Super ProtonAntiproton Synchrotron and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley, the asymmetricenergy electronpositron collider PEPII at Stanford, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab and the FreeElectron Lasers at Jefferson and Daresbury Laboratories Chattopadhyay currently holds a triple appointment as the Sir John Cockcroft Chair of Physics jointly at the Universities of Liverpool, Manchester and Lancaster the First Chair of accelerator physics in UK, named after the British Nobel Laureate credited with creating the field Concurrently, he is the Inaugural Director of the international centre of accelerator science and technology, the Cockcroft Institute (UK), opened officially by the UK Minister of Science Lord Sainsbury in 2006 .....
Thanu Padmanabhan
73. Thanu Padmanabhan (born 10 March 1957) is an Indian theoretical physicist and Cosmologist whose research spans a wide variety of topics in Gravitation, Structure formation in the universe and Quantum Gravity He has published more than 230 papers and reviews in international journals and ten books in these areas Many of his contributions, especially those related to the analysis and modelling of dark energy in the universe and the interpretation of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, have made significant impact in the field He is currently a distinguished professor at the InterUniversity Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, (IUCAA) at Pune, India
Born in 1957, Padmanabhan did his schooling in Thiruvananthapuram and earned his BSc (1977) and MSc (1979) in Physics, securing Gold Medals in both for graduating at the top of his class, from the University College, Kerala University He published his first research paper (on general relativity) when he was still a BSc student, at the age of 20 He joined the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai in 1979 for his PhD and became a faculty member there in 1980 He held various faculty positions at TIFR during 19801992 and also spent a year (in 198687) at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge He moved to IUCAA in 1992 and took over as its Dean, Core Academic Programmes, in 1997, which is the position he is currently holding Padmanabhan has also served as Adjunct Faculty of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai), the HarishChandra Research Institute (Allahabad), the Raman Research Institute (Bangalore) and the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER, Pune) at different periods in his career He is the elected President of the Cosmology Commission (20092012) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and Chairman of the Astrophysics Commission (20112014) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) He has also been a Visiting Faculty at many institutes including the California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and a Sackler Distinguished Astronomer of the Institute of Astronomy, CambridgeHe is married to Dr Vasanthi Padmanabhan, who has a PhD in astrophysics from TIFR, Mumbai and has one daughter, Hamsa Padmanabhan .....
Tej P Singh
74. Tej P Singh is an Indian biophysicist and a scientific leader who has made original and novel contributions in the fields of Rational Structure based drug design, Protein Structure biology and Xray crystallography He has played an active role in the development of research programmes on drug design in the fields of Tuberculosis, Inflammation, Cancer, Epilepsy, Gastropathy and Arthritis in India He has published more than 350 research papers in leading international journals and has submitted the highest number of protein structures in India in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) He has been nominated as a fellow of six national and international academies, namely, the Third World Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Sciences, Indian Academy of Sciences, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and Biotech Research Society of India He has been awarded various national and international awards over the years, for instance, the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Lecture Award of INSA (2011), Annual Award of the Instrumentation Society of India (2011), CSIR Foundation Day Lecture award (2010), Goyal Prize in Life Sciences (2007), Professor GN Ramachandran CSIR Gold Medal for the Excellence in Biological Sciences and Technology (2006) and, Professor GN Ramachandran 60th Birthday Commemoration INSA Medal (2006) .....
Udupi Ramachandra Rao
75. Udupi Ramachandra Rao, popularly known as U R Rao is a space scientist and former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation Presently he is the Chairman of the Governing Council of the Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabad Rao was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1976 He was inducted into the Satellite Hall of Fame, Washington on March 19, 2013 at a ceremony organised by the Society of Satellite Professionals International With this he became the first Indian to be inductedU R Rao was born at Adamaru in Karnataka State, India His parents were Lakshminarayana Acharya and Krishnaveni Amma He had his primary education at Adamaru He completed his secondary education from Christian High School, Udupi He completed his BSc in Government Arts and Science College, Anantpur, MSc from Banaras Hindu University and PhD at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad under the guidance of Dr Vikram SarabhaiRao started his career as a cosmic ray scientist, under the Dr Vikram Sarabhai, which work he continued at MIT In association with the JPL Group, he was the first to establish the continuous nature of the solar wind and its effect on geomagnetism using Mariner 2 observations Raos experiments on a number of Pioneer and Explorer spacecraft led to a complete understanding of the solar cosmic ray phenomena and the electromagnetic state of the interplanetary space Convinced of the imperative need to use space technology for rapid development, Rao undertook the responsibility for the establishment of satellite technology in India in 1972 Under his guidance, beginning with the first Indian satellite Aryabhata in 1975, over 18 satellites including Bhaskara, APPLE, Rohini, INSAT1 and INSAT2 series of multipurpose satellites and the IRS1A and IRS1B remote sensing satellites were designed, fabricated and launched for providing communication, remote sensing and meteorological services .....
