Ellora caves

Ellora Caves
1. The Ellora caves, locally known as Verul Leni is located on the Aurangabad Chalisgaon road at a distance of 30 km north northwest of Aurangabad, the district headquarters. The name Ellora itself inspires everyone as it represents one of the largest rock hewn monastic temple complexes in the entire world. Ellora is also world famous for the largest single monolithic excavation in the world, the great Kailasa (Cave 16). The visit to these caves is enjoyed maximum during monsoon, when every stream is filled with rainwater, and the entire environ is lush green. The monsoon is not only a season of rains in this part, the local visitors are attracted to visit these ideal locations to have a glimpse of the mother nature in full bloom.

The caves are hewn out of the volcanic basaltic formation of Maharasthra, known as Deccan Trap, the term trap being of Scandinavian origin representing the step like formation of the volcanic deposits. The rock formation, on weathering has given rise to the appearance of terraces with flat summits. At Ellora, one can also have a glimpse of the channels (near Cave 32) through which the volcanic lava once flowed. These channels, due to overheating, have a characteristic brownish red colour. Similar rock was used in the construction of the Grishneshwar Temple nearby and also utilised for the flooring of the pathways at Bibi ka Maqbara.

The hills in which the caves are hewn, forms part of the Sahyadri ranges of the Deccan and dated to the Cretaceous era of the Geological time scale (about 65 million years ago). The hills rise abruptly from the surrounding plains on the south and west, the western surface being extensively utilised for hewing the cave complexes. The hill also supports several streams, the prominent among them being the Elaganga, which drains into the Shiv, a stream of the Godavari river system. The Elaganga is in its full vigour during the monsoon, when the overflowing waters of a barrage in the upstream near Mahismati allows the gushing waters to land at .....

The Buddhist caves
2. These caves were built during the 5th 7th century. It was initially thought that the Buddhist caves were one of the earliest structures, created between the fifth and eighth centuries, with caves 1 5 in the first phase (400 600) and 6 12 in the later phase (mid 7th mid 8th), but now it is clear to the modern scholars that some of the Hindu caves (27,29,21,28,19,26,20,17 and 14) precede these caves.[citation needed] The earliest Buddhist cave is Cave 6, followed by 5,2,3,5 (right wing), 4,7,8,10 and 9. Caves 11 and 12 were the last. All the Buddhist caves were constructed between 630 700.These structures consist mostly of viharas or monasteries large, multi storeyed buildings carved into the mountain face, including living quarters, sleeping quarters, kitchens, and other rooms. Some of these monastery caves have shrines including carvings of Gautama Buddha, bodhisattvas and saints. In many of these caves, sculptors have endeavoured to give the stone the look of wood.

Most famous of the Buddhist caves is cave 10,(refer map) a chaitya hall (chandrashala) or Vishvakarma cave, popularly known as the Carpenters Cave. Beyond its multi storeyed entry is a cathedral like stupa hall also known as chaitya, whose ceiling has been carved to give the impression of wooden beams. At the heart of this cave is a 15 foot statue of Buddha seated in a preaching pose. Amongst other Buddhist caves, all of the first nine (caves 19) are monasteries. The last two caves, Do Tal (cave 11) and Tin Tal (cave 12) have three stories. .....

