Economy of india

Economy of India
1. The Economy of India is the tenth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third largest by purchasing power parity PPP . The country is one of the G 20 major economies, a member of BRICS and a developing economy that is among the top 20 global traders according to the WTO. India was the 19th largest merchandise and the 6th largest services exporter in the world in 2013; it imported a total of $616.7 billion worth of merchandise and services in 2013, as the 12th largest merchandise and 7th largest services importer. India s economic growth slowed to 4.7 Percent for the 2013 14 fiscal year, in contrast to higher economic growth rates in 2000s. The Indian Finance Ministry projects the GDP growth for fiscal 2014 will be 5.5 Percent. IMF projects India s GDP to grow at 5.6 Percent over 2014 15. Agriculture sector is the largest employer in India s economy but contributes a declining share of its GDP 13.7 Percent in 2012 13 . Its manufacturing industry has held a constant share of its economic contribution, while the fastest growing part of the economy has been its services sector which includes construction, telecom, software and information technologies, infrastructure, tourism, education, health care, travel, trade, banking and other components of its economy.

The post independence era Indian economy from 1947 to 1991 was a mixed economy with an inward looking, centrally planned, interventionist policies and import substituting economic model that failed to take advantage of the post war expansion of trade and that nationalized many sectors of its economy. India s share of global trade fell from 1.3 Percent in 1953 to 0.5 Percent in 1983. This model contributed to widespread inefficiencies and corruption, and it was poorly implemented.

After a fiscal crisis in 1991, India has increasingly adopted free market principles and liberalised its economy to international trade. These reforms were started by former Finance minister Manmohan Singh under the guidance of Prime Minister P.V.Narasimha Rao. They eliminated much of Licence Raj, a pre and post British era mechanism of strict government controls on setting up new industry. Following these economic reforms, and a strong focus on developing national infrastructure such as the Golden Quadrilateral project by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the country s economic growth progressed at a rapid pace, with relatively large increases in per capita incomes. The south western state of Maharashtra contributes the highest towards India s GDP among all states, while Bihar is among its poorest states in terms of GNI per capita. Mumbai,Maharashtra is known as the trade and financial capital of India. .....

Pre colonial period
2. The citizens of the Indus Valley civilisation, a permanent settlement that flourished between 2800 BC and 1800 BC, practiced agriculture, domesticated animals, used uniform weights and measures, made tools and weapons, and traded with other cities. Evidence of well planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the world s first urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government.Maritime trade was carried out extensively between South India and southeast and West Asia from early times until around the fourteenth century AD. Both the Malabar and Coromandel Coasts were the sites of important trading centres from as early as the first century BC, used for import and export as well as transit points between the Mediterranean region and southeast Asia. Over time, traders organised themselves into associations which received state patronage. Raychaudhuri and Habib claim this state patronage for overseas trade came to an end by the thirteenth century AD, when it was largely taken over by the local Parsi, Jewish and Muslim communities, initially on the Malabar and subsequently on the Coromandel coast.Other scholars suggest trading from India to West Asia and Eastern Europe was active between 14th and 18th century. During this period, Indian traders had settled in Surakhani, a suburb of greater Baku, Azerbaijan. These traders had built a Hindu temple, now preserved by the government of Azerbaijan. French Jesuit Villotte, who lived in Azerbaijan in late 1600s, wrote this Indian temple was revered by Hindus; the temple has numerous carvings in Sanskrit or Punjabi, dated to be between 1500 and 1745 AD. The Atashgah temple built by the Baku resident traders from India suggests commerce was active and prosperous for Indians by the 17th century.

Further north, the Saurashtra and Bengal coasts played an important role in maritime trade, and the Gangetic plains and the Indus valley housed several centres of river borne commerce. Most overland trade was carried out via the Khyber Pass connecting the Punjab region with Afghanistan and onward to the Middle East and Central Asia. Although many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was prevalent. Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue to the rulers, while their craftsmen received a part of the crops at harvest time for their services.

Sean Harkin estimates China and India may have accounted for 60 to 70 percent of world GDP in the 17th century.

Assessment of India s pre colonial economy is mostly qualitative, owing to the lack of quantitative information. The Mughal economy functioned on an elaborate system of coined currency, land revenue and trade. Gold, silver and copper coins were issued by the royal mints which functioned on the basis of free coinage. The political stability and uniform revenue policy resulting from a centralised administration under the Mughals, coupled with a well developed internal trade network, ensured that India, before the arrival of the British, was to a large extent economically unified, despite having a traditional agrarian economy characterised by a predominance of subsistence agriculture dependent on primitive technology. After the decline of the Mughals, western, central and parts of south and north India were integrated and administered by the Maratha Empire. After the loss at the Third Battle of Panipat, the Maratha Empire disintegrated into several confederate states, and the resulting political instability and armed conflict severely affected economic life in several parts of the country, although this was compensated for to some extent by localised prosperity in the new provincial kingdoms. By the end of the eighteenth century, the British East India Company entered the Indian political theatre and established its dominance over other European powers. This marked a determinative shift in India s trade, and a less powerful impact on the rest of the economy. .....

Colonial period
3. Company rule in India brought a major change in the taxation and agricultural policies, which tended to promote commercialisation of agriculture with a focus on trade, resulting in decreased production of food crops, mass impoverishment and destitution of farmers, and in the short term, led to numerous famines. The economic policies of the British Raj caused a severe decline in the handicrafts and handloom sectors, due to reduced demand and dipping employment. After the removal of international restrictions by the Charter of 1813, Indian trade expanded substantially and over the long term showed an upward trend. The result was a significant transfer of capital from India to England, which, due to the colonial policies of the British, led to a massive drain of revenue rather than any systematic effort at modernisation of the domestic economy.

India s colonisation by the British created an institutional environment that, on paper, guaranteed property rights among the colonisers, encouraged free trade, and created a single currency with fixed exchange rates, standardised weights and measures and capital markets. It also established a system of railways and telegraphs, a civil service that aimed to be free from political interference, a common law and an adversarial legal system. This coincided with major changes in the world economy industrialisation, and significant growth in production and trade. However, at the end of colonial rule, India inherited an economy that was one of the poorest in the developing world, with industrial development stalled, agriculture unable to feed a rapidly growing population, a largely illiterate and unskilled labour force, and extremely inadequate infrastructure.

The 1872 census revealed that 91.3 Percent of the population of the region constituting present day India resided in villages, and urbanisation generally remained sluggish until the 1920s, due to the lack of industrialisation and absence of adequate transportation. Subsequently, the policy of discriminating protection where certain important industries were given financial protection by the state , coupled with the Second World War, saw the development and dispersal of industries, encouraging rural urban migration, and in particular the large port cities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras grew rapidly. Despite this, only one sixth of India s population lived in cities by 1951.

The impact of British occupation on India s economy is a controversial topic. Leaders of the Indian independence movement and economic historians have blamed colonial occupation for the dismal state of India s economy in its aftermath and argued that financial strength required for industrial development in Europe was derived from the wealth taken from colonies in Asia and Africa. At the same time, right wing historians have countered that India s low economic performance was due to various sectors being in a state of growth and decline due to changes brought in by colonialism and a world that was moving towards industrialisation and economic integration. .....