Vijay P Bhatkar
76. Vijay Bhatkar is an Indian scientist Indias computer magazine Dataquest has placed him among the star pioneers who shaped Indias IT industryBhatkar is best known as the architect of Indias national initiative in supercomputing where he led the development of Param supercomputers He developed the first Indian supercomputer, the Param 8000, in 1991 and then later the Param 10000 in 1998 Based on the Param series of supercomputers, he built the National Param Supercomputing Facility (NPSF) which has been now made available as a grid computing facility through Garuda grid on the National Knowledge Network (NKN) providing nationwide access to High Performance Computing (HPC) infrastructure Currently, Bhatkar is working on exascale supercomputing via the Capability, Capacity and Infrastructure on National Knowledge Network Bhatkar has authored/edited over 12 books and 80 technical and research papers and addressed several university convocations, international and national conferences and conventions and public functions .....
V Balakrishnan
77. V Balakrishnan (born 1943 as Venkataraman Balakrishnan) is an Indian theoretical physicist who has worked in a number of fields of areas, including particle physics, manybody theory, the mechanical behavior of solids, dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and quantum dynamics He is an accomplished researcher who has made important contributions to the theory of anelasticity, continuoustime random walks, and recurrences in dynamical systems He received his PhD from Brandeis University in 1970 After a decade at TIFR and IGCAR Kalpakkam, he joined IIT Madras as a Professor of Physics in 1980 He was elected Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1985 In addition to his research, Balakrishnan is a popular and noted teacher of Physics, known for his engaging teaching style, which combines physical insight, mathematical rigor, and wry wit He has taught a very wide range of courses over the past 30 years from introductory physics to quantum field theory to dynamical systems Two of his courses (38 lectures on classical physics and 31 on quantum physics) taught at IIT Madras through National_Programme_on_Technology_Enhanced_Learning are available on YouTube, and are extremely popular, having received about 1 million views in all (as of December 2011) In addition to that, a third series appeared in June, 2014 on Mathematical Physics which continues to blow off minds of young physics enthusiasts
Balakrishnan has authored the book Elements of Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (CRC Press 2008), and has coauthored the book Beyond the Crystalline State: An Emerging Perspective (Springer 1989) Preliminary drafts of a comprehensive book on Mathematical Physics based on his courses have been circulated, and the book will likely appear in print in 2012 His wife, Radha Balakrishnan, is a theoretical physicist who works on nonlinear dynamics (in particular, solitons and integrable systems) His son, Hari Balakrishnan, is currently the Fujitsu Professor of Computer Science at MIT His daughter, Hamsa Balakrishnan, is also on the faculty at MIT as an Associate Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics .....
Yellapragada Subbarow
78. Yellapragada Subbarow (12 January 1895 ? 9 August 1948) was an Indian biochemist who discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate as an energy source in the cell, and developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer Most of his career was spent in the United States Despite his isolation of ATP, Subbarow was denied tenure at Harvard and remained without a green card throughout his life, though he would lead some of Americas most important medical research during World War IIHe was born to a Niyogi Telugu speaking brahmin family in Bhimavaram of the Old Madras Presidency, now in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh He passed through a traumatic period in his schooling at Rajahmundry (due to the premature death of close relatives by disease) and eventually matriculated in his third attempt from the Hindu High School, Madras He passed the Intermediate Examination from the Presidency College and entered the Madras Medical College where his education was supported by friends and Kasturi Suryanarayana Murthy, whose daughter he later married Following Gandhis call to boycott British goods he started wearing khadi surgical dress; this incurred the displeasure of M C Bradfield, his surgery professor Consequently, though he did well in his written papers, he was awarded the lesser LMS certificate and not a full MBBS degree Subbarow tried to enter the Madras Medical Service without success He then took up a job as Lecturer in Anatomy at Dr Lakshmipathis Ayurvedic College at Madras He was fascinated by the healing powers of Ayurvedic medicines and began to engage in research to put Ayurveda on a modern footing A chance meeting with an American doctor, who was visiting on a Rockefeller Scholarship, changed his mind The promise of support from Malladi Satyalingam Naicker Charities in Kakinada, and financial assistance raised by his fatherinlaw, enabled Subbarow to proceed to the US He arrived in Boston on 26 October 1922 .....
Most Beautiful White Flowers
Jasmine Flower. This wonderful flower with an irresistible fragrance is rarely used for decoration purpose and is mainly used in the cosmetic and perfumery industry for its wonderful scent. This flower symbolizes attachment and sensuality while the little Jasmine fl .....
Benefits of Beetroot
Beneficial for pregnant women. Beetroot juice is extremely beneficial for pregnant women as the folic acid found in beet juice prevents various birth defects and even provides a healthy pink skin tone to the baby. It aids in tissue growth and proper development of babys spinal cor .....
