Bullet train

Bullet Train High speed train
1. A bullet train is a term used to describe a high speed passenger rail train. Originating in Japan, it is so named because of its sleek, aerodynamic appearance and its speed. The actual Japanese word for this rail service is Shinkansen, which, when literally translated into English, means ?new trunk lines.Public transportation is an important element of Japanese society, as the topography of the island nation limits the amount of available and usable space for roads. For many people, mass transportation is their main means of transportation. In light of this fact, the bullet train was conceived as a high speed railway that would reduce the travel time between Japan?s large cities.
The train achieves its high speed through the use of an aerodynamic shape and technology designed to fully maximize the power of the train. The railroad tracks for it were developed specifically for high speed rail service. Conventional trains do not run on the Shinkansen lines and high speed trains do not run on conventional tracks. This allows the trains to run at consistently high speeds, without having to reduce their operating speeds for slower trains on the tracks.The tracks are not designed to go around hills or mountains. Rather, a system of tunnels and viaducts allow the trains to go through any obstruction, which helps the Shinkansen maintain its high speeds. There are no railroad crossings, no changes of the right of way, and limited stops on the route.
The bullet train began service in Japan in late 1964, connecting the cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The original trains traveled at approximately 125 miles per hour (200 kilometers per hour.) This allowed the 320 mile (550 kilometer) distance between Tokyo and Osaka to be traveled in about three hours.

Today, the system consists of eight lines of service throughout most of Japan. It can reach speeds of up to 200 miles per hour (322 kilometers per hour) and make the journey between Tokyo and Osaka in approximately two and one half hours. Since the Shinkansen began operation in 1964, over 6 billion passengers have traveled on the railway, and there have been no major accidents.
The success of the high speed rail line in Japan encouraged other nations to develop their own similar programs. High-speed rail is now a fixture of mass transportation in many European and Asian nations. Two of the more notable services are in France and Spain.The French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) line is widely considered to be the most extensive high-speed rail system in Europe. The TGV began service in 1981 between the cities of Paris and Lyon. By 2007, the line had over 200 destinations throughout France and in neighboring countries such as Germany, Switzerland, and Luxembourg. It is estimated that, as of 2009, the system has carried in excess of 1.3 billion passengers since service began.
Spain's bullet train service, known as the Alta Velocidad Espa?ola, or AVE, began service in 1992 between the cities of Seville and Madrid. It has now expanded north to the city of Barcelona and south of Seville to the city of Malaga. Spain is planning future expansion of the line, which would ultimately create a larger network than the French line.
Other nations with high speed rail include the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal Taiwan and South Korea. China began development of its own program in the late 1990s and early 2000s. High speed service began in Shanghai in 2004, and in 2008, service between Beijing and Tianjin was inaugurated. China is now embarking on an ambitious expansion program to provide high speed service throughout the nation.

Bullet Train Guide includes history of the Japanese Bullet Train, Bullet Train Speeds, Bullet Train pictures, Bullet Train video and Bullet Train specifications.Known in the West as the "Bullet Train", the Shinkansen is a high speed inter city train in Japan.The ride on the bullet train (Shinkansen) is more like an airplane without some of the hassles. Cost wise the bullet train is fairly similar to flying within Japan, but with the advantage that your start and end right in the middle of the city. .....
Early research
2. High speed rail development began in Germany in 1899 when the Prussian state railway joined with ten electrical and engineering firms and electrified 72 kilometres (45 mi) of military owned railway between Marienfelde and Zossen. The line used three phase current at 10 kilovolts and 45 Hz.
The Van der Zypen & Charlier company of Deutz, Cologne built two railcars, one fitted with electrical equipment from Siemens Halske, the second with equipment from Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft (AEG), that were tested on the Marienfelde Zossen line during 1902 and 1903.On 23 October 1903, the S&H equipped railcar achieved a speed of 206.7 km/h (128.4 mph) and on 27 October the AEG equipped railcar achieved 210.2 km/h (130.6 mph).These trains demonstrated the feasibility of electric high speed rail however regularly scheduled electric high speed rail travel was still more than 30 years away.