The Vishwakarma
3. The Vishwakarma (Cave 10) is the only chaitya griha amongst the Buddhist group of caves. It is locally known as Vishwakarma or Sutar ka jhopda carpenters hut. It follows the pattern of construction of Caves 19 and 26 of Ajanta. On stylistic grounds, the date of construction of this cave is assigned to 700 A.D. The chaitya once had a high screen wall, which is ruined at present. At the front is a rock cut court, which is entered through a flight of steps. On either side are pillared porticos with chambers in their back walls. These were probably intended to have subsidiary shrines but not completed. The pillared verandah of the chaitya has a small shrine at either end and a single cell in the far end of the back wall. The corridor columns have massive squarish shafts and ghata pallava (vase and foliage) capitals. The main hall is apsidal on plan and is divided into a central nave and side aisles by 28 octagonal columns with plain bracket capitals. In the apsidal end of the chaitya hall is a stupa on the face of which a colossal 3.30 m high seated Buddha in vyakhyana mudra (teaching posture) is carved. A large Bodhi tree is carved at the back. The hall has a vaulted roof in which ribs have been carved in the rock imitating the wooden ones. .....
The Hindu caves
4. The Hindu caves were constructed between the middle of sixth century to the end of the eighth century. The early caves (caves 1729) were constructed during the Kalachuri period. The work first commenced in Caves 28, 27 and 19. These were followed by two most impressive caves constructed in the early phase Caves 29 and 21. Along with these two, work was underway at Caves 20 and 26, and slightly later at Caves 17, 19 and 28. The caves 14, 15 and 16 were constructed during the Rashtrakuta period. The work began in Caves 14 and 15 and culminated in Cave 16. All these structures represent a different style of creative vision and execution skills. Some were of such complexity that they required several generations of planning and co ordination to complete. .....
The Kailasanatha temple
5. Cave 16, also known as the Kailasa temple, is the unrivaled centerpiece of Ellora. This is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva looks like a freestanding, multi storeyed temple complex, but it was carved out of one single rock, and covers an area double the size of Parthenon in Athens. Initially the temple was covered with white plaster thus even more increasing the similarity to snow covered Mount Kailash.All the carvings are done in more than one level. A two storeyed gateway resembling a South Indian Gopura opens to reveal a U shaped courtyard. The courtyard is edged by columned galleries three storeys high. The galleries are punctuated by huge sculpted panels, and alcoves containing enormous sculptures of a variety of deities. Originally flying bridges of stone connected these galleries to central temple structures, but these have fallen.

Within the courtyard are three structures. As is traditional in Shiva temples, the first is a large image of the sacred bull Nandi in front of the central temple. The central temple Nandi Mantapa or Mandapa houses the Lingam. The Nandi Mandapa stands on 16 pillars and is 29.3 m high. The base of the Nandi Mandapa has been carved to suggest that life sized elephants are holding the structure aloft. A living rock bridge connects the Nandi Mandapa to the Shiva temple behind it. The temple itself is a tall pyramidal structure reminiscent of a South Indian Dravidian temple. The shrine complete with pillars, windows, inner and outer rooms, gathering halls, and an enormous lingam at its heart carved from living stone, is carved with niches, pilasters, windows as well as images of deities, mithunas (erotic male and female figures) and other figures. Most of the deities at the left of the entrance are Shaivaite (followers of Shiva) while on the right hand side the deities are Vaishnavaites (followers of Vishnu). There are two Dhvajastambhas (pillars with the flagstaff) in the courtyard. The grand sculpture of Ravana attempting to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva, with his full might is a landmark in Indian art. The construction of this cave was a feat of human genius it entailed the removal of 200,000 tonnes of rock, and took 100 years to complete. The temple is a splendid achievement of Rashtrakuta Karnata architecture. This project was started by Krishna I (757773) of the Rashtrakuta dynasty that ruled from Manyakheta in present day Karnataka state. His rule had also spread to southern India, hence this temple was excavated in the prevailing style. Its builders modelled it on the lines of the Virupaksha Temple in Pattadakal. Being a south Indian style temple, it does not have a shikhara common to north Indian temples. The Guide to the Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 1996, Takeo Kamiya, Japan Architects Academy and archaeological Survey of India. .....

