Dhirubhai ambani

Biography
1. Born December 28, 1932
Died July 6, 2002
Achievements Dhiru Bhai Ambani built Indias largest private sector company. Created an equity cult in the Indian capital market. Reliance is the first Indian company to feature in Forbes 500 list
Dhirubhai Ambani was the most enterprising Indian entrepreneur. His life journey is reminiscent of the rags to riches story. He is remembered as the one who rewrote Indian corporate history and built a truly global corporate group.
Dhirubhai Ambani alias Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani was born on December 28, 1932, at Chorwad, Gujarat, into a Modh family. His father was a school teacher. Dhirubhai Ambani started his entrepreneurial career by selling bhajias to pilgrims in Mount Girnar over the weekends.
After doing his matriculation at the age of 16, Dhirubhai moved to Aden, Yemen. He worked there as a gas station attendant, and as a clerk in an oil company. He returned to India in 1958 with Rs 50,000 and set up a textile trading company.
Assisted by his two sons, Mukesh and Anil, Dhiru Bhai Ambani built Indias largest private sector company, Reliance India Limited, from a scratch. Over time his business has diversified into a core specialisation in petrochemicals with additional interests in telecommunications, information technology, energy, power, retail, textiles, infrastructure services, capital markets, and logistics.Dhirubhai Ambani is credited with shaping Indias equity culture, attracting millions of retail investors in a market till then dominated by financial institutions. Dhirubhai revolutionised capital markets. From nothing, he generated billions of rupees in wealth for those who put their trust in his companies. His efforts helped create an equity cult in the Indian capital market. With innovative instruments like the convertible debenture, Reliance quickly became a favorite of the stock market in the 1980s.

In 1992, Reliance became the first Indian company to raise money in global markets, its high credit taking in international markets limited only by Indias sovereign rating. Reliance also became the first Indian company to feature in Forbes 500 list.C8.Dhirubhai Ambani was named the Indian Entrepreneur of the 20th Century by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). A poll conducted by The Times of India in 2000 voted him greatest creator of wealth in the century.Dhirubhai Ambani died on July 6, 2002, at Mumbai.Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani, also known as Dhirubhai, 28 December1932, 6 July2002, was a Indianrags to riches business tycoon who founded Reliance Industries in Mumbai with his cousin. Ambani took his company (Reliance) public in 1977, and by 2007 the combined fortune of the family (sons Anil and Mukesh) was 60 billion dollars, making the Ambanis the richest family in the world. .....

Childhood Days
2. Dhirubhai was born at Chorwad, in the district of Junagarh in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Chorwad was then, as it is now, a small village about midway between the historic fort of Diu to the south and the fishing port of Porbandar to the north. Porbandar is the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi. (Incidentally, the Gandhis and the Ambanis come from the same stock or gotra, the trading community of Modh baniyas.).Dhirubhais father, Hirachand Govardhandas Ambani, earned little as the village schoolteacher. He was, however, a man of simple habits and lived a measured life. Dhirubhais mother, Jamanaben, was a thrifty woman and knew how to stretch every paisa a long way. Long years of hardship had taught her to handle with great care whatever little money Hirabhai gave her every month on the pay day.But even her thrifty ways often failed to pull her growing family through the month. On such occasions she had to borrow small amounts of money from neighbours. She did not hide such day to day stark realities from her children, for she did not want to give them a false start in life.

Overall, Hirachandbhai and Jamanaben lived a life of impoverished dignity with their two daughters and three sons Trilochanaben, Ramnikbhai, Jasuben, Dhirubhai and Natubhai. (The Gujaratis customarily add ben or sister to all female names and bhai or brother to all male names.). Dhirubhai was the favourite child of both Hirachandbhai and Jamanaben despite his being an enfant terrible.He was from his very babyhood days extremely demanding, robust of health and difficult to placate. As he grew up to boyhood, he became even more vigorous, unyielding and irrepressible. He possessed immense gusto and enormous energy and was always determined to do what he wanted to do in exactly the way he wanted it done, come hell or high water, as the phrase goes. But Hirachandbhai was a fond father and seldom, if ever, spoke harshly to his children, especially to his favourite one.Dhirubhai was precocious and highly intelligent and also as highly impatient of the oppressive grinding mill of the school classroom. Formal education was not his forte, he realized very early in life. He was essentially an outdoors boy. When asked to chose a task at home, at school or at the boys hostel, he always chose the most strenuous task that called for immense physical energy and stamina. Not that he was poor in doing his school lessons but just that he did not enjoy all the mugging up and learning by rote which school education required those days.As his elder brother Ramnikbhai and he grew into boyhood, Jamanaben began exhorting them to help supplement their fathers meager income. Begin earning some money, she nagged them. That angered Dhirubhai. Phadia, phadia su karo chho, he snapped at her, paisa no to dhanglo karees. (Why do you keep screaming for money? Ill make heaps of money one day.). Just to show that that was not an empty boast, he once procured a tin of groundnut oil on credit from a local whole seller and sold the oil in retail sitting on the roadside, earning a profit of a few rupees that he gave to his mother. Next, he began setting up bhajia or onion and potato fries stalls at village fairs during weekends when his school was closed. .....