Early German high speed network
On May 15, 1933, the Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft company introduced the diesel powered Fliegender Hamburger in regular service between Hamburg and Berlin (286 km), thereby establishing the fastest regular service in the world, with a regular top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph). This train was a streamlined multi powered unit, albeit diesel, and used Jakobs bogies some 47 years before the advent of the TGV.Following the success of the Hamburg line, the steam-powered Henschel Wegmann Train was developed and introduced in June 1936 for service from Berlin to Dresden, with a regular top speed of 160 km/h (100 mph).Further development allowed the usage of these Fliegenden Z .....
Bullet Train Technologies
3. The Shinkansen has succeeded thanks to several kinds of technology,A streamlined body
To achieve speeds of 200 kilometers per hour (130 miles per hour) and more, the trains needed to be as aerodynamic (to cause as little wind resistance) as possible. That is why the front cars of the Shinkansen trains are tapered like the nose of an airplane.
Minimizing vibration
When trains reach high speeds, the wheels vibrate on the rails. If this vibration reaches the passenger compartments, it can make them fall apart. To prevent this, the passenger compartments ride on top of flatcars. These are fitted with an air spring that uses compressed air to absorb the wheel vibration so that it does not reach the passenger compartments.
Modern tracks
Until the Shinkansen was built, Japan did not have the wide-gauge (1,435 millimeters wide) railway tracks that were the standard in the rest of the world. Instead, Japanese trains ran on narrow gauge tracks (1,067 millimeters wide). Most people felt that wide gauge railway tracks were necessary to move large numbers of people and large volumes of goods, so wide gauge tracks were built for the Shinkansen. And to allow the trains to go as fast as possible, Shinkansen tracks have no sharp curves. Also, Shinkansen tracks never cross other railway lines on the same level, so the trains never have to stop and wait for other trains to pass.
Automatic Train Control
On regular trains, drivers adjust the trains speed according to the signals they see along the tracks. But Shinkansen trains travel at over 200 kilometers per hour, making it almost impossible for drivers to read signals as they whiz past. So Shinkansen trains have a different kind of speed control system, known as ATC. With this system, speed information is transmitted along the track and is received by a signal attached to the drivers seat. The ATC automatically keeps the train running within the designated speed limit. The Shinkansen also depends on Centralized Traffic Control, a system that makes sure there is enough time and distance between trains so that the high speed train system operates smoothly and safely.Thanks to these technologies, the Shinkansen has been running continuously since it first opened, with no major accidents. As of 1999, its thirty fifth year of operation, the Shinkansen had carried a total of about 5.6 billion passengers along its Tokaido Sanyo, Tohoku, Joetsu, and Nagano routes. Thats almost as many as all the people in the world. .....
Benefits of high speed Train
4. 1.Less smog in the city: While there is still some controversy over which form of transportation is more fuel efficient, trains or cars, the amount of smog and pollution released into the city is much less with a high speed train than with the number of cars necessary to transport the same amount of people.
2.Reverse sprawl: High speed trains could reverse the current tendency for cities to sprawl as wide as they can, with lots of new growth on the fringes and a neglected city center. A high speed rail network could revitalize America?s ?Main Streets?.
3.Increased walkability: Fewer cars in the city centers means more space for people, and the push toward more walkable cities benefits more than just those who live there.
4.More efficient use of time: Riding a train instead of driving frees up your attention and time to focus on the things you want from getting more work done to getting more downtime to catch up on your reading. And for trips of less than 400 miles, high speed trains can get you from downtown to downtown in about the same amount of time that air travel can, at a much lower cost.
5.Reduced congestion: What price do we put on the time we?re stuck in traffic? How about $87.2 billion a year lost in automotive gridlock? If you live in a city with horribly congested freeways, you may be spending more time sitting than you do actually driving. But since a single train track can carry the same amount of people as a 10 lane highway, high speed trains could help relieve some of that traffic jam angst.
6.Reduced dependence on foreign oil: A high speed rail network carrying electric trains could be powered by renewable energy sources, reducing our need for foreign oil, with all of its accompanying side effects.