The Dashavatara
6. The Dashavatara (Cave 15) was begun as a Buddhist monastery. It has an open court with a free standing monolithic mandapa at the middle and a two storeyed excavated temple at the rear. The layout of the temple is closely related to caves 11 and 12. Large sculptural panels between the wall columns on the upper floor illustrate a wide range of themes, which include the ten avatars of Vishnu. An inscription of grant of Dantidurga is found on the back wall of the front mandapa. According to Coomaraswamy, the finest relief of this cave is the one depicting the death of Hiranyakashipu, where Vishnu in man lion (Narasimha) form, emerges from a pillar to lay a fatal hand upon the shoulder of Hiranyakashipu. .....
Other Hindu caves
7. Other notable Hindu caves are the Rameshvara (Cave 21), which has figurines of river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna at the entrance and the Dhumar Lena (Cave 29) whose design is similar to the cave temple on Elephanta Island near Mumbai. Two other caves, the Ravan ki Khai (Cave 14) and the Nilkantha (Cave 22) also have several sculptures. The rest of the Hindu caves, which include the Kumbharvada (Cave 25) and the Gopilena (Cave 27) have no significant sculptures. .....
The Jain caves
8. The five Jain caves at Ellora belong to the ninth and tenth centuries. They all belong to the Digambara sect. Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense of asceticism they are not relatively large as compared to others, but they present exceptionally detailed art works. The most remarkable Jain shrines are the Chhota Kailash (cave 30), the Indra Sabha (cave 32) and the Jagannath Sabha (cave 33). Cave 31 is an unfinished four pillared hall and a shrine. Cave 34 is a small cave, which can be approached through an opening on the left side of Cave 33. Amongst other devotional carvings, a place called samvatsarana can be found in Elora caves. Samvatsarana is of special interest to Jains, as it is a hall where the tirthankara preaches after attaining omniscience. .....
The Indra Sabha
9. The Indra Sabha (Cave 32) is a two storeyed cave with one more monolithic shrine in its court. It has a very fine carving of the lotus flower on the ceiling. It got the appellation Indra Sabha probably it is significantly ornate and also because of the sculpture of the yaksha (dedicated attendant deity) Matanga on an elephant, which was wrongly identified as that of Indra. On the upper level of the double storied shrine excavated at the rear of the court, an U image of Ambika, the yakshini of Neminath, is found seated on her lion under a mango tree, laden with fruits. .....
Geology of Ellora
10. Ellora occupies a relatively flat region of the Western Ghats. Ancient volcanic activity in this area created many layered basalt formations, known as Deccan Traps. During the Cretaceous, one such volcanic hill formed on the southwest facing side of Ellora. Its vertical face made access to many layers of rock formations easier, enabling architects to pick basalt with finer grains for more detailed sculpting. .....
Inscriptions at Ellora
11. Several inscriptions at Ellora range from 6th century to 15th century. The best known of them is an inscription of Rashtrakuta Dantidurga (c. 753 57 A.D.) on the back wall of the front mandapa of Cave 15, which gives an account of his conquests. Inscriptions on the Kailash temple itself range from 9th to 15th century. Jain cave Jagannatha Sabha has 3 inscriptions that give the names of monks and donors. A Parshvanth temple on the hill has a 11th century inscription that gives the name of the donor from Vardhanapura.The Great Kailasa (Cave 16) is attributed to Krishna I (c. 757 83 A.D.), the successor and uncle of Dantidurga. A copper plate grant by Karka II (c. 812 13 A.D.) narrates that a great edifice was built on a hill by Krishnaraja at Elapura (Ellora).The Ellora caves, unlike Ajanta, were never lost. There have been several written records that indicate that these caves were visited regularly. The earliest is that of the Arab geographer Al Masudi of the 10th century A.D. In 1352 A.D. Sultan Hasan Gangu Bahmani, who camped at the site and visited the caves. The others are by Firishta, Thevenot (163367), Niccolao Manucci (1653 1708), Charles Warre Malet (1794), and Seely (1824) .....
How to Reach Ellora Caves
12. By Air
The nearest airport (which is a domestic airport) from these caves is situated in Aurangabad (15 kms) and can be reached directly from Delhi, Mumbai, Jaipur and Udaipur.
By Rail
Aurangabad is the nearest railway station on South Central Railway Line, about 30 kms from Ellora.
By Road
Aurangabad is a major city of Maharashtra, therefore it is well connected by road. To reach Ellora Caves tourists should take a taxi from Aurangabad. There are State buses run from Mumbai, Pune, Ahmednagar, Jalgaon, Shirdi, Nasik, Dhule, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Indore and Bijapur to Aurangabad.
Cave Timings
9.00AM to 17.30PM Indian Standard Time (IST)
Ellora Caves remain closed on Tuesday. CAVES REMAIN OPEN ON ALL NATIONAL HOLIDAYS
Cave Charges
For Indians below 15 years FREE of Charge
For Indians above 15 years Rs. 10/ per head
For Foreigners above 15 years US $5 or equivalent in Indian rupees per head
For Photo Camera/ Video Camera Rs. 5/ (Camera to be used without flash) .....
Places In and Around Ellora
13. Ghrishneshwar Temple
About half a kilometer from Ellora is the Ghrishneshwar Temple, which was built in the 18th century. It is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas in India and a place that one must visit in order to make the pilgrimage to the Jyotirlingas complete. This beautiful temple has 24 exquisitely carved stone columns, which support the main hall.
Shahji Raje Bhosle Memorial
This is the site of the ancestral home of King Chatrapati Shivaji Maharajs father and grandfather at Ellora. This is under the State Archaeology Department.
Lakshyavinayak Temple
This is the site of the 21 most revered Ganapati temples of Maharashtra at Ellora.
Shivalaya Shrine (Ahilyabai Holkar Kund)
Shavadal Baba Shrine
Parsavanath Jain Temple
Located on the back side hill of Ellora caves is now a cave converted into a regular worship place for jains. Originally a part of the Ellora group of caves.
Vishwakarma Temple
Takaswami Datta Temple
Shri Jagatguru Janardhan Swami (Maungiri Maharaj) Temple
Chagoba Temple .....
Festivals
14. The four day Ellora Ajanta Festival is usually held at Soneri Mahal (Golden Palace), an historic 17th century architectural marvel in Aurangabad near Ellora, in the last week of November each year. The festival features some of the most distinguished singers and dancers of India. Note The festival recommenced in January 2014 after a three year absence. .....
Where to Stay
15. The Hotel Kailas is located right opposite the Ellora caves. Its a relaxing, tranquil place with stone walls and a scenic landscape. Rates are 900 rupees ($20) for a hostel room, 1500 rupees ($35) for a cottage, and 2000 rupees ($50) for a cottage facing the caves. The hotel has plenty of amenities for guests including a restaurant, internet access, a library and games. You can also go paragliding.