Early life
3. Dhirubhai Ambani was born on 28 December1932 at Kukaswada near Chorwad, Jamnagar (now the state of Gujarat, India) to Hirachand Gordhandhas Ambani and Jamnaben in a Modh family of modest means(Incidentally,The Gandhis and Ambanis came from the same gothra,the trading community of Modh baniyas). Hirachand Govardhandhas Ambani earned little as a village school teacher.But his wife,Jamanaben knew how to stretch every paisa in a long way.Hirachand and Jamanaben had two daughters Trilochanaben and Jasuben and three sons Ramnikbhai,Dhirubhai and Natubhai.Dhirubhai was extremely demanding,robust of health and difficult to placate from his very babyhood days.As a boy,he possessed immense gusto and enormous energy and was determined to do what he wanted to do in exactly the way he wanted it done. .....
School life
4. When he was 16 years old, he moved to Aden, Yemen. He worked with A. Besse & Co. for a salary of Rs.300. Two years later, A. Besse & Co. became the distributors for Shell products, and Dhirubhai was promoted to Dhirubhai was precocious and highly intelligent and also as highly impatient of the oppressive grinding mill of the school classroom.He chose works which uses his physical ability to the maximum rather than mugging up school lessons. When Jamnaben once asked Dhirubhai and Ramnikbhai to help his father by earning money,He angrily replied Why do you keep screaming for money? I will make heaps of money one day.During weekends,he began setting up onionpotato fries stall at village fairs and made extra money which he gave to his mother.C21manage the company s filling station at the port of Aden.He was married to Kokilaben and had 2 sons, Mukesh,Anil and two daughters, Nina Kothari,Deepti Salgaocar. .....
Majin Commercial Corporation
5. Dhirubhai Ambani eventually returned to India and started Majin in partnership with Champaklal Damani, his second cousin, who used to be with him in Aden, Yemen. Majin was to import polyester yarn and export spices. The first office of the Reliance Commercial Corporation was set up at the Narsinatha Street in Masjid Bunder. It was 350 sq ft (33 m2). room with a telephone, one table and three chairs. Initially, they had two assistants to help them with their business. In 1965, Champaklal Damani and Dhirubhai Ambani ended their partnership and Dhirubhai started on his own. It is believed that both had different temperaments and a different take on how to conduct business. While Mr. Damani was a cautious trader and did not believe in building yarn inventories, Dhirubhai was a known risk taker and he believed in building inventories, anticipating a price rise, and making profits.In 1968, he moved to an upmarket apartment at Altamount Road in South Mumbai. Ambanis net worth was estimated at about Rs.10 lakh by late 1970s.

Asia Times quotes His people skills were legendary. A former secretary reveals He was very helpful. He followed an open door policy. Employees could walk into his cabin and discuss their problems with him. The chairman had a special way of dealing with different groups of people, be they employees, shareholders, journalists or government officials. Ambanis competitors allege that he bought off officials and had legislation re written to suit him. They recall his earlier days and how he picked up the art of profiteering from the then Byzantine system of controls of Indian officialdom. He exported spices, often at a loss, and used replenishment licenses to import rayon. Later, when rayon started to be manufactured in India, he exported rayon, again at a loss, and imported nylon. Ambani was always a step ahead of the competitors. With the imported items being heavily in demand, his profit margins were rarely under 300 percent. .....

Reliance Textiles
6. Sensing a good opportunity in the textile business, Dhirubhai started his first textile mill at Naroda, in Ahmedabad in the year 1977. Textiles were manufactured using polyester fibre yarn. Dhirubhai started the brand Vimal, which was named after his elder brother Ramaniklal Ambanis son, Vimal Ambani. Extensive marketing of the brand Vimal in the interiors of India made it a household name. Franchise retail outlets were started and they used to sell only Vimal brand of textiles. In the year 1975, a Technical team from the World Bank visited the Reliance Textiles Manufacturing unit. This unit has the rare distinction of being certified as excellent even by developed country standards during that period. .....
Initial public offering
7. Dhirubhai Ambani is credited with starting the equity cult in India. More than 58,000 investors from various parts of India subscribed to Reliances IPO in 1977. Dhirubhai was able to convince large number of small investors from rural Gujarat that being shareholders of his company would be profitable.Reliance Industries was the first private sector company whose Annual General Meetings were held in stadiums. In 1986, The Annual General Meeting of Reliance Industries was held in Cross Maidan, Mumbai and was attended by more than 350,000 shareholders and the Reliance family.Dhirubhai managed to convince a large number of first time retail investors to invest in Reliance.Ambanis net worth was estimated at about Rs.1 billion by early 1980s. .....
Dhirubhais control over stock exchanges
8. In 1982, Reliance Industries came up against a rights issue regarding partly convertible debentures. It was rumored that company was making all efforts to ensure that their stock prices did not slide an inch. Sensing an opportunity, a bear cartel which was a group of stock brokers from Calcutta started to short sell the shares of Reliance. To counter this, a group of stock brokers till recently referred to as Friends of Reliance started to buy the short sold shares of Reliance Industries on the Bombay Stock Exchange.

The Bear Cartel was acting on the belief that the Bulls would be short of cash to complete the transactions and would be ready for settlement under the Badla trading system operative in the Bombay Stock Exchange. The bulls kept on buying and a price of Rs. 152 per share was maintained till the day of settlement. On the day of settlement, the Bear Cartel was taken aback when the Bulls demanded a physical delivery of shares. To complete the transaction, the much needed cash was provided to the stock brokers who had bought shares of Reliance, by none other than Dhirubhai Ambani. In the case of non settlement, the Bulls demanded an Unbadla (a penalty sum) of Rs. 35 per share. With this, the demand increased and the shares of Reliance shot above 180 rupees in minutes. The settlement caused an enormous uproar in the market and Dhirubhai Ambani was the unquestioned king of the stock markets. He proved to his detractors just how dangerous it was to play with Reliance.