7.Safer than driving: Tens of thousands of people die each year in automobile accidents, but trains are one of the safest forms of transportation we currently have.
High speed trains in the Midwest would be three times as energy efficient as cars and six times as energy efficient as planes. Choosing rail travel over driving or flying will decrease our dependence on foreign oil and reduce air pollution that causes global warming and harms public health.
Currently, major portions of the Midwest suffer from ?severe? smog problems,according to federal regulators. The construction of high speed rail will decrease the region?s reliance on automotive transportation and therefore help reduce ozone emissions.Downtown train stations will pull jobs, people and business back into the country?s central cities thus reversing sprawl.High speed rail reduces the need for new outlying highways and airports which exacerbate sprawl.At distances of less than 400 miles, high speed trains can deliver you downtown to downtown almost as fast as airplanes at a fraction of the cost, and can do so in virtually all weather.With wide seats, fax machines, places to plug in your laptop computer, and food service, high speed trains provide a convenient, productive alternative to cars and airplanes.

The economic value of the improved mobility has been valued at $13.2 billion through 2030.High speed rail offers convenient service to most of the region?s major airports, allowing residents of smaller communities the benefits of affordable long distance travel.Constructing a Midwest high speed rail network supports commuter and light rail. In Chicago, for example, high speed trains will share Union Station with METRA commuter trains, increasing ridership on both.High speed rail will provide $1.3 billion in highway congestion relief and $700 million in airport congestion relief.A single railroad track can carry as many people as a ten lane highway at a fraction of the cost.

For the City of Chicago, a high speed rail hub will have the equivalent economic impact of a medium sized airport located in the heart of the central business district without having to displace a single office.The Midwest?s railcar manufacturing industry will prosper as a result of the addition of high speed rail to the region.
As the redevelopment of train stations in Washington D.C. and Kalamazoo have demonstrated, train terminals can become the focal points for commercial redevelopment and promote substantial new development in surrounding areas. A study for the City of Chicago estimated that high speed rail would bring $8-10 billion dollars of new economic activity to Chicago.A high speed rail network pulls together the regional economy and promotes intra regional business growth. The economic impact of Midwestern intra regional trade greatly exceeds the potential benefits of increased trade with Canada and Mexico spurred by NAFTA.The development of improved rail service can provide a significant boost to travel and tourism by facilitating weekend leisure trips by families from smaller towns to the major cities and vice versa.
High speed rail delivers fast, efficient transportation so riders can save time, energy, and money. HSR is extremely reliable and operates in all weather conditions. HSR is not subject to congestion, so it operates on schedule every day without delay especially during rush hour and peak travel times.HSR spurs the revitalization of cities by encouraging high density, mixed use real estate development around the stations. HSR also fosters economic development in second tier cities along train routes.HSR links cities together into integrated regions that can then function as a single stronger economy.HSR broadens labor markets and offers workers a wider network of employers to choose from. HSR encourages and enables the development of technology clusters with fast easy access between locations. HSR also expands visitor markets and tourism while increasing visitor spending.The many benefits HSR delivers spread throughout regions that have HSR, encouraging economic development across a large area.
This is one important issue that Republicans and Democrats see the value in The national high speed rail network will create millions of good jobs, stimulate the economy, create entirely new industries, be the catalyst for the next real estate boom, save businesses money, increase mobility, reduce dependence on oil, reduce our annual $700 billion trade deficit, and significantly increase national security. .....
Benefits and Challenges
5. HSR provides a number of economic, social and environmental benefits for the corridors they service. The most salient are:
  • Capacity and reliability. HSR corridors have the capacity to move a large number of passengers in a safe and reliable manner. They can mitigate congested road and air infrastructure, particularly for short to medium distance trips. They are also much less impacted by adverse weather conditions than road and air transport.

  • Energy and environment. HSR systems consume less energy per passenger km than road and air transport. They are perceived to provide a more sustainable mobility with electric power and denser land use structures associated with rail oriented developments.