Creative Valentines Day Gift
Sugarfina Sweetheart Bento Box. From gummy butterflies to candy coated dark chocolate almonds, this generous assortment of sweets will satisfy any sugar craving whenever it strikes.The collection comes equipped with a tasting menu that decodes all eight treats and each has a messag .....
Marriage Tips
When you first see each other at the end of your respective days. before you do anything else, hold each other without speaking for at least 60 seconds.By doing so you remind each others old/reptilian brains that you are a source of pleasure and comfort. Its simple, its easy to do, and it will make a world of diffe .....
Benefits of Cherry
neural protection. An in vitro experiment showed the benefits of sweet and sour cherry phenolics on nerve cells.Kim DO and coworkers from Kyung Hee University, Korea, extracted and analyzed totalphenolics, total anthocyanins, and antineurodegenerative activities of fou .....
Dangerous Animals in the World
Mosquito. Moving from one of the largest animals in the world we now come to one of the smallest. As small as it is though, it is also the deadliest. It has been estimated that mosquitos transmit diseases to almost 700 million people annually resulting in 2 to .....
Never seen Water Like This
Dettifoss waterfall Iceland. Vatnaj?kull National Park in northeast Iceland is home to this falls, said to be the most massive by water volume in Europe. .....
Ideas To Improve Student Motivation
Encourage self reflection. Most kids want to succeed, they just need help figuring out what they need to do in order to get there. One way to motivate your students is to get them to take a hard look at themselves and determine their own strengths and weaknesses. Students are .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Shimmery Lips. Beauty latest crush is with shimmery lip colors in golden shades and iced pastels. Keep your lips looking sweet with moisturizing lipsticks or glosses in pearly nude, candy pink, lilac, silver and gold. .....
Benefits of Custard Apple
Leaves controls Diabetes. Custard apple tree leaves has vast range of medicinal effects, the juice from leaves of custard apple helps to get rid of diarrhea, For dermatological patients custard leaves are the heavenly medicine, andRoot of custard tree help autoabortion proble .....
Most Amazing Volcanoes
Sarychev Japan. This incredible view of an eruption in June 2009, was taken by an astronaut on board the International Space Station. .....
Car Maintenance
Try to maintain the speed constant. It's advisable to make the use of cruise control feature. If the speeds are kept constant, it will definitely improve the fuel mileage of the vehicle by almost 14%. On the contrary, a fluctuating speed can drain fuel from your car's tank .....
Astrology
What Cancer Needs. Cancer ( Jun 21 - Jul 22 ) What Cancer Needs : What Cancer wants most is a partner who can take things slow and easy, secure in the knowledge that the ultimate victory will be sweet for both. An exchange of emotions is also ideal for the Crab, whet .....
Healthy Lips
Exfoliate when necessary. Lip exfoliators (products that contain fruit acid based alpha or beta hydroxy acids) slough off dead skin much like the ones youd use on your face, says New York dermatologist Dennis Gross, M.D. But if you have sensitive skin or your lips are sever .....
New Year Party Game Ideas
Celebrity hunt. Everyone writes the name of a celebrity, famous person or character on a piece of paper which they stick to the forehead of the player on their left (use tape or office PostIt notes). Make sure they dont see the name. List down the activity(s) or eve .....
Problems Only 00s Girls Will Understand
Mobile Phone Troubles. Those were the days when mobile phones were small not size wise, but in terms of their memory capacity. The mobile shown in the picture is a perfect example. No matter their small memories, these gadgets were handy enough to keep you chattering away .....
Ayurvedic Medicine
Salt. Salt: rock, sea, black, Sambar:Found in Sea.Digestion Salt stimulates digestion by increasing digestive enzymes and so benefits low appetite and indigestion. It also works directly on the taste receptors and clarifies the sense of taste. Higher doses .....
Cutest Animal Facts
Male puppies are epic examples of being chivalrous. Regardless of the size of a female puppy, a male puppy lets her win in any game they play with each other. .....
Makeover Tips for Lips
How to Wear Red Lipstick. Red lipstick is a universal classic and has yet to go out of style. Yet many women assume they can not wear it. They are wrong. The secret to the right red is in finding the right shade for your skin tone and not going overboard with the rest of your .....
Bill Gates
Right place right time. Although Gates rightfully earned credit for building one of the fastest growing and most profitable companies ever established, Microsoft started out on a shaky foundation. Gates and Allen had sold their first commercially developed software for $3,0 .....
Best Flirting Tips
Compare her to art. The best way to flirt with a girl is to strike a chord with her feminine side. You can start the conversation by displaying your soft nature. You could begin by letting her know that her flowing tresses remind you of certain lines of a popular painti .....
New Year Wishes
Messages for Son. Your son may be one of the most important in your life.Certainly children are always precious to parents more then anything.So why not to wish him this New Year.Your blessing may give him strength and happiness beyond your thinking.Wish your son with .....
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