Quality accommodations at Ajanta are limited so if you need to stay in the area, its best to head to the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporations Holiday Resort in nearby Fardapur. .....

Best Time to Visit
16. The best time to visit Ellora Caves is during the months of October to February (winter season) and from June to September (monsoon season), these are the best time to visit Ellora Caves, as the weather is really pleasant during these months.Although March, April and May are holiday season (most of the school & colleges are shut downs during these months) in India, but the temperature is really high during these months i.e. between 37 .....
How to reach Ellora by Road
17. There are public & private buses from Aurangabad to Ellora Caves. Alternative you can hire private car, there are plenty of tour operator you can choose from. The drive from Aurangabad to Ellora takes 1 2 hours. .....
How to Reach Ellora by Rail
18. Aurangabad Railway station is nearest to Ellora Caves, there are a plenty of private car services you can hire or you can avail the bus service from railway station to the caves. .....
How to Reach Ellora by Flight
19. The nearest airport is at Aurangabad, 30 kms away from Ellora Caves. Aurangabad has a good national airport, which is well connected to major cities like Mumbai, Delhi & Hyderabad. .....
Who build
20. Ellora is an ancient village 30 km (18.6 miles) from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Famous for its monumental caves, Ellora is a World Heritage Site.Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock cut architecture. The 34 caves actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills comprised of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain cave temples and monasteries, were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist, 17 Hindu and 5 Jain caves, built in close proximity, demonstrate the religious tolerance prevalent during this period of Indian history. .....
Architecture
21. The architectural splendor is what attracts tourists to this place. Stretching around 2 km and with 34 numerous monasteries and temples, this whole complex is a work of art and brings alive the civilization of the times in ancient India. It is the worlds largest monolithic structure.There are in all 12 Buddhist caves, 17 Hindu caves and 5 Jain temples. Of these, the Hindu caves are the most attractive, due to the intricate design and layout of the structure. The most remarkable is Cave 16, which was constructed in the 8th century. The carvings here are monolithic and have four levels. The structure comprises windows, stairs and doorway. The huge structure of elephants and Nandi bull are mesmerising, to say the least. Various other figures are attractively made, with great skill and passion. The stone carved pillar is a huge attraction among the tourists.Cave 32 is very prominent among the Jain caves as it comprises fine lotus flower carvings and intricately designed ornaments. All the caves belong to the Digambara sect and have fine delayed work of art.