  • High speed rail systems can have substantial impacts on other transport modes, even freight transport systems. One of the most apparent is on air transportation services between cities along the high speed rail corridor, particularly the most distant ones. High speed rail is able to compete successfully with short to medium distance air transport services as it conveys the advantage of servicing downtown areas and has much lower terminal time, mainly because of less security constraints. For city pairs closer than 500 km, the introduction of high speed rail services will in the majority of cases remove commercial air services as they cease to be competitive. Flights on routes that are over 1,500 km are usually little impacted. This can have a very important impact on air transportation since the worlds most active air routes are all short hauls of less than 1,000 km.
    Another emerging trend concerns a complementarity between HSR and air transportation, which involves cooperation between a national air and rail carrier. For instance, Lufthansa and Deutsche Bahn as well as Air France and SNCF offer single fares and tickets for selected routes where a high speed rail segment is offered instead of a flight. There is thus a balance between competition and complementarity for HSR and air transportation services, particularly when there is congestion in the air transport system. In this situation the complementarity may help release airport gate slots that can be used to support more revenue generating flights or to reduce congestion.Rail stations with high speed rail services are also increasingly becoming transport hubs with the associated demands on urban transport systems, particularly public transit. Regarding high speed rail stations, two dynamics have emerged.The reconversion and usage of central railway stations. Such facilities benefit from high accessibility levels due to their central locations and can thus grant a significant customer base for HSR services. This is particularly the case for the European system that is using existing tracks to access the central train station which avoided expensive development projects such as new stations or the building of tunnels.
    The setting of new facilities in suburbia. In this case, the HSR station represents an opportunity to create a new node of activity within a metropolitan area. .....
  • Facilities Onboard
    6. High speed trains boomed in recent years. Not merely fast and time-saving, a high speed train is equipped with advanced facilities, making your journey comfortable and convenient.
    Luggage Racks
    Luggage racks are above the seats on both sides of a carriage. Only bags or suitcases of normal sizes can be put onto the racks at the junctions of two carriages, there are luggage closets for large sized trolley suitcases. There are also rooms for large suitcases and other luggage (like a foldable bike) at the back of the last row of seats in some carriages.
    Dining
    Food and drink are provided in the dining carriages. Only pre packed meals are available, and these need to be heated in a microwave. The price goes from CNY 15 and 45. There are variety of drinks for passengers to choose, including wine, beer, coke, juice, milk and coffee. The attendants will also push a trolley to sell packed food and snacks during a trip. Passengers in the business class, super class and first class carriages will be served with free meals and beverages. Halal food is available on some trains.
    Drinkable Hot Water
    Each carriage has a water heater at the end. Free boiled water is available during the whole trip. The green indicator shows that the water is fully heated. Put your bottle under the tap and push the button, and you will get hot water. Disposable paper cups are available sometimes.
    Toilet
    Toilets are located at the end of the carriage and they come in squat type and seat type. Toilet paper is available. Some also provide disposable seat covers in toilets.There are special toilets for the disabled passengers. A foldable diaper changing table is available in the toilet. Train attendants can guide mothers to designated breast-feeding areas.
    Wash Basins
    The wash basins are either inside or outside of the toilets and some trains have warm water. Hand sanitizer and paper towels are provided.
    Sick Bag
    Dustbins are at one end of each carriage. Moreover, there is a sick bag in the pocket of each seat.
    Battery Charging
    Long journey can often be boring and passengers like to take along laptops or mobiles which depend on batteries. For your convenience you will find that these batteries can be recharged from sockets in the aisle side seats.
    Safety
    During a trip, all the carriages are closed and equipped with smoke alarms, so smoking is banned, not even in the connections of cars or toilets. Each carriage also has an emergency hammer to break the window and fire extinguishers. In addition, there are two red buttons under the liquid crystal display in every carriage: the left one is used for fire alarming and the right one is for emergency braking.
    Internet
    Free WIFI is available on some trains. Therefore, as long as you have a smart phone or a laptop, you can surf the internet freely.