To find a solution to this situation, the Bombay Stock Exchange was closed for three business days. Authorities from the Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE) intervened in the matter and brought down the Unbadla rate to Rs. 2 with a stipulation that the Bear Cartel had to deliver the shares within the next few days. The Bear Cartel bought shares of Reliance from the market at higher price levels and it was also learnt that Dhirubhai Ambani himself supplied those shares to the Bear Cartel and earned a healthy profit out of The Bear Cartels adventure.

After this incident, many questions were raised by his detractors and the press. Not many people were able to understand as to how a yarn trader till a few years ago was able to get in such a huge amount of cash flow during a crisis period. The answer to this was provided by the then finance minister, Pranab Mukherjee in the parliament. He informed the house that a Non Resident Indian had invested up to Rs. 22 Crore in Reliance during 1982 83. These investments were routed through many companies like Crocodile, Lota and Fiasco. These companies were primarily registered in Isle of Man. The interesting factor was that all the promoters or owners of these companies had a common surname Shah. An investigation by the Reserve Bank of India in the incident did not find any unethical or illegal acts or transactions committed by Reliance or its promoters. .....

Diversification
9. Over time, Dhirubhai diversified his business with the core specialisation being in petrochemicals and additional interests in telecommunications, information technology, energy, power, retail, textiles, infrastructure services, capital markets, and logistics. The company as a whole was described by the BBC as a business empire with an estimated annual turnover of $12bn, and an 85,000 strong workforce. .....
Criticism
10. He has been accused of acting unethically, having manipulated government policies to suit his own needs, and has been known to be a king maker in government elections. Although most media sources tend to speak out about business politics nexus, the Ambani house has always enjoyed more protection and shelter from the media storms that sweep across the country. .....
Tussle with Nusli Wadia
11. Nusli Wadia of Bombay Dyeing was, at one point in time, the biggest competitor of Dhirubhai and Reliance Industries. Both Nusli Wadia and Dhirubhai were known for their influence in the political circles and their ability to get the most difficult licenses approved during the times of pre liberalized economy.During the Janata Party rule between 1977 1979, Nusli Wadia obtained the permission to build a 60,000 tonnes per annum Di methyl terephthalate (DMT) plant. Before the letter of intent was converted into a licence, many hurdles came in the way. Finally, in 1981, Nusli Wadia was granted the license for the plant. This incident acted as a catalyst between the two parties and the competition took an ugly turn. .....
The Indian Express Articles
12. At one point in time, Ramnath Goenka was a friend of Dhirubhai Ambani. Ramnath Goenka was also considered to be close to Nusli Wadia. On many occasions, Ramnath Goenka tried to intervene between the two warring factions and bring an end to the enmity. Goenka and Ambani became rivanckinniveols mainly because Ambanis corrupt business practices and his illegal actions that led to Goenka not getting a fair share in the company. Later on, Ramnath Goenka chose to support Nusli Wadia. At one point of time, Ramnath Goenka is believed to have said Nusli is an Englishman. He cannot handle Ambani. I am a bania. I know how to finish him.

As days passed by, The Indian Express, a broadsheet daily published by him, carried a series of articles against Reliance Industries and Dhirubhai in which they claimed that Dhirubhai was using unfair trade practices to maximise the profits. Ramnath Goenka did not use his staff at the Indian Express to investigate the case but assigned his close confidant, advisor and chartered accountant S. Gurumurthy for this task. Apart from S. Gurumurthy, another journalist Maneck Davar who was not on the rolls of Indian Express started contributing stories. Jamnadas Moorjani, a businessman opposed to the Ambanis was also a part of this campaign.

Both Ambani and Goenka were equally criticized and admired by sections of the society. People criticized Goenka that he was using a national newspaper for the cause of a personal enmity. Critics believed that there were many other businessman in the country who were using more unfair and unethical practices but Goenka chose to target only Ambani and not the others. Critics also admired Goenka for his ability to run these articles without any help from his regular staff. Dhirubhai Ambani was also getting more recognition and admiration, in the meantime. A section of the public started to appreciate Dhirubhais business sense and his ability to tame the system according to his wishes.

The end to this tussle came only after Dhirubhai Ambani suffered a stroke. While Dhirubhai Ambani was recovering in San Diego, his sons Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani managed the affairs. The Indian Express had turned the guns against Reliance and was directly blaming the government for not doing enough to penalize Reliance Industries. The battle between Wadia Goenka and the Ambanis took a new direction and became a national crisis. Gurumurthy and another journalist, Mulgaokar consorted with President Giani Zail Singh and ghost wrote a hostile letter to the Prime Minister on his behalf. The Indian Express published a draft of the President s letter as a scoop, not realizing that Zail Singh had made changes to the letter before sending it to Rajiv Gandhi. Ambani had won the battle at this point. Now, while the tussle was directly between the Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Ramnath Goenka, Ambani made a quiet exit. The government then raided the Express guest house in Delhi s Sunder Nagar and found the original draft with corrections in Mulgaokar s handwriting. By 1988 89, Rajiv s government retaliated with a series of prosecutions against the Indian Express. Even then, Goenka retained his iconic stature because, to many people, he seemed to be replaying his heroic defiance during the Emergency regime. .....