The Buddhist caves comprise monasteries, living quarters, kitchens, sleeping quarters and many other rooms. There are large multi storied buildings as well. A famous Buddhist cave is Cave 10, which has a huge Buddha statue of 15 feet, in a seated position. It is also called as the Vishwakar+C30ma Cave.The architecture is done on one single rock mountain that has been cut down from above. The craftsmanship is exquisite, far surpassing todays standards. Without proper light in the caves, the intricate work that is done tells us about the dedication and passion with which the artisans worked. .....

When to visit
22. The Ellora Caves are best visited during the monsoons as you can see the water gushing from the mountain streams from the top of the caves. There is greenery everywhere, which makes the place very attractive.Other than the monsoons, you can visit the place from November to March. Summers are hot, which makes it unpleasant to spend the whole day outdoors. Therefore, winters and monsoons are preferred. If you dont prefer rains then skip the months from June to October. .....
Location
23. The Ellora Caves are located around 26 km north of the city of Aurangabad, Maharashtra. The caves are nestled amidst volcanic mountains. To be precise they happen to be positioned in the laps of the hills of Chamadari and in the thick forests. Mumbai is around 300 km from here, while Pune is around 250 km. It is near a small village called Verul. .....
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Stools. (a) A ring stool of a type approved by the Commissioner shall be available for each contestant. (b) An appropriate number of stools or chairs, of a type approved by the Commissioner, shall be available for each contestants seconds. Such stools or cha .....
Benefits of Bananas
Bananas. Bananas are one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world for good reason. The curved yellow fruit packs a big nutritional punch, wrapped in its own convenient packaging. Some scientists believe that the banana may have even been the worlds fir .....
Ideas To Improve Student Motivation
Give feedback and offer chances to improve. Students who struggle with class work can sometimes feel frustrated and get down on themselves, draining motivation. In these situations it s critical that teachers help students to learn exactly where they went wrong and how they can improve next ti .....
Flowers
Hypericum Coris. There is an elegance and neatness in most of this tribe, and none possess those qualities in a greater degree than the present species, which is a charming little evergreen, admirably adapted for the greenhouse, as it forms a pretty bulb, and flowers .....
Rules to play Broomball
Off side. Off side is called when a player from the team in possesion of the ball enters the offensive zone before the ball. The center red line is the in out line in Broomball, as the blue line is used in hockey. .....
Best Hybrid Cars in the World
Porsche Panamera S E Hybrid. Last year, it was reported that the Porsche Panamera S E Hybrid accounted for about 9% of all Porsche Panamera sales. This is with most buyers probably not even knowing that a plug in variant was on the market. The Panamera S E Hybrid was nearly disq .....
Awesome Mental Health Resources
OK2Talk. Designed for teens and young adults with mental illness, this site offers an online outlet for people to come forward with their own stories, find support, and discuss the diagnoses they may have received. OK2Talk comes with plenty of motivational po .....
Tips for Best Student in the class
Sacrifice. Nearly 80% of the surveyed top students said that they made sacrifices to get good grades, and when asked to describe these sacrifices, the answers were uniformly about cutting back on their social lives. Reducing time spent with friends may be hard .....
Musical Instruments
Trombone. A musician plays the trombone by vibrating the lips against the mouthpiece and moving the u-shaped slide which functions as the valves. The musician can play in various pitches by pulling the slide in or pushing it out. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Nontoxic Manicure Nasty nail polish. Three ingredients found in many nail polishes are suspected to be harmful to the human body. The reproductive toxin DBP (dibutyl phthalate), banned since 2004 in products sold in the European Union, still features in most US formulations. Formaldehy .....
Portrait Photography tips for Beginners
Book a real photo shoot. Contrary to popular belief, models are a dime a dozen no matter where you live. Head on over to ModelMayhem.com and find a local model. Many of them will not even charge you if you give them copies of the pictures you take. It s called TFP time for p .....
The Worlds Most Magnificent Mosques