    Entertainment
    Each carriage has LCD TV sets playing movies or TV programs during a trip. The headset jacks and volume buttons are on the arm of each seat. Passengers can also listen to the radio when running in cities. Passengers in business class also have their private LCD screens, which are located in the arms of the seats. .....
    Japans Fastest Train Floats On Magnetic Tracks
    7. Japans JR Central Railway Company recently unveiled plans for a new high speed train propelled by magnetic fields. Reaching speeds of over 310 mph, the Series Lo prototype is a maglev train, meaning it runs on varying shifts in horizontal magnetic tracks. Basically, the train floats above the tracks and nearly cuts travel time in half.The commuter train will reportedly carry up to 1,000 riders in 16 cars per trip. The streamlined nose, similar to that of a bullet train, reduces wind drag. Moreover, the maglev technology will produce a quieter, smoother ride for passengers while significantly reducing maintenance costs for the train operators. The Series Lo is expected to make its debut in 2027, running between Tokyo and Nagoya. By 2045, the company plans to expand its routes to Osaka, with the cost of all the new lines at about US$102 billion. In addition, Japans Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is examining proposed routes that run through the Southern Alps to the northwest of Mount Fuji. Watch the video below for a brief unveiling of the Series Lo. .....
    Why Japans high speed trains are so good
    8. MANY countries seem obsessed with high speed rail. On June 4th in the Queens speech, the opening of the British parliament for 2014-15, the government confirmed its commitment to a controversial high speed link known as HS2. France is slowly expanding its high speed lines (known as the TGV) while other countries, such as Spain and China, are rapidly enlarging their networks of whizzy trains. Japans high speed bullet train is often held up as an exemplar by rail boosters and governments keen to acquire their own shiny new train sets. How did Japan come to be the world leader in high speed trains?
    Trains are symbolic of modernity in Japan. During the Meiji restoration in the late 19th century, when Japan modernised at break neck speed, the high technology of the day was the locomotive. By the 1930s the first railway trunk route, linking Tokyo with cities such as Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, had become heavily congested, according to Christian Wolmar, a railway expert. The first high speed railway, known as the Shinkansen (new mainline), cut journeys between Tokyo and Osaka by two hours (from six to four) when it opened in 1964. This made it competitive with air travel, an industry which Japan had eschewed after the second world war, to avoid inadvertently stoking fears of rearmament. Geography influenced the rail networks development most of Japans 128m inhabitants live in a few densely populated parts of the country. By linking those dense populations together nearly 40m people in greater Tokyo with 20m residents of Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto the railway helped to shift business patterns, making day trips between Tokyo and Osaka possible. Many of its customers were rich and willing to pay for more expensive high speed tickets. The service had carried 100m passengers within three years and 1 billion by 1976. Now around 143m use the railway annually.
    In 1987 Japans national railways were divided and privatised into seven for-profit companies. JR East, the largest by passenger numbers, does not require any public subsidy from the Japanese government, unlike the heavily subsidised French network. One reason for its efficiency is that JR East owns all the infrastructure on the route the stations, the rolling stock and the tracks meaning there are fewer management teams duplicating each others work.But the railway also thrives because of a planning system that encourages the building of commercial developments and housing alongside the railway route. JR East owns the land around the railways and lets it out nearly a third of its revenue comes from shopping malls, blocks of offices, flats and the like. This money is reinvested in the network. In Britain, where planning and transport are rarely aligned, it is hard to create similarly successful commercial developments. Indeed, most of the plans for the areas around the stations of HS2 are vague, and some of the stops along an earlier line, HS1, are still underdeveloped, years after the line was built.The ability to build large developments alongside the high speed railways is a boon to the Japanese bullet line, as is the ability to charge high ticket prices. (When Koichi Tanaka, a scientist, won the Nobel Prize in 2002 he was reported as saying he would use the money to buy a ticket on the Shinkansen, to loud cheers.) But even so, 71% of the revenue from passenger tickets at JR East comes from the conventional, slower railway. Countries looking to lay down speedy new tracks might want to consider investing in their existing railway lines as well. .....
    From bullet trains to subways