Dhirubhai and V P Singh
13. It was widely known that Dhirubhai didnt enjoy cordial relations with Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who succeeded Rajiv Gandhi as the Prime Minister of India. In May 1985, V. P. Singh suddenly stopped the import of Purified Terephthalic Acid from the Open General License category. As a raw material this was very important to manufacture polyester filament yarn. This made it very difficult for Reliance to carry on operations. Reliance was able to secure, from various financial institutions, letters of credit that would allow it to import almost one full year s requirement of PTA on the eve of the issuance of the government notification, changing the category under which PTA could be imported. In 1990, the government owned financial institutions like the Life Insurance Corporation of India and the General Insurance Corporation stonewalled attempts by the Reliance group to acquire managerial control over Larsen & Toubro. Sensing defeat, the Ambanis resigned from the board of the company. Dhirubhai, who had become L&Ts chairman in April 1989, had to quit his post to make way for D. N. Ghosh, former chairman of the State Bank of India. It is also believed that V. P. Singhs move as Defence Minister came as a direct result of him catching Dhirubhais tax evasion. .....
Reliance after Dhirubhai
14. In November 2004, Mukesh Ambani in an interview, admitted to having differences with his brother Anil over ownership issues. He also said that the differences are in the private domain. He was of the opinion that this will not have any bearing on the functioning of the company saying Reliance is one of the strongest professionally managed companies. Considering the importance of Reliance Industries to the Indian economy, this issue got an extensive coverage in the media.Kundapur Vaman Kamath, the Managing Director of ICICI Bank was seen in media, a close friend of the Ambani family who helped to settle the issue. The brothers had entrusted their mother, Kokilaben Ambani, to resolve the issue. On June 18, 2005, Kokilaben Ambani announced the settlement through a press release.

The Reliance empire was split between the Ambani brothers, Mukesh Ambani getting RIL and IPCL & his younger sibling Anil Ambani heading Reliance Capital, Reliance Energy and Reliance Infocomm. The entity headed by Mukesh Ambani is referred to as the Reliance Industries Limited whereas Anils Group has been renamed Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) .....

Film
15. A film alleged to be inspired by the life of Dhirubhai Ambani was released on 12 January 2007. The Hindi Film Guru (2007 film), with direction by Mani Ratnam, cinematography by Rajiv Menon and music by A.R.Rahman shows the struggle of a man striving to make his mark in the Indian business world with a fictional Shakti Group of Industries. The film stars Abhishek Bacchan, Mithun Chakraborty, Aishwarya Rai, Madhavan and Vidya Balan. In the film, Abhishek Bachchan plays Guru Kant Desai,a character implicitly based on Dhirubhai Ambani. Mithun Chakraborty portrays Manikda who bears an uncanny resemblance to the real life Ramanath Goenka and Madhvan portrays S. Gurumurthy, who twenty years ago, gained national fame, spearheading virulent attacks against the Reliance group in one of Indias bloodiest corporate wars ever. The film also portrays the strength of Dhirubhai Ambani with the help of the character of Guru Kant Desai. GURUBHAI the name given to Abhishek Bachchan is also similar to the original name DHIRUBHAI. .....
Family
16. Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani, famously known as Dhirubhai Ambani, the Indian business tycoon and the founder of Reliance Industries, was born on 28th December 1932 into a Gujarati Family, in Chorward, Junagadh in Gujarat.He was the second son to Hirachand Gordhandas Ambani and Jamanaben. He had two brothers, Ramnikbhai and Natubhai and two sisters+C15, Trilochanaben and Jasuben.His father worked as a village school teacher. They were a reputed family in the village, but they were financially not very strong, since his father was the only earning member in a family of 5 children. .....
Growing Up
17. Since Dhirubhais father was a village school teacher, he did not earn much. Though he was highly intelligent, he chose to use his physical abilities over cramming school lessons. He was said to be impatient of the oppressive grinding mill in the classroom. Once his mother asked him and his elder brother to support their father financially, after which he began putting up onionpotato fries stall at village fairs and gave the extra money he earned to his mother. He was enthusiastic and impatient about earning money as soon as possible.Dhirubhai wanted to pursue a bachelors degree, but due to his fathers illness he had to take up a job in Aden, arranged by his elder brother, Ramnikbhai and so he could not study further.He came to know about his matriculation examination results through a Gujarati newspaper, when he had already boarded the ship to Aden. He got to know that he had passed his matriculation examinations in second division. .....
Endeavors
18. Dhirubhai started working as a clerk in A. Besse & Co. (named after its French founder Antonin Besse) from the very first day he reached there.
Aden was the second busiest trading and oil bunkering port in the world then. A. Besse & Co. was engaged in almost every branch of trading business cargo booking, handling, shipping, forwarding and wholesale merchandising. Initially Dhirubhai worked in the trading section of the firm, later he was transferred to another section that handled petroleum products for the oil giant shell. Dhirubhai had done well at office and hence A. Besse & Co. became the agent for distribution of Shell refinery products to the Shell oil refinery and the first Oil harbor that came up in Aden in 1954. The same year, Dhirubhai returned to Gujarat to marry Kokilaben. Due to his hard work, he was sent on promotion to the oil filling station at the newly built harbour, which was more challenging, unlike the desk work in the commodities section.

In 1957, Dhirubhai returned to India and started .....