Pre liberalisation period
4. Indian economic policy after independence was influenced by the colonial experience, which was seen by Indian leaders as exploitative, and by those leaders exposure to British social democracy as well as the planned economy of the Soviet Union. Domestic policy tended towards protectionism, with a strong emphasis on import substitution industrialisation, economic interventionism, a large government run public sector, business regulation, and central planning, while trade and foreign investment policies were relatively liberal. Five Year Plans of India resembled central planning in the Soviet Union. Steel, mining, machine tools, telecommunications, insurance, and power plants, among other industries, were effectively nationalised in the mid 1950s.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, along with the statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, formulated and oversaw economic policy during the initial years of the country s independence. They expected favourable outcomes from their strategy, involving the rapid development of heavy industry by both public and private sectors, and based on direct and indirect state intervention, rather than the more extreme Soviet style central command system. The policy of concentrating simultaneously on capital and technology intensive heavy industry and subsidising manual, low skill cottage industries was criticised by economist Milton Friedman, who thought it would waste capital and labour, and retard the development of small manufacturers. The rate of growth of the Indian economy in the first three decades after independence was derisively referred to as the Hindu rate of growth by economists, because of the unfavourable comparison with growth rates in other Asian countries.

Since 1965, the use of high yielding varieties of seeds, increased fertilisers and improved irrigation facilities collectively contributed to the Green Revolution in India, which improved the condition of agriculture by increasing crop productivity, improving crop patterns and strengthening forward and backward linkages between agriculture and industry. However, it has also been criticised as an unsustainable effort, resulting in the growth of capitalistic farming, ignoring institutional reforms and widening income disparities.

Subsequently the Emergency and Garibi Hatao concept under which income tax levels at one point rose to a maximum of 97.5 Percent, a record in the world for non communist economies, started diluting the earlier efforts. .....

Post liberalisation period
5. In the late 1970s, the government led by Morarji Desai eased restrictions on capacity expansion for incumbent companies, removed price controls, reduced corporate taxes and promoted the creation of small scale industries in large numbers. However, the subsequent government policy of Fabian socialism hampered the benefits of the economy, leading to high fiscal deficits and a worsening current account. The collapse of the Soviet Union, which was India s major trading partner, and the Gulf War, which caused a spike in oil prices, resulted in a major balance of payments crisis for India, which found itself facing the prospect of defaulting on its loans. India asked for a $1.8 billion bailout loan from the International Monetary Fund IMF , which in return demanded de regulation.

In response, Prime Minister Narasimha Rao, along with his finance minister Manmohan Singh, initiated the economic liberalisation of 1991. The reforms did away with the Licence Raj, reduced tariffs and interest rates and ended many public monopolies, allowing automatic approval of foreign direct investment in many sectors. Since then, the overall thrust of liberalisation has remained the same, although no government has tried to take on powerful lobbies such as trade unions and farmers, on contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies. By the turn of the 21st century, India had progressed towards a free market economy, with a substantial reduction in state control of the economy and increased financial liberalisation. This has been accompanied by increases in life expectancy, literacy rates and food security, although urban residents have benefited more than agricultural residents.

While the credit rating of India was hit by its nuclear weapons tests in 1998, it has since been raised to investment level in 2003 by S&P and Moody s. India enjoyed high growth rates for a period from 2003 to 2007 with growth averaging 9 Percent during this period. Growth then moderated due to the global financial crisis starting in 2008. In 2003, Goldman Sachs predicted that India s GDP in current prices would overtake France and Italy by 2020, Germany, UK and Russia by 2025 and Japan by 2035, making it the third largest economy of the world, behind the US and China. India is often seen by most economists as a rising economic superpower and is believed to play a major role in the global economy in the 21st century.

Starting in 2012, India entered a period of more anaemic growth, with growth slowing down to 4.4 Percent. Other economic problems also became apparent a plunging Indian rupee, a persistent high current account deficit and slow industrial growth. Hit by the U.S. Federal Reserve s decision to taper quantitative easing, foreign investors had been rapidly pulling out money from India though this has now reversed with the Stock market at near all time high and the current account deficit narrowing substantially.

India is ranked at 134 out of 189, overall, in World Bank s 2013 ease of doing business index. However, this score masks the underlying data in terms of starting a business, dealing with bureaucratic permits and enforcing contracts, it is ranked among the 10 worst in the world; while in terms of protecting investors, general operations and other measures, India ranks very favorably among 189 countries. .....

Sectors
6. Historically, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP as three sectors agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub sectors. India s definition of services sector includes its construction, retail, software, IT, communications, hospitality, infrastructure operations, education, health care, banking and insurance, and many other economic activities. .....
Agriculture
7. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 17 Percent of the GDP and employed 51 Percent of the total workforce in 2012. As Indian economy has diversified and grown, agriculture s contribution to GDP has steadily declined from 1951 to 2011, yet it is still the largest employment source and a significant piece of the overall socio economic development of India. Crop yield per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950, due to the special emphasis placed on agriculture in the five year plans and steady improvements in irrigation, technology, application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since the Green Revolution in India. However, international comparisons reveal the average yield in India is generally 30 Percent to 50 Percent of the highest average yield in the world. Indian states Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat and Maharashtra are key agricultural contributing states of India.

India receives an average annual rainfall of 1,208 millimetres 47.6 in and a total annual precipitation of 4000 billion cubic metres, with the total utilisable water resources, including surface and groundwater, amounting to 1123 billion cubic metres. 546,820 square kilometres 211,130 sq mi of the land area, or about 39 Percent of the total cultivated area, is irrigated. India s inland water resources including rivers, canals, ponds and lakes and marine resources comprising the east and west coasts of the Indian ocean and other gulfs and bays provide employment to nearly six million people in the fisheries sector. In 2008, India had the world s third largest fishing industry.

India is the largest producer in the world of milk, jute and pulses, and also has the world s second largest cattle population with 175 million animals in 2008. It is the second largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton and groundnuts, as well as the second largest fruit and vegetable producer, accounting for 10.9 Percent and 8.6 Percent of the world fruit and vegetable production respectively. India is also the second largest producer and the largest consumer of silk in the world, producing 77,000 tons in 2005.

India exports several agriculture products, such as Basmati rice, wheat, cereals, spices, fresh fruits, dry fruits, buffalo beef meat, cotton, tea, coffee and other cash crops particularly to the Middle East, Southeast and East Asian countries. It earns about 10 percent of its export earnings from this trade. .....

Industry
8. Industry accounts for 26 Percent of GDP and employs 22 Percent of the total workforce. According to the World Bank, India s industrial manufacturing GDP output in 2012 was 10th largest in the world on current US dollar basis $239.5 billion , and 9th largest on inflation adjusted constant 2005 US dollar basis $197.1 billion . The Indian industrial sector underwent significant changes as a result of the economic liberalisation in India economic reforms of 1991, which removed import restrictions, brought in foreign competition, led to the privatisation of certain government owned public sector industries, liberalised the FDI regime, improved infrastructure and led to an expansion in the production of fast moving consumer goods. Post liberalisation, the Indian private sector was faced with increasing domestic as well as foreign competition, including the threat of cheaper Chinese imports. It has since handled the change by squeezing costs, revamping management, and relying on cheap labour and new technology. However, this has also reduced employment generation even by smaller manufacturers who earlier relied on relatively labour intensive processes. .....
Petroleum products and chemicals
9. Petroleum products and chemicals are a major contributor to India s industrial GDP, and together they contribute over 34 Percent of its export earnings. India hosts many oil refinery and petrochemical operations, including the world s largest refinery complex in Jamnagar that processes 1.24 million barrels of crude per day. By volume, Indian chemical industry was the third largest producer in Asia, and it alone contributed 5 Percent of its GDP. India is one of the top 5 world producers of agrochemicals, polymers and plastics, dyes and various organic and inorganic chemicals. Despite being a large producer and exporter of chemicals, India is a net importer of chemicals given its domestic demand for products. .....
Pharmaceuticals
10. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years to become a major manufacturer of health care products to the world. India produced about 8 per cent of global pharmaceutical supply in 2011 by value, that included over 60,000 generic brands of medicines sold around the world. It is one of the fastest growing sub sectors of its industry and significant contributor of India s export earnings. The state of Gujarat has become a hub for the manufacture and export of pharmaceuticals and APIs. The industry is expected to double from its 2012 levels to US$55 billion by 2020, according to a McKinsey report. .....
Engineering
11. Engineering industry of India is the largest sub sector of its industry GDP and is one of three largest foreign exchange earning sectors for the country. It includes transport equipment, machine tools, capital goods, transformers, switchgears, furnaces, cast and forged simple to precision parts for turbines, automobiles and railways. The industry employs about four million workers. On value added basis, India s engineering industry sector exported $67 billion worth of engineering goods in 2013 14 fiscal year, as well served part of the domestic demand for engineering goods.