Sultan Mosque Singapore. The British statesman Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore, funded the original construction of this iconic mosque with a S$3000 grant in 1824. As the islands Muslim community grew, the number of worshippers increased and by the time the mosque .....
The Most Reliable cars in the world
Kia Cee d hatchback. The Kia Cee d is the second Kia model to make the top ten, proving that the Korean manufacturer is definitely doing something right when it comes to build quality and reliability. Although owners haven t been particularly impressed with performance o .....
The Best Luxury Cars
Audi S4. 4 June, 2012 : Audi has released the new sporty and gamey Audi S4 with a price tag of Rs. 45,31,000 lakh onwards (ex showroom Maharashtra) . Audi India has introduced this car after receiving a strong response to the campaign, .....
Precaution while using Homeopathy
Undergoing homeopathic treatment. Many homeopathic practitioners suggest that sour foods are not supposed to be consumed while undergoing homeopathic treatment and taking homeopathic medications. Homeopathic remedies are effective in treating infections, circulatory problems, respir .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Lipstick. Chocolate not only is the yummiest treat of the season but also a sweet alternative to red lipstick. Skip the matte browns and reach for those with mauve or reddish undertones. .....
Healthy Head
Do Not Retire from Life. Maintaining a strong sense of purpose in life is an important contributor to longevity. Making a conscious decision to stay actively involved in your daily routine is beneficial to your lifelong health and well being. Positive attitude has been shown .....
Famous Logos That Have A Hidden Message
Tostitos. The two middle T s in Tostitos shows two friends sharing some tortilla chips and salsa. .....
Benefits of Bananas
Hair Benefits Of Banana. Banana is rich in potassium, natural oils, carbohydrates and vitamins which help in softening the hair and protects the hair .....
Most Dangerous Animal in the World
Humans. Human beings may not stand to win in a fair fight against most of these species, but thanks to our ingenuity, we have learned how to arm ourselves with weapons and tools which have placed us at the top of the food chain (at least for the time being). .....
Candle Sticks
Bearish tri star. Definition The pattern is a sequence of three Doji. The occurrence of this pattern is extremely rare so when it occurs it should not be ignored. Recognition Criteria 1. The market is characterized by a prevailing uptrend. 2. Three consecutive Doji ar .....
Precautions while using Induction Cooker
Flexible heating levels and power options. Unlike other electric/gas conventional cookers, induction cookers heat levels can be adjusted instantaneously. In other electric heaters, instant heat variation is not possible. We can only increase or reduce the temperature slowly. Induction cookers .....
Benefits of Cantaloupe
Antiageing Benefits. Cantaloupe has abundant folic acid which facilitates regeneration of cells, thus imparting you with healthy skin. This is particularly beneficial for pregnant women. Vitamin C on the other hand prevents damage by free radicals. In this way, cantaloup .....
Table Etiquettes
Eating the food d. If you do not like the food that is served, keep silent and try to eat a little amount of it. .....
How to Care for Your Nails
Wear Sunscreen. Wear sunscreen on the tops of your feet. Apply a broad spectrumsunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 to your feet when you re going barefoot or wearing open sandals. .....
Precautions while using Internet Banking
Instant Notification. You can define transfer limit and for all transfers that you will do with amount equal or more than defined limit, system will automatically send a SMS or Email. State Bank of India (SBI) is an Indian multinational banking and financial services comp .....
Football Players
Michael Owen. Position : Forward Country : EnglandAn 18 year-old superstar was born when Michael Owen pulled this scorcher against Argentina in World Cup in 1998, as he put his foot down on the football's biggest stage. Going past Argentina's Jose Chamot, then Ro .....
Smallest Things in the World
Smallest Thing Visible to the Naked Eye. The smallest objects visible to the unaided human eye are roughly .1mm long. This means that under the right conditions you would be able to see an ameoba proteus, a paramecium, and even a human egg. .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Create King Content. Create valuable content that is worth for reading and sharing with others. .....
Benefits of Brussel
Cruciferous vegetables. Brussels sprouts have been used to determine the potential impact of cruciferous vegetables on thyroid function. In a recent study, 5 ounces of Brussels sprouts were consumed on a daily basis for 4 consecutive weeks by a small group of healthy adults .....
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