The Ideal Beginning
19. It all started when Dhirubhai started his own individual business, after ending partnership with Mr.Damani, his second cousin in 1965. Dhirubhai was known for his risk taking ability and his belief was in building inventories, anticipating a price rise and making profits.In 1966, sensing good business opportunities he setup Reliance Textiles, his first textile mill at Naroda, Ahemdabad. A brand, named Vimal was started by Dhirubhai, which was named after his elder brothers son. It was such a success that it became a famous household name in India. Franchises were distributed and famous retail outlets would sell only Vimal brand of textiles. In 1975, Reliance Textiles manufacturing unit was visited by a technical team from the World Bank and was certified as excellent even by developed country standards during that period. By the late 1970s, Dhirubhai had a net worth of an estimated Rs.10 lakh.Not only was his textile business a great success, but also his idea of starting equity cult in India. Dhirubhai convinced a large number of investors from rural Gujarat to invest in his company and assured them that being shareholders of his company would be profitable. Reliance Companies was a private sector company and its Annual meetings were held in large stadiums. By the early 1980s Dhirubhai Ambani s net worth was estimated at about 1 billion. .....
Conjugal Relationship
20. Dhirubhai was married to Kokilaben in 1954 and was blessed with two sons, Mukesh and Anil and two daughters, Nina and Deepti. His sons later took over the Reliance industries after his death.Though Dhirubhai himself could not study much, his sons are highly educated. Mukesh, Dirubhais elder son is a graduate and Anil, his younger son is a post graduate. .....
Man of Substance
21. Dhirubhai Ambani is the founder of the Reliance Group of Industries which is a conglomerate and only privately owned company in India, with a net worth of $6.10 billion at the time of his death. Dhirubhais Reliance has almost taken over all types of trading sectors in India. From capital markets to households, Reliance is a common name.This great Indian business tycoon was worldly recognized and awarded.In June 1998, he became the first Indian to receive the Wharton School Dean medal for setting an excellent example of leadership.Dhirubhai was featured among Power 50 the most powerful people in Asia in the Asia week Magazine for three alternate years 1996, 1998, and 2000.He was also named the Man of 20th Century by the FCCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry).He was also awarded the Economic Times Lifetime achievement Award in august 2001.Dhirubhai was famously known as Polyester Prince. .....
Company Profile
22. Reliance Group of Industries, founded by Dhirubhai, is a conglomerate company which is indulged in petrochemicals, communications, textiles and power. The company has over 85000 employees at present and provides almost 5% of the Central governments Total tax revenue.The Reliance Group split soon after Dhirubhais death into Mukesh Ambanis Reliance Industries and Anil Ambanis Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. .....
Obstacles Faced
23. There were several business rivalries faced by Dhirubhai Ambani.At one point of time, Nusli Wadia of Bombay Dyeing was the greatest competitor and threat to Dhirubhais Reliance Industries. The competition between the two turned out to be ugly.Another obstacle was Dhirubhais tussle with Ramnath Goenka, who once was Dhirubhais friend. It all began because Ramnath Goenka was not getting his equal share in the company and so he teamed up with Dhirubhais rival, Nusli Wadia and tried hard to cause a major harm to the Reliance group. The Indian express, a broadsheet daily published by Goenka, carried a series of articles stating the unfair means used by the Reliance Industries to make profits. But soon Dhirubhai handled the pressure and came over it.

Dhirubhai faced severe health problems. In 1986 he suffered a major stroke, which paralyzed his right hand and in June 2002, he suffered his second stroke, after which he was admitted to the Breach Candy Hospital, Mumbai. A number of doctors attended to him but not much could be done and the Indian business magnet died on July 6, 2002. .....

Virtues
24. Dhirubhai was a hardworking and intelligent man, since childhood. Though he couldnt study after his matriculation examination, he built up a great business due to his determination and skills he learned at A. Besse & Co. in Aden. Dhirubhais journey has been also depicted into a famous Bollywood movie named Guru, which was a great commercial success. .....
Awards and recognitions
25. November 2000 Conferred Man of the Century award by Chemtech Foundation and Chemical Engineering World in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the growth and development of the chemical industry in India.
2000, 1998 and 1996 Featured among Power 50 the most powerful people in Asia by Asiaweek magazine.
June 1998 Deans Medal by The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, for setting an outstanding example of leadership. Dhirubhai Ambani has the rare distinction of being the first Indian to get Wharton School Deans Medal.
August 2001 Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence for Lifetime Achievement.
Dhirubhai Ambani was named the Man of 20th Century by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
A poll conducted by The Times of India in 2000 voted Him Greatest Creator of Wealth In The Centuries. He is the true son of India .....
Death
26. Dhirubhai Ambani was admitted to the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai on June 24, 2002 after he suffered a major stroke. This was his second stroke, the first one had occurred in February 1986 and had kept his right hand paralyzed. He was in a state of coma for more than a week. A battery of doctors were unable to save his life. He died on July 6, 2002, at around 11 50 P.M. (Indian Standard Time).

His funeral procession was not only attended by business people, politicians and celebrities but also by thousands of ordinary people. His elder son, Mukesh Ambani, performed the last rites as per Hindu traditions. He was cremated at the Chandanwadi Crematorium in Mumbai at around 4 30 PM (Indian Standard Time) on July 7, 2002.He is survived by Kokilaben Ambani, his wife, two sons, Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani, and two daughters, Nina Kothari and Deepti Salgaonkar.