The engineering industry of India includes its growing car, motorcycle and scooters industry, as well as productivity machinery such as tractors. India manufactured and assembled about 18 million passenger and utility vehicles in 2011, of which 2.3 million were exported. India is the world s largest producer of and the largest market for tractors, accounting for 29 Percent of world s tractor production in 2013. India is the 12th largest producer and 7th largest consumer of machine tools in the world. .....

Gems and jewelry
12. India is one of the world s largest diamonds and gem polishing and jewelry manufacturing center; it is also one of the two largest consumers of gold. After crude oil and petroleum products, the export and import of gold, precious metals, precious stones, gems and jewelry accounts for the largest portion of India s global trade. The industry contributes about 7 Percent of India s GDP, employs millions, and is a major source of its foreign exchange earnings. The gems and jewellery industry, in 2013, created INR251000 crore US$39 billion in economic output on value added basis. It is growing sector of Indian economy, and A.T. Kearney projects it to grow to INR500000 crore US$79 billion by 2018. The gems and jewelry industry has been an ancient art and continuous economic activity in India, traced over several thousand years. Till 18th century, India was the world s only known major reliable source of diamond mining and its processing. Now, South Africa and Australia are the major sources of diamonds and precious metals, but along with Antwerp, New York, and Ramat Gan, Indian cities such as Surat and Mumbai are the hubs of world s jewelry polishing, cutting, precision finishing, supply and trade. Unlike other centers, the gems and jewelry economic activity in India is primarily artisans driven, is manual, the sector is highly fragmented, and 96 Percent of the industry is served by family owned operations. Indian gem and jewelry economy s particular strength is in precision cutting, polishing and processing small diamonds below one carat . Yet, India is also a hub for processing of larger diamonds, pearls and other precious stones. About 11 out of 12 diamonds set in any jewellery in the world are cut and polished in India. It is also a major hub of gold and other precious metal based precision jewelry industry. Its domestic demand for gold and jewelry products is another driver of India s GDP. .....
Textile
13. Textile industry contributes about 4 per cent to the country .....
Mining
14. India s mining industry was the 4th largest producer of minerals in the world by volume, and 8th largest producer by value in 2009. In 2013, it mined and processed 89 minerals, of which 4 were fuel, 3 were atomic energy minerals, and 80 non fuel. The government owned public sector accounted for 68 Percent of mineral produced by volume, in 2011 12.

Nearly 50 Percent of India s mining industry, by output value, is concentrated in eight states Odisha, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Another 25 Percent of the output by value comes from its offshore oil and gas resources. India operated about 3,000 mines in 2010, half of which were coal, limestone and iron ore. On output value basis, India s was one of five largest producers of mica, chromite, coal, lignite, iron ore, bauxite, barites, zinc, manganese; while being one of the 10 largest global producers of many other minerals. India was fourth largest producer of steel in the world in 2013, and seventh largest producer of aluminum.

India s mineral resources are vast. However, its mining industry has declined contributing 2.3 Percent of its GDP in 2010 compared to 3 Percent in 2000, and employed 2.9 million people a decreasing percentage of its total labor. India is a net importer of many minerals including coal. India s mining sector decline is because of complex permit, regulatory and administrative procedures that take 6 to 20 fold more time than other mining countries such as Australia and South Africa, inadequate infrastructure, shortage of capital resources, and slow adoption of ecologically and environmentally sustainable technologies. .....

Services
15. India s services sector has the largest share in the GDP, accounting for 57 Percent in 2012, up from 15 Percent in 1950. It is the 12th largest in the world by nominal GDP, and fourth largest when purchasing power is taken into account. The services sector provides employment to 27 Percent of the work force. Information technology and business process outsourcing are among the fastest growing sectors, having a cumulative growth rate of revenue 33.6 Percent between 1997 and 1998 and 2002 03 and contributing to 25 Percent of the country s total exports in 2007 08. The growth in the IT sector is attributed to increased specialisation, and an availability of a large pool of low cost, highly skilled, educated and fluent English speaking workers, on the supply side, matched on the demand side by increased demand from foreign consumers interested in India s service exports, or those looking to outsource their operations. The share of the Indian IT industry in the country s GDP increased from 4.8 Percent in 2005 06 to 7 Percent in 2008. In 2009, seven Indian firms were listed among the top 15 technology outsourcing companies in the world. .....
Energy and power
16. As of 2009, India is the fourth largest producer of electricity and oil products and the fourth largest importer of coal and crude oil in the world. Coal and oil together account for 66 Percent of the energy consumption of India.

India s oil reserves meet 25 Percent of the country s domestic oil demand. As of 2012, India s total proven oil reserves of 5.5 million barrels 870 million litres , while gas reserves stood at 43,800 million cubic feet 1,240 million cubic metres . Oil and natural gas fields are located offshore at Mumbai High, Krishna Godavari Basin and the Cauvery Delta, and onshore mainly in the states of Assam, Gujarat and Rajasthan. India is the fourth largest consumer of oil in the world and imported INR726386 crore US$110 billion worth of oil in 2011 12, which had an adverse effect on its current account deficit. The petroleum industry in India mostly consists of public sector companies such as Oil and Natural Gas Corporation ONGC , Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited HPCL , Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited BPCL and Indian Oil Corporation Limited IOCL . There are some major private Indian companies in the oil sector such as Reliance Industries Limited RIL which operates the world s largest oil refining complex.

As of December 2011, India had an installed power generation capacity of 233.929 GW as of December 2013, of which thermal power contributed 68.31 Percent, hydroelectricity 17.05 Percent, other sources of renewable energy 12.59 Percent, and nuclear power 2.04 Percent. India meets most of its domestic energy demand through its 106 billion tonnes of coal reserves. India is also rich in certain alternative sources of energy with significant future potential such as solar, wind and biofuels jatropha, sugarcane . India s dwindling uranium reserves stagnated the growth of nuclear energy in the country for many years. Recent discoveries of natural uranium in Tummalapalle belt, which promises to be one of the top 20 of the world s reserves, and an estimated reserve of 846,477 metric tons 933,081 short tons of thorium about 25 Percent of world s reserves are expected to fuel the country s ambitious nuclear energy program in the long run. The Indo US nuclear deal has also paved the way for India to import uranium from other countries. .....

Infrastructure
17. India s infrastructure and transport sector contributes about 5 Percent of its GDP. India has the world s second largest road network in quantitative terms, covering more than 4.3 million kilometers. Qualitatively, India s roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads. India also has the lowest kilometer lane road density per 100,000 people among G 27 countries leading to traffic congestion. It is upgrading its infrastructure. As of May 2014, India had completed and placed in use over 22,600 kilometres of recently built 4 or 6 lane highways connecting most of its major manufacturing, commercial and cultural centers. India s road infrastructure carries 60 Percent of freight and 87 Percent of passenger traffic.

Indian Railways is the fourth largest rail network in the world, with a track length of 114,500 kilometers and 7,172 stations. This government owned and operated railway network carried an average of 23 million passengers a day, and over a billion tonnes of freight a year. India has a coastline of 7,500 kilometers with 13 major ports and 60 operational non major ports, which together handle 95 Percent of the country .....

Retail
18. Retail industry contributes between 14 15 Percent to 20 Percent of India s GDP. The Indian retail market is estimated to be US$450 billion and one of the top five retail markets in the world by economic value. India is one of the fastest growing retail market in the world, and is projected to reach $1.3 trillion by 2020.

India s retailing industry mostly consists of the local mom and pop store, owner manned shops and street vendors. Organised retail supermarkets are growing but small, with a market share of 4 Percent as of 2008. In 2012 government permitted 51 Percent FDI in multi brand retail and 100 Percent FDI in single brand retail. However, a lack of back end warehouse retail infrastructure, as well as state level permits and red tape continues to limit organized retail s growth in Indian economy. Over thirty regulations such as signboard licences and anti hoarding measures have to be complied before a store can open doors. There are taxes for moving goods from state to state, and even within states. The lack of infrastructure and efficient retail network, according to The Wall Street Journal, causes a third of India s agriculture produce to be lost from spoilage. .....

Tourism
19. International and domestic tourism industry contributes more to India s GDP than its textile sector. India attracted 6.85 million international tourist arrivals and $18.4 billion in foreign exchange earnings from tourism receipts in 2013. Tourism to India has seen a steady growth, year on year, from 4.45 million arrivals in 2006 to nearly 7 million arrivals in 2013. The United States is the largest source of international tourists to India, while European Union nations and Japan are other major sources of international tourists. Less than 10 Percent of international tourists visit the Taj Mahal, with majority visiting other cultural, thematic and holiday circuits. Over 12 million Indian citizens take international trips each year for tourism, while domestic tourism within India adds about 740 million Indian travelers. The combined international and domestic tourism contributed 5.92 Percent of India s GDP, and 9.3 Percent to its employment in 2011. India has a fast growing medical tourism sector of its health care economy offering low cost health and long term care. .....
Banking and finance
20. The Indian money market is classified into the organised sector, comprising private, public and foreign owned commercial banks and cooperative banks, together known as scheduled banks, and the unorganised sector, which includes individual or family owned indigenous bankers or money lenders and non banking financial companies. The unorganised sector and microcredit are still preferred over traditional banks in rural and sub urban areas, especially for non productive purposes, like ceremonies and short duration loans.

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nationalised 14 banks in 1969, followed by six others in 1980, and made it mandatory for banks to provide 40 Percent of their net credit to priority sectors like agriculture, small scale industry, retail trade, small businesses, etc. to ensure that the banks fulfill their social and developmental goals. Since then, the number of bank branches has increased from 8,260 in 1969 to 72,170 in 2007 and the population covered by a branch decreased from 63,800 to 15,000 during the same period. The total bank deposits increased from INR59.1 billion US$930 million in 1970 71 to INR38309.22 billion US$600 billion in 2008 09. Despite an increase of rural branches, from 1,860 or 22 Percent of the total number of branches in 1969 to 30,590 or 42 Percent in 2007, only 32,270 out of 500,000 villages are covered by a scheduled bank.

India s gross domestic saving in 2006 07 as a percentage of GDP stood at a high 32.8 Percent. More than half of personal savings are invested in physical assets such as land, houses, cattle, and gold. The government owned public sector banks hold over 75 Percent of total assets of the banking industry, with the private and foreign banks holding 18.2 Percent and 6.5 Percent respectively. Since liberalisation, the government has approved significant banking reforms. While some of these relate to nationalised banks, like encouraging mergers, reducing government interference and increasing profitability and competitiveness, other reforms have opened up the banking and insurance sectors to private and foreign players. .....

Global trade relations
21. Until the liberalisation of 1991, India was largely and intentionally isolated from the world markets, to protect its economy and to achieve self reliance. Foreign trade was subject to import tariffs, export taxes and quantitative restrictions, while foreign direct investment FDI was restricted by upper limit equity participation, restrictions on technology transfer, export obligations and government approvals; these approvals were needed for nearly 60 Percent of new FDI in the industrial sector. The restrictions ensured that FDI averaged only around $200 million annually between 1985 and 1991; a large percentage of the capital flows consisted of foreign aid, commercial borrowing and deposits of non resident Indians. India s exports were stagnant for the first 15 years after independence, due to general neglect of trade policy by the government of that period. Imports in the same period, due to industrialisation being nascent, consisted predominantly of machinery, raw materials and consumer goods.Since liberalisation, the value of India s international trade has increased sharply, with the contribution of total trade in goods and services to the GDP rising from 16 Percent in 1990 91 to 47 Percent in 2008 10.India accounts for 1.44 Percent of exports and 2.12 Percent of imports for merchandise trade and 3.34 Percent of exports and 3.31 Percent of imports for commercial services trade worldwide.201 India s major trading partners are the European Union, China, the United States of America and the United Arab Emirates. In 2006 07, major export commodities included engineering goods, petroleum products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, gems and jewellery, textiles and garments, agricultural products, iron ore and other minerals. Major import commodities included crude oil and related products, machinery, electronic goods, gold and silver. In November 2010, exports increased 22.3 Percent year on year to INR850.63 billion US$13 billion , while imports were up 7.5 Percent at INR1251.33 billion US$20 billion . Trade deficit for the same month dropped from INR468.65 billion US$7.4 billion in 2009 to INR400.7 billion US$6.3 billion in 2010.

India is a founding member of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT since 1947 and its successor, the WTO. While participating actively in its general council meetings, India has been crucial in voicing the concerns of the developing world. For instance, India has continued its opposition to the inclusion of such matters as labour and environment issues and other non tariff barriers to trade into the WTO policies. .....

Balance of payments
22. Since independence, India s balance of payments on its current account has been negative. Since economic liberalisation in the 1990s, precipitated by a balance of payment crisis, India s exports rose consistently, covering 80.3 Percent of its imports in 2002 03, up from 66.2 Percent in 1990 91. However, the global economic slump followed by a general deceleration in world trade saw the exports as a percentage of imports drop to 61.4 Percent in 2008 09.India s growing oil import bill is seen as the main driver behind the large current account deficit, which rose to $118.7 billion, or 11.11 Percent of GDP, in 2008 09.Between January and October 2010, India imported $82.1 billion worth of crude oil.

Indian economy has run a trade deficit every year over 2002 2012 period, with a merchandise trade deficit of US$189 billion in 2011 12.Its trade with China has the largest deficit, about $31 billion in 2013.

India s reliance on external assistance and concessional debt has decreased since liberalisation of the economy, and the debt service ratio decreased from 35.3 Percent in 1990 91 to 4.4 Percent in 2008 09. In India, External Commercial Borrowings ECBs , or commercial loans from non resident lenders, are being permitted by the Government for providing an additional source of funds to Indian corporates. The Ministry of Finance monitors and regulates them through ECB policy guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India under the Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999.India s foreign exchange reserves have steadily risen from $5.8 billion in March 1991 to $318.6 billion in December 2009.In 2012, the United Kingdom announced an end to all financial aid to India, citing the growth and robustness of Indian economy. .....

Income and consumption
23. India s gross national income per capita had experienced high growth rates since 2002. India s Per Capita Income has tripled from Rs. 19,040 in 2002 03 to Rs. 53,331 in 2010 11, averaging 13.7 Percent growth over these eight years peaking 15.6 Percent in 2010 11.However growth in the inflation adjusted Per capita income of the nation slowed to 5.6 Percent in 2010 11, down from 6.4 Percent in the previous year. These consumption levels are on an individual basis, not household.240 On a household basis, the average income in India was $6,671 per household in 2011.

Per 2011 census, India has about 330 million houses and 247 million households. The household size in India has dropped in recent years, with 2011 census reporting 50 Percent of households have 4 or less members. The average per 2011 census was 4.8 members per household, and included surviving grandparents.These households produced a GDP of about $1.7 Trillion. The household consumption patterns per 2011 census approximately 67 Percent of households use firewood, crop residue or cow dung cakes for cooking purposes; 53 Percent do not have sanitation or drainage facilities on premises; 83 Percent have water supply within their premises or 100 metres from their house in urban areas and 500 metres from the house in rural areas; 67 Percent of the households have access to electricity; 63 Percent of households have landline or mobile telephone connection; 43 Percent have a television; 26 Percent have either a two wheel motorcycle or four wheel car vehicle. Compared to 2001, these income and consumption trends represent moderate to significant improvements.One report in 2010 claimed that the number of high income households has crossed lower income households. .....

Poverty
24. The World Bank in 2010, using its older 2005 methodology, estimated about 400 million people in India, as compared to 1.29 billion people worldwide, live on less than $1.25 PPP per day. The World Bank reviewed and proposed revisions in May 2014, to its poverty calculation methodology and purchasing power parity basis for measuring poverty worldwide, including India. According to this revised methodology, the world had 872.3 million people below the new poverty line, of which 179.6 million people lived in India. In other words, India with 17.5 Percent of total world s population, had 20.6 Percent share of world s poorest in 2013. According to a 2005 2006 survey,India had about 61 million children under the age of 5 who were chronically malnourished. A 2011 UNICEF report stated that that between 1990 to 2010, India achieved a 45 percent reduction in under age 5 mortality rates, and now ranks 46 in 188 countries on this metric.

Since the early 1950s, successive governments have implemented various schemes to alleviate poverty, under central planning, that have met with partial success.In 2005, Indian government enacted the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, guaranteeing 100 days of minimum wage employment to every rural household in all the districts of India.In 2011, this Rural Employment Guarantee programme was widely criticised as no more effective than other poverty reduction programs in India. Despite its best intentions, MGNREGA is beset with controversy about corrupt officials, deficit financing as the source of funds, poor quality of infrastructure built under this program, and unintended destructive effect on poverty.ther studies suggest that the Rural Employment Guarantee welfare program has helped in reducing rural poverty in some cases. Yet other studies report that India s economic growth has been the driver of sustainable employment and poverty reduction, but a sizable population remains in poverty. .....

Employment
25. Agricultural and allied sectors accounted for about 52.1 Percent of the total workforce in 2009 10. While agriculture employment has fallen over time in percentage of labor employed, services which includes construction and infrastructure have seen a steady growth accounting for 20.3 Percent of employment in 2012 13. Of the total workforce, 7 Percent is in the organised sector, two thirds of which are in the government controlled public sector. About 51.2 Percent of the labor in India is self employed. According to 2005 06 survey, there is a gender gap in employment and salaries. In rural areas, both men and women are primarily self employed, mostly in agriculture. In urban areas, salaried work was the largest source of employment for both men and women in 2006.

Unemployment in India is characterised by chronic disguised unemployment. Government schemes that target eradication of both poverty and unemployment which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. The decline in organised employment due to the decreased role of the public sector after liberalisation has further underlined the need for focusing on better education and has also put political pressure on further reforms.India s labour regulations are heavy even by developing country standards and analysts have urged the government to abolish or modify them in order to make the environment more conducive for employment generation. The 11th five year plan has also identified the need for a congenial environment to be created for employment generation, by reducing the number of permissions and other bureaucratic clearances required.Further, inequalities and inadequacies in the education system have been identified as an obstacle preventing the benefits of increased employment opportunities from reaching all sectors of society.

Child labour in India is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The Indian government has implemented, since the 1990s, a variety of programs to eliminate child labor. These have included setting up schools, launching free school lunch program, setting up special investigation cells and others.Desai et al. state that recent studies on child labour in India have found some pockets of industries in which children are employed, but overall, relatively few Indian children are employed. Child labour below the age of 10 is now rare. In the 10 14 group, the latest surveys find only 2 Percent of children working for wage, while another 9 Percent work within their home or rural farms assisting their parents in times of high work demand such as sowing and harvesting of crops.

India has the second largest diaspora around the world, an estimated 25 million people, many of whom work overseas and remit funds back to their families. The Middle East region is the largest source of employment of expat Indians. The crude oil production and infrastructure industry of Saudi Arabia employs over 2 million expat Indians. Cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi in United Arab Emirates alone have employed another 2 million Indian construction workers during its construction boom in recent decades.In 2009 10, remittances from Indian migrants overseas stood at INR2500 billion US$39 billion , the highest in the world, but their share in FDI remained low at around 1 Percent. .....

Corruption
26. Corruption has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. A 2005 study by Transparency International TI found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office in the previous year.A follow on 2008 TI study found this rate to be 40 percent. In 2011, Transparency International ranked India at 95th place amongst 183 countries in perceived levels of public sector corruption.

In 1996, red tape, bureaucracy and the Licence Raj were suggested as a cause for the institutionalised corruption and inefficiency.More recent reports suggest the causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations and approval requirements, mandated spending programs, monopoly of certain goods and service providers by government controlled institutions, bureaucracy with discretionary powers, and lack of transparent laws and processes.

The Right to Information Act 2005 which requires government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services, and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions, have considerably reduced corruption and opened up avenues to redress grievances.

In 2011, the Indian government concluded that most spending fails to reach its intended recipients. A large, cumbersome and tumor like bureaucracy sponges up or siphons off spending budgets.India s absence rates are one of the worst in the world; one study found that 25 Percent of public sector teachers and 40 Percent of government owned public sector medical workers could not be found at the workplace Similarly, there are many issues facing Indian scientists, with demands for transparency, a meritocratic system, and an overhaul of the bureaucratic agencies that oversee science and technology.

The Indian economy has an underground economy, with a 2006 report alleging that the Swiss Bankers Association suggested India topped the worldwide list for black money with almost $1,456 billion stashed in Swiss banks. This amounts to 13 times the country s total external debt.These allegations have been denied by Swiss Banking Association. James Nason, the Head of International Communications for Swiss Banking Association, suggests The black money figures were rapidly picked up in the Indian media and in Indian opposition circles, and circulated as gospel truth. However, this story was a complete fabrication. The Swiss Bankers Association never published such a report. Anyone claiming to have such figures for India should be forced to identify their source and explain the methodology used to produce them. .....

Education
27. India has made huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three fourths of the population.India s literacy rate had grown from 52.2 Percent in 1991 to 74.04 Percent in 2011. The right to education at elementary level has been made one of the fundamental rights under the eighty sixth Amendment of 2002, and legislation has been enacted to further the objective of providing free education to all children.However, the literacy rate of 74 Percent is still lower than the worldwide average and the country suffers from a high dropout rate. Further, the literacy rates and educational opportunities vary by region, gender, urban and rural areas, and among different social groups. .....
Insurance
28. India became the 10th largest insurance market in the world in 2013, rising from 15th rank in 2011.At a total market size of US$66.4 billion in 2013, it remains small compared to world s major economies, and Indian insurance market accounts for 2 Percent of world s annual insurance business. India s life and non life insurance industry has been growing at double digit growth rates and this growth is expected to continue through 2021.

Life Insurance

Indian economy retains about 360 million active life insurance policies, the largest in the world. Of the 52 insurance companies in India, 24 are active in life insurance business. The life insurance industry in the country is projected to increase at double digit compounded annual growth rates through 2019, with targets to reach US$1 trillion annual notional values by 2021.

Other Insurance

The industry which reported a growth rate of around 10 percent during the period 1996 97 to 2000 10 has, post opening up the sector, reported average annual growth of 15.85 Percent over the period 2001 02 to 2010 11.citation needed In addition, the specialized insurers Export Credit Guarantee Corporation and Agriculture Insurance Company AIC are offering credit guarantee and corp insurance respectively. AIC, which has initially offering coverage under the National Agriculture Insurance Company NAIS , has now started providing crop insurance cover on commercial line as well.citation needed It has introduced several innovative products such as weather insurance and specific crop related products. The premium underwritten by the non life insurers during 2010 11 was Rs 42,576 crore as against Rs 34,620 crore in 2009 10. The growth was satisfactory, particularly in the view of the across the broad cuts in the tariff rates. The private insurers underwrote premium of Rs 17,424 crore as against rs Rs 13,977 crore in 2009 10. The public sector insurers on the other hand, underwrote a premium of Rs 25,151.8 in 2010 11 as against Rs 20,643.5 crore in 2009 10, i.e. a growth of 21.8 Percent as against 14.5 Percent in 2009 10.citation needed

Market Penetration

The Indian insurance business has in the past remained under developed with low levels of insurance penetration. Post liberalization sector has succeeded in raising the levels of insurance penetration from 2.3 life 1.8 and non life 0.7 in 2000 to 5.1 life 4.4 and non life 0.7 in 2010. .....

Security Markets
29. The development of Indian security markets began with launch of Bombay Stock Exchange BSE , Mumbai in July 1875 and Ahmedabad Stock exchange in 1894 and 22 other exchange in various cities over the years. In 2014, India s stock exchange market became the 10th largest in the world by market capitalization, just above those of South Korea and Australia.India s two major stock exchanges, BSE and National Stock Exchange of India, had a market capitalization of US$1.4997 trillion and US$1.4722 trillion respectively as of June 2014, according to World Federation of Exchanges.

The Initial Public Offering IPO market in India has been small compared to NYSE and NASDAQ, raising US$300 million in 2013 and US$1.4 billion in 2012. Ernst and Young states that the low IPO activity reflects market conditions as well as slow government approval process and complex regulations. Before 2013, Indian companies were not allowed to list their securities internationally without first completing an IPO in India. In 2013, these security laws were reformed and Indian companies can now choose where they want to list first overseas, domestically, or concurrently.Further, security laws have been revised to ease overseas listings of already listed companies, to increase liquidity for private equity and international investors in Indian companies. .....

Research and development
30. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute IARI , established in 1905, was responsible for the research leading to the Indian Green Revolution of the 1970s. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICAR is the apex body in kundiure and related allied fields, including research and education. The Union Minister of Agriculture is the President of the ICAR. The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute develops new techniques for the design of agricultural experiments, analyses data in agriculture, and specialises in statistical techniques for animal and plant breeding. Prof. M.S. Swaminathan is known as Father of the Green Revolution and heads the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation. He is known for his advocacy of environmentally sustainable agriculture and sustainable food security. Was labert ihr Nutten im Club. .....
Industrial output
31. India is tenth in the world in factory output. Manufacturing sector in addition to mining, quarrying, electricity and gas together account for 27.6 Percent of the GDP and employ 17 Percent of the total workforce. Economic reforms introduced after 1991 brought foreign competition, led to privatisation of certain public sector industries, opened up sectors hitherto reserved for the public sector and led to an expansion in the production of fast moving consumer goods. In recent years, Indian cities have continued to liberalise, but excessive and burdensome business regulations remain a problem in some cities, like Kochi and Kolkata.

Post liberalisation, the Indian private sector, which was usually run by oligopolies of old family firms and required political connections to prosper was faced with foreign competition, including the threat of cheaper Chinese imports. It has since handled the change by squeezing costs, revamping management, focusing on designing new products and relying on low labour costs and technology. .....

Oil
32. India consumes the second largest amount of oil in the Asia Pacific region behind China. The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly unwavering production levels leaves India highly dependent on imports to meet the consumption needs. .....
Natural gas
33. As per the Oil and Gas Journal, India had 38 trillion cubic feet 1.1?1012 m3 of confirmed natural gas reserves as of January 2007. A huge mass of India s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai High complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat states are also major producers of natural gas. As per EIA data, India produced 996 billion cubic feet 2.82?1010 m3 of natural gas in 2004.

India imports small amounts of natural gas. In 2004, India consumed about 1,089?109 cu ft 3.08?1010 m3 of natural gas, the first year in which the country showed net natural gas imports. During 2004, India imported 93?109 cu ft 2.6?109 m3 of liquefied natural gas LNG from Qatar. .....

Market size
34. Indian markets grew by 19 per cent in the first half of FY15, the best performance by any market during this period, globally. The rise was primarily due to strong inflows from foreign institutional investors FIIs . As of September 26, FIIs had invested Rs 61,024 crore US$ 9.86 billion this financial year, while mutual funds had put in Rs 15,298 crore US$ 2.47 billion during the same period, according to Securities and Exchange Board of India SEBI data. Foreign exchange Forex reserves increased by US$ 60.5 million to reach US$ 319 billion in the week ended August 29, 2014, according to data released by the Reserve Bank of India RBI . Also, foreign currency assets rose by US$ 75 million to touch US$ 291.39 billion. India has contributed 10.25 per cent of the overall 3.9 per cent rise in the global market capitalisation market cap this year, which has made it the second highest contributor in the world. The valuation of Indian equities remains attractive, with a market cap to gross domestic product long period average of 72 per cent. Indian employees are expected to see a salary hike of 10.8 per cent in 2015, according to the Towers Watson 2014 15 Asia Pacific Salary Budget Planning Report. The report indicated that due to increased economic growth, Indian employees at both ends of the hierarchy top management and blue collar staff are likely to see the highest comparative pay increase in 2015. .....
Challenges before Indian economy
35. Population explosionThe rising population is eating into the success of India. According to 2011 census of India, the population of India has crossed one billion and isgrowing at a rate of 2.11 Percent approx. Such a vast population puts lots of stress on economic infrastructure of the nation. Thus India has to control its burgeoning population.
PovertyAs per records of National Planning Commission, 36 crore people are living below the poverty line in India in 2012.
UnemploymentThe increasing population is pressing hard on economic resources as well as job opportunities. Indian government has started various schemes such as Jawahar Rozgar Yojna, and Self Employment Scheme for Educated Unemployed Youth SEEUY . But these are proving to be a drop in an ocean.
Rural Urban DivideIt is said that India lies in villages, even today when there is lots of talk going about migration to cities, 70 Percent of the Indian population still lives in villages. There is a very stark difference in pace of rural and urban growth. Unless there isn t a balanced development Indian economy cannot grow. .....
Tips to get ready for Foreign Trip
BYO blanket and disinfecting wipes too. I hate to say it, but tray tables are rarely cleaned, so wipe them off before you use them, says Sarah Scott, a former US Airways flight attendant. And steer clear of the blankets and pillows. They are only washed when they look dirty. .....
Benefits of Papayas
Good for diabetics. Papaya is an excellent food option for diabetics as it has a lowsugar content even though it is sweet to taste. Also, people who dont have diabetes can eat papaya to prevent it from happening. Here is ahealthy diet plan for diabetics. .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Article Marketing. Article Marketing is a type of advertising in which business write short articles about their services or products. The articles are usually about themselves or company. I have composed some of my favorite companies to submit article marketing. Ezin .....
Most Popular New Years Resolutions
Spend less time on Facebook. Sometimes a part of the procrastination, spending too much time on Facebook and other social networks is a considerable problem for surprising number of people these days. But even if they admit they have this issue, it can be very difficult for them .....
Healthy Elbow
Receive deep tissue work or massage to improve blood flow. You probably developed this pain from overworking, so treat yourself to a high quality massage! This may break up scar tissue to facilitate healing when the issue is new within the first six weeks. A physical therapist may also perform this technique .....
Top Fishes of India
Nemichthys Scolopaceus. Nemichthys scolopaceus is a peculiar fish and some people dont think actually that it is a fish. It is fund in India. People like it to eat. It is nutritious food. It is popular on the other side of India. .....
Benefits of Pineapple
Diabetes. Diabetics who consume highfiber diets have lower blood glucose levels and type 2 diabetics may have improved blood sugar, lipids and insulin levels. One medium pineapple provides about 13 grams of fiber. .....
Ideal for Cooking
Paleo Egg Salad. Egg salad is a classic lunchtime favorite, but the mayo usually ruins it for paleo eaters. This recipe fixes that issue, so you can enjoy egg salad any time. .....
Dog Breeds
Schipperke. A Schipperke is a small Belgian breed of dog that originated in the early 16th century. There has been a long informal debate over whether this type of dog is a spitz or miniature sheepdog. In their home country of Belgium they are considered a small .....
Science Experiments Ideas
High voltage. Place a flat baking tray on a dry glass, rub a blown up balloon vigorously on a woollen pullover and place it on the tray. If you put your finger near the edge of the tray, a spark jumps across.A voltage equalisation occurs between the metal and the .....
Precautions while using Oxygen Therapy
Manage the Patient and Equipment at Regular Intervals. .....
Best Foods for Healthy Eyes
Leafy greens. Kale, spinach, and other leafy greens are packed with the antioxidants, zeaxanthin and lutein. Leafy greens absorb blue light, which is especially harmful to the retina. They also help your eyes to detect contrast better and keep your vision good in .....
Tips to succeed in online Learning
Fill out the surveys. Online courses often ask for your feedback somewhere within the course or after the course is over. A school will use your comments to build better programs and create better online courses. Remember that online education is relatively new, and there .....
Highest Paid Female Gamers
Jamie Missy Pereyda. Jamie Pereyda, a simple looking girl from the United States, is not so simple once she has a hands and mind in the game of QuakeCon III. Pereyda is known in the world of video games by the name Missy, a strong contender in the game of her choice. Bac .....
Tarot Cards
KING OF PENTACLES. The King of Pentacles indicates that a methodical, planned and well thought-out approach will lead you to success.There will be improvement in your financial security and possibly promotion at work. .....
Classic Ideas For Styling Long Hair
Mohawk Braid with Pouf. Create a pouf at top front of your head and secure it with bobby pins. Now, make a French braid with rest of your hair and that too in the Mohawk style. Enjoy both your exclusive hairstyle and elegant look. .....
Astrology
Aquarius Inner Self. Aquarius ( Jan 20 - Feb 18 ) Inner Self : The most frequent question you ask is “Why?” You want to understand what makes other people tick. Their lives fascinate you because you hope they will offer you insights into your own. You have plenty of lov .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Repurposed Plastic Spoon. Use a plastic spoon to easily apply mascara on your bottom lashes without getting any on the skin under your eyes. It also helps you to accomplish a much thicker coat. .....
Incredible Meals You Can Make In A Mason Jar
Bacon and Eggs. Learn how to take the classic breakfast on the go here. .....
Innovative Products Ideas
Pen to check concentration. A pen with pressure sensors on the grip to indicate loss of concentration when the grip loosens. Once Rudra was summarizing notes of a Physics chapter, however, somehow he could not concentrate and his attention kept diverting from one topic to anoth .....
Rules to play Dominoes
Order of Play. There are several different ways to determine which player will make the first play 1 Draw lots. 2 Begin the game by setting the heaviest domino. 3 Have the winner of the previous game make the first play of the next game. After it is determined who .....
Valentines Day Activity Ideas
Create A Staycation At Home. Theres nothing like a relaxing vacation all in the comfort of your living room. Get creative this V Day by hanging up a hammock in your bedroom or setting up your bathroom to resemble a spa. You can find a hammock at most home and garden stores, an .....
Precautions while using Websites
Links. Beware of what links you click and what software you download and install. Do not trust links/software sent by your friends implicitly as they themselves might not be aware it includes malware or their account might have been compromised. .....
Sachin 100
Century 74. Match : India V PakistanVenue : Bilateral ODI series, 2006 at Peshawar, PakistanSachin got a century in the first ODI but India failed to defend 305 from 47 overs. But, the team went on to win the remaining four ODIs in the series to wrap it up 4-1. .....
Spectacular Hiking Trails Around The World
Israel National Trail. One of National Geographic s 20 most epic trails, the Israel National Trail crosses the entire country of Israel, clocking in at about 580 to 620 miles. Experienced backpackers generally spend about 45 to 60 days trekking from Israel s northern bor .....
Benefits of Cloves
Diabetes. Along with blood purification, clove oil helps control the level of blood sugar, making it very useful to patients suffering from diabetes. This is primarily due to the phenol concentration found in clove oil, which is one of the highest in terms of .....
Precautions while using Microwaves
Do not use aluminum foil. Do not use aluminum foil or any metal containers, metal utensils, metal objects, or objects with metal or foil trim in the oven. Such items can cause arcing, damaging the oven and creating a fire or burn hazard. Consult your microwaves directions for .....
Rules to play Baseball
Steal bases. In most instances, the runner wont be able to complete an entire circuit of the bases on a single play, so he or she must stop at a base and wait for the next batter to step up to the plate. However, at any time, the runner may attempt to steal the n .....
Weird Ghost Stories
Virginia s Haunted Historic Triangle. Take a step back into ghostly history as you tour Williamsburg, Yorktown, and Jamestown in the Historic Triangle. Visit Jamestown Island where Captain John Smith and the first English colonists settled. Stroll around Yorktown and follow the same foot .....
Benefits of Watermelons
It could be a natural Viagra. Improved circulation can benefit more than just the heart, as at least onewatermelon researcher has pointed out. But youandd probably have to eat an awful lot to achieve the desired effect--and eating too much could cause unfortunate side effects, si .....
More Xmas Carols
Hark The Herald Angels Sing. Hark! the herald angels sing, Glory to the newborn King! Peace on earth, and mercy mild, God and sinners reconciled. Joyful, all ye nations, rise, Join the triumph of the skies; With th angelic host proclaim, Christ is born in Bethlehem. Hark! the .....
Precautions while using Skype
Is skype safe. Some consumers have concerns about whether Skype is safe. They may worry about people listening to their communications. Some wonder if Skype is safe enough to prevent hackers from accessing their computers. Parents may question whether or not Skype .....
Weird Ghost Stories
Haunted Richmond II. Return once more to haunted Richmond, where no building is safe from supernatural happenings. Visit Stories Comics, which holds more than just comics within its walls. Step back in time at Henricus Historical Park where youll be welcomed by dead colo .....
Benefits of Plum
Improve your memory. Eating three to four antioxidant rich prunes a day can help neutralize cell damaging free radicals that affect your memory. Many cultivars of plums are grown all over the world, which differ in their color, size and growing characteristics based upon .....
Innovative Products Ideas
Electronic purse with paired watch. Password protected purse and an electronically paired watch, which alerts if user gets away from these or someone steals the purse. Phamnya is the first student winner from Nagaland and comes from a rural area. She thought about the idea after hearin .....
Healthy Foot
Daily Care. Wash and dry your feet with mild soap and warm water. Dry your feet thoroughly, especially between the toes, an area more prone to fungal infections. Use lotion on your feet to prevent cracking, but dont put the lotion between your toes.Do not soak f .....
Best Hybrid Cars in the World
Porsche Panamera S E Hybrid. Last year, it was reported that the Porsche Panamera S E Hybrid accounted for about 9% of all Porsche Panamera sales. This is with most buyers probably not even knowing that a plug in variant was on the market. The Panamera S E Hybrid was nearly disq .....
Benefits of Oranges
For Bath Oil. Add a little grounded and dried orange peel or if possible its oil for stimulating the skin. This is an effective way to use orange peel for skin. orange peels actually contain way more vitamin C than the orange pulp itself? 100 grams of orange peels .....
Most Amazing Roads
Baldwin Street in Dunedin New Zealand. The steepest road in the world thats paved and can theoretically be driven up is Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand. The road climbs 1m for every 2.86m travelled horizontally. Its so steep that the tarmac runs off before it sets so the road had t .....
Best Hotel Swimming Pools
Habita Monterrey. Mexican hoteliers Grupo Habita are known for creating cool edgy properties and theHabita Monterrey is no exception. Set in the northern Mexico town of Monterrey its a very contemporary affair with designer decor and high-tech facilities in all rooms .....
Valentines Day Cake Ideas
Hearty Appetite Cake. A great way to create a themed dessert for a crowd. Start with one heart shaped cake and bake extra cupcakes or cookies to provide the additional servings needed. .....
Creepiest Clouds On Earth
UFO Lenticular Clouds. Classic UFO shape produced by lenticular clouds. This one was spotted over Damascus, Syria. .....
Ideal for Cooking
Mayonnaise. Paleo mayonnaise is easy to make. Now you dont need to miss your favorite mayo based foods any longer. .....
Things That Men Think Women Can Never Learn
Women Cant Learn To Not Make Comments. Well obviously! If there is a woman who is looking really nice, why not comment on it. Why not secretly wonder where she could have bought that certain dress, shoes or jewels from? Why not have those same things in your own closet too? Why not look e .....
Precautions while using Websites
Unscrupulous domain name registrars. A related issue to domain name front running is that of unscrupulous domain registrars. Recently a domain name registrar was found to have registered every domain name that was entered into their search box. If you go to that registrar simply to chec .....
What to Eat in Maharashtra
Rassa (Taambda/ Pandhra/ Varhadi). The nonvegetarian Maharashtrian dishes include mutton, usually of sheep, lamb or goat, chicken, fish and other seafoods. Rassa is a popular type of curry prepared in Maharashtra and originated from the Kolhapur region. Ras means juice and rassa is a .....
Interior Design Ideas
Petite parisian. Gallic style goddess In?s de La Fressange revealed in her book Parisian Chic: A Style Guide that the French go mad for simple storage containers and decorate with them liberally, especially in their petite Parisian flats. Look to Muji or Ikea and in .....
Top Cricket Bowlers of all Time
Gary Gilmour. 15 Test matches; 54 wickets; 26.03 average; 6 85 BBI; 49.2 strike rate Gary Gilmours place in history is assured after taking 6 14 against England in the 1975 World Cup semi final, but he also had an impact in Tests, too. A left arm bowler, Gilmour .....
Best Cricket Player
Ricky Ponting. Ricky Thomas Ponting, AO, nicknamed Punter, is an Australian former cricketer who was captain of the Australia national cricket team during its golden era ; between 2004 and 2011 in Test cricket and 2002 and 2011 in One Day International cricket.Bor .....
Body Language
Hands on heart. This is a sign to convince other person that I am truthful. Many times it is seen during the sales talk , Although easy to fake, the underlying meaning is one of wanting to be believed, whether being truthful or not. .....
Street Food in India
Coffee. Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant. .....
Rules to play 3 Ball Pool
Foul Rules. There are several 3 ball foul regulations. Fouls cost the shooting player one additional point on top of their initial point for making the stroke. Fouls are assessed in the following situations Performing a double hit on the cue ball. Shooting the .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Keeping a clear head Lavender therapy. Rub a drop of essential oil of lavender around the temples and exert pressure on them with index fingers to relieve headaches. .....
Precautions while using Shampoo
The Manufacturing Process. After a shampoo formula is developed, it is tested to ensure that its qualities will minimally change over time. This type of testing, called stability testing, is primarily used to detect physical changes in such things as color, odor, and thickness .....
Essential Photography Tips
Display or share the perfected portfolio depending on your objectives. Market, display or share the perfected portfolio depending on your objectives. .....
Benefits of Cabbage
Proper skin care. It is very rich in antioxidants whichprotect the skinfrom free radicals responsible for the signs of ageing. Vitamin C degrades rapidly when it is exposed to water, light, heat and air. Maximize the amount you receive by storing cabbage in a cool, da .....
Benefits of Green chillis
Clot buster. It revs up the bodys bloodclotdissolving system. A Thai study shows that frequent stimulation from hot chillies (widely eaten in Thailand) continually clears the blood of clots, leaving Thais generally less vulnerable to arterial blockage. This may b .....
Heena Mehandi Designs
Heena Design 6. Love mehendi designs for hands but do not want your hands to be filled completely with the design.Do not worry this style is just for you.You can get it creating a small design that uses very little of the mehendi, keep the hand really simple by foc .....
Vishwakarma Puja
Vishwakarma Puja Songs. Tum hamare the Prabhu ji, tum hamare ho.Tum hamare hi rahoge ,oh mere priyatam.Hum tumhare the Prabhu ji, hum tumhare hai.Hum tumhare hi rahenge, oh mere priyatam.Tumhe chor sun Prabhu,koi na mit hamaro.Tumhe chor sun Prabhu,koi na mit hamaro.Kiske d .....
Boost Self Confidence
Beliefs. what they are, why they're important, how to change them and create self-belief.Men often become what they believe themselves to be. If I believe I cannot do something, it makes me incapable of doing it. When I believe I can, I acquire the ability to .....
Heena Mehandi Designs
Heena Design 25. Here another very simple design inspired from the Arabic mehendi trends.The use of black mehendi makes the design prominent and beautiful.This simple design can be carried off by anyone and can be used on any occasion.If you are in need of a less mes .....
Fashion Designer Cars in the world
Fiat 500 You Wear app. If only I could find an app that analysed my Facebook photos to discover the colour I wear the most, before telling me what that might mean about me. Said nobody, ever.But Fiat begs to differ. Which is why it developed an app that does just that. Nat .....
Benefits of Bananas
Tamales. Tamales are wrapped in banana leaves, which imparts a different flavor than corn husks. Check out Saveurs recipe for Guatemalan Tamales with Ancho Chile Sauce or Simply Recipes Vegetarian Banana Leaf Tamales. .....
Best Photo Apps
Pixlr o matic. Whilst it s not necessarily an app that will change your workflow or outlook on life, Pixlr o matic is a nice tool for adding retro effects to your images or photos. It has 100 effects, 280 overlays and almost 200 different borders so for the grand .....
Home Remedies
Diarrhoea due to indigestion of food. 1. Insert ¼ teaspoon nutmeg (jaiphal) powder inside a ripe banana and eat. Dog-bite Take ½ teaspoon powder of black cumin seeds (shah jeera) twice daily. .....
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