Dhirubhai Ambani started his long journey in Bombay from the Mulji Jetha Textile Market, where he started as a small trader. As a mark of respect to this great businessman, The Mumbai Textile Merchants decided to keep the market closed on July 8, 2002. At the time of Dhirubhais death, Reliance Group had a gross turnover of Rs. 75,000 Crore or USD $ 15 Billion. In 1976 77, the Reliance group had an annual turnover of Rs 70 crore and it is to be remembered that Dhirubhai had started the business with just Rs.15,000(US$350). .....

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Crown Fountain Millenium Park Chicago. Designed by Spanish artist Jaume Plensa the Crown Fountain in Millennium Park is a major addition to the citys world renowned public art collection. The fountain consists of two 50 foot glass block towers at each end of a shallow reflecting pool. Th .....
Sunniest Places in the World
CYPRUS. This island country has the largest number of sunny days in the Mediterranean. It receives up to 13 hours of sun a day during the summer. .....
Benefits of Mushroom
Oysters. The presence of antioxidants in high quantity in these mushrooms help fight against HIV. Always trust sealed products from reputable companies or those which you have grown yourself under controlled conditions after buying their seeds (called spawns) .....
Precautions while using Oxygen Therapy
Use caution with oxygen tubing. Use caution with oxygen tubing so you do not trip over it or become entangled in furniture. Be familiar with the equipment and the safety checks established by the medical equipment provider. Keep their contact telephone numbers, and the numbers for .....
Things That Men Think Women Can Never Learn
Things That Men Think Women Can Never Learn. This is a world of competition and without reasonable doubt; women are in the forefront of absolutely everything under the sky, right alongside men. Nevertheless, the so called superior specie likes to sometimes think otherwise. Here we have compiled .....
Latest Hair Colours
Afton. Whether you have dark or light hair, subtle highlights that are just a few levels lighter than your base color look more like a shine on your hair. .....
Incredible People With Real Superpowers
Stephen Wiltshire super photographic memory. Stephen Wiltshire is an artist who draws and paints detailed cityscapes. However, unlike other artists, Stephen has a particular talent for drawing lifelike, accurate representations of cities, by only glancing at them. Whereas a normal artist would .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Blush. When it comes to getting holidaypretty,blushis non negotiable. Amp up your natural rosiness by mixing complementaryblush colors, one darker and one lighter. Or start off light with the paler shade in the compact and tweak it by layering its darker co .....
Most Expensive Divorces In History
Rupert Murdoch and Anna Maria Torv. After a thirty two year marriage and three children, Murdoch and Torv decided to call it quits back in 1998. Their divorce was finalized in 1999, leaving Torv with over $1.5 billion including $110 million in cash. .....
Uncommon Fruits and Veggies
Canistel. The canistel, or eggfruit, has a similar texture to a boiled egg.It is not particularly juicy, but it is sweet and can be eaten raw.The fruit texture lends itself well for use in custards, ice cream, and sorbet.Canistels are native to Mexico but are .....
How to Do Computer Yoga
Diamond Pose Vajrasana. kneeling on a soft area, knees closed.Push back to sit on your heels.Exhale and lift your leg while you tighten your buttocks. Stretch up using your hips,Keep your head balanced in a straight line with the body.Sitting in this position may give great .....
Benefits of Mint Leaf
Mint can be grown in pots and planted. Mint can be grown in pots and planted with other herbs. And according to legend this is a good herb for keeping ants away from doors and combating mice and fleas. Keep mint leaves near food, beds and wardrobes. Use it to freshen the house like an air .....
Valentines Gift Ideas
Studio Knit Hat. It may have been off to a slow start this season, but the winters wrath is officially here. Thanks to this thick knit hat, shell be able to brave the elements in style. .....
Stress Management Tips
Be more assertive. Dont take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems head on, doing your best to anticipate and prevent them. If youve got an exam to study for and your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only have five minutes to talk. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Scalpel free Face lifts Fingertip face lift. The massage treatment known as Rejuvanessence®, created by holistic massage therapist and former nurse Margareta Loughran, aims to bring about a more “alive” or expressive appearance, in contrast to the “surprised” expression and fixed look of some s .....
Hanuman Chalisa
Hanuman 2. Raama-Dut Atulit Bala-Dhaamaa | Anjani-Putra Pavan-Sut Naamaa || You are the messenger of Shri Ram, O son of Anjani and Pavan you are the epitome of infinite strength and justly called ‘Pavan sut' .....
The Best bits of Brazil
Copacabana. Were not sure what the Brazilians think of Barry Manilows song referencing Copacabana, but we do know that the place itself is a far cry from the New York nightclub he was actually singing about. New Years Eve on this stretch of the beach in Rio de J .....
Handmade Valentines Day Cards
Thermocol decor card. Colour the thermocol and Allow it to dry,Then take a paper cup , cut it half and fix it to the thermocol using pins. Along its corners.Then paint the paper cup Arrange the flowers in the cup, and decorate the cup and the thermocol. .....
Dating Tips For Men
Think About You. Be honest with yourself and what you want. Youre the one that is most important to yourself. .....
Benefits of Rosemary
Gift Accent. Spring and summer weekends inevitably fill up with weddings, graduation parties, and baby showers, so why not make your gift stand out with a ribbon tied bundle of Rosemary attached to the top of your gift with your card. .....
Healthy Head
Let your Brain Work. If youve nailed Tips 1 3 youre doing great but Tip 4 is where many people struggle including me. In a time with so much technology around us, its hard to turn off Angry Birds or the Kardashians and take 30 minutes to get lost in a book. When is the .....
Tatoo Designs
Heart Tattoos. The heart is a worldwide symbol of love, and as a tattoo it usually has the same meaning.As a Christian symbol, it can represent Christ love. .....
Benefits of Tomatoes
Prevent DNA Damage. Tomatoes are high in important antioxidants such as vitamin C and Vitamin A. These vitamins work to fend of DNA damage from free radicals. Consequently, tomatoes may help to ward off age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. Lycopene .....
Concept Cars That Might Change The Way We Drive
Hodge Hawk. Theoretically powered by a oneliter Honda VTwin bike engine, Hodge Hawk is a threewheeler car concept designed by New Zealander designer Alex Hodge. Completely fictional so far, the car cold theoretically run as fast as 145mph (233 km/h). .....
Tips for Valentines day Gift
Key To My Heart Couple Necklace. Sweet bronze Key and Heart couples necklace. The feminine He who holds the key can unlock my heart necklace is decorated with a pink mesh polka dot ribbon. The long mens necklace hangs low with 30 ball chain and key charm. This set of 2 necklaces c .....
Ways Technology Makes You Stupid
Tech is screwing up your sleep. Studies have shown that blueenriched light, which is emitted by gadgets like smartphones, tablets and laptops, can suppress the bodys release of melatonin at night. Melatonin is a key hormone that helps regulate your internal clock, telling your body .....
Benefits of Swiss Chard
Swiss chard is a member of the beet family. Swiss chard is a member of the beet family, but it doesn t produce an edible bulbous root. The dark green leaves and the juicy leaf stalks (petioles), however, are completely edible and have high nutritional value. Thanks to its broad range of nutrie .....
Incredible Meals You Can Make In A Mason Jar
Lemon Raspberry Mousse Pie. Its pie in a jar! You can even switch out the flavors if you arent feeling like having berries. .....
Rules to play Racquetball
Get players. You will need other people to play with. You can find these people in a variety of ways. Friends, business associates, or other serious players can make great partners and opposing teams. Decide before which style of racquetball you wish to play, as .....
Benefits of Chives
Functions. Warms the middle region, helps appetite, invigorates qi, activates the blood, benefits the kidneys, supplements yang. The whole plant is also used for constipation and gastroenteritis (inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intest .....
Retro Toys That Are Now Worth A Fortune
Sega Genesis. Although the system has long been eclipsed by far more advanced gaming consoles, you can still sell your beloved Genesis for a couple thousand dollars! .....
Astrology
Friendship Compatibility between Gemini and Cancer. Gemini and Cancer - Friendship Compatibility Profile : When Gemini and Cancer form a friendship, it may be a rather curious combination. Gemini is intellectual, while Cancer is sensitive and emotional. Gemini may charm Cancer with their quick wit, ca .....
Ideal for Cooking
Paleo Egg Salad. Egg salad is a classic lunchtime favorite, but the mayo usually ruins it for paleo eaters. This recipe fixes that issue, so you can enjoy egg salad any time. .....
Top Most Powerful Armies In The World
India. India has put its massive population to use, and built an army of a sizeable 3.5 million, including 1.325 million active military. The huge size of the Indian military is one of the reasons why it has always remained among the countries with best arm .....
Best Beaches
Atlantic City. Just down the coast from Atlantic City, Wildwood is famous for all things kitsch. Featuring multiple retro style hotels, 5 amusement piers, carnival games and plenty of restaurants, the Wildwood boardwalk is one of the longest in the country. .....
Cutest Animal Facts
Secondly they have parental instincts. They adopt abandoned babies whose parents either died or werent being able to take care of them. .....
Start a Hobby
Camping. Get a group of like minded people together and set off to a beautiful beach, an isolated lake or a native forest. Fun will be had, guaranteed. .....
Rules to play Hiking
Safe Hiking. We want you to be safe on the trails! The N.H. Fish and Game Department and the White Mountain National Forest are partners in a mountain safety education program called hikeSafe to help get the word out on what hikers need to know.As part of this pr .....
Jawaharlal Nehru
Controvery. In 1957, despite of the major victory attained the elections, the Nehru led central government faced rising problems and criticism. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 was viewed by many, as Nepotism. .....
Longest Rail Tunnels In the World
Jawahar Tunnel. Banihal Tunnel also known as Jawahar Tunnel is a 2.5 Km long road tunnel under the Banihal pass, situated between Banihal and Qazigund in Jammu and Kashmir. One of the longest tunnel road of India will connect Jammu to Kashmir Valley on Jammu Srinaga .....
Healthy Foot
Wear Sunscreen. Wear sunscreen on the tops of your feet. Apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 to your feet when youre going barefoot or wearing open sandals. .....
Guru Nanak Dev
Cobra serves the divine master. As usually is the case in villages, the father sent his son to graze the buffaloes in the pastures. One day while the Guru was grazing the buffaloes, he fell asleep under a tree and the herd destroyed the crops in the neighboring fields. When the own .....
Benefits of Mushroom
Himematsutake. Himematsutake, also called Royal Sun Agaricus, is a relative of the common button mushroom. Himematsutake was not cultivated in the East until fairly recently but is now a very popular natural medicine, used by almost a half million Japanese. Himemat .....
Awesome Literary T Shirts
Hunger Games Womens T Shirt. On thistshirt from Twisted Envy collection, thetext reads: Train like youve been picked for the Hunger Games.On this tshirt from Twisted Envy collection, the text reads: Train like youve been picked for the Hunger Games. .....
Most Powerful Cities On Earth
Singapore. Singapore is the second freest economy in the world, behind on our list. Trade is central to its existence (hearkening back to its days as the primary British naval base in East Asia) with a tradetoGDP ratio of 408%. .....
Christmas SMS
Christmas SMS 57. Your friendship is a glowing ember through the year n each december from its warm n livin spark W kindle flame against da dark n with its shining radiance light our tree of faith on Christmas night. .....
Biggest Male Models of All Time
Larry Scott. Back in the 00s, you couldnt walk down the block or flip through a magazine without spotting Scotts gorgeous face. His Acqua di Gio campaign was everywhere. Still modeling to this day, Scotts work in front of the camera informs his second job as a ph .....
Benefits of Thyme
A Nutrient Dense Spice. ?Health-supportive nutrients found in thyme is also impressive. This food emerged from our food ranking system as an excellent source of vitamin C, a very good source of vitamin A, and a good source of iron, manganese, copper, and dietary fiber. .....
Barack Obama
Synopsis. Born on August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii, Barack Obama is the 44th and current president of the United States. He was a civil rights lawyer and teacher before pursuing a political career. He was elected to the Illinois State Senate in 1996, servin .....
Benefits of Fennel Seeds
Eliminates cold and the inhaling of steam. Fennel seeds eliminates cold and the inhaling of steam from boiling fennel leaves provides relief in respiratory infections like asthma and bronchitis.Fennel improves milk production in nursing mothers. .....
Rules to play Aquatics
Water vortex rules. An adult must accompany non swimming children. Non swimmers must wear a lifejacket. Swimmers must be at least 48 tall or accompanied by an adult. Use caution when entering and exiting the water vortex. .....
Mind Blowing Beauty Tricks
Cutting Your Own Bangs. You know youve done it. You know youve done it wrong. .....
Chinese New Year
Dumplings. Dumplings are very popular in Northern China. It is one of the main dishes for New Years Eve dinner. Very few people in Southern China serve dumplings in New Years Eve dinner. .....
Benefits of Cauliflower
Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular. Cauliflower consumption is protective against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. For instance, in atherosclerosis, there is chronic inflammation of the blood vessel, and the deposition of lipids and white blood cells eventually leads to a d .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
How To Create A Smokey Eye. Purple has always been one of my favorite colors to use on the eyes. It is the perfect color to wear for fall and winter and just makes my eyes pop! Below is a step by step makeup tutorial on how you can create a great purple smoky eye without even u .....
The Red Fort
Light and Sound Show. Every evening there is a spectacular display of history and events related to the city of Delhi in the form of light and sound show organized at the Red Fort. This has become a major tourist attraction at this place as the show brings back the life t .....
Gandhi Jayanti
Gandhi Jayanti Celebration in Schools. Grand celebration events are organized by the major schools in India to celebrate the Gandhi Jayanti at 2nd of October every year. Students of schools enthusiastically take part in the Gandhi Jayanti event celebrations. Gandhi Jayanti, a birthday ann .....
Toronto
Hockey Hall of Fame. The Hockey Hall of Fame is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Dedicated to the history of ice hockey, it is both a museum and a hall of fame.It holds exhibits about players, teams, National Hockey League (NHL) records, memorabilia and NHL trophies, .....
Party Games
Ring the witch s hat. Halloween PartyMake hats with cardboard paper in different sizes. Put them at a distance. Give colourful plastic rings to the children. Ask them to put the rings around the hats from a distance. Whoever rings the maximum hats gets a prize. .....
Natural Beauty Tips
Sparkling skin. Soak a teaspoon of black gram and 6 almonds overnight. Grind this to a fine paste. Apply this mask on face. Wash it off with water after half an hour. .....
The worlds most Powerful Road Cars
RUF CTR 3 740HP. Porsche tuner RUF decided to branch out on its own, stop fettling 911s and make a bona fide supercar. The result is a mid engined monster with a 3.8 litre turbocharged flat six Porsche engine. Looks lovely, too. .....
Benefits of Thyme
Uses for Thyme. You can drink thyme tea for relief from coughs, bronchitis, and common colds.Thyme has a pronounced effect on the respiratory system; in addition to fighting infections. .....
Flowers
Sedum Anacampseros. Grows spontaneously out of the crevices of the rocks in the South of France, flowers in our gardens in July and August, is a very hardy perennial, and in sheltered situations retains its leaves all the year.The singular manner in which the leaves are .....
Precautions while using CNG
CNG Fuel Storage Cylinders. The composite containers cylinders on the vehicle are manufactured to comply with FMVSS 304, NAI IAS, or the CSA B51 Part 2 specifications. Containers must have permanent labels in accordance with applicable regulations. These labels provide valuable .....
Technologically Advanced Wrist Watches
Azimuth SP 1 Mecanique. SP 1 Mechanique nicknamed the Spaceship Watch is a concept watch by Azimuth. This masterpiece is the blend of futuristic styling and progressive technical flaunts. It has a rendition of Earth as seen from space which rotates every sixty seconds. It h .....
Effective Exercises You Can Do Anywhere
Planks. Muscles worked abs, back, shoulders No, this is not planking. In order to do this exercise you have to actually hold yourself up off the ground. You can also modify the exercise by turning to the side and holding yourself on one elbow. This is one of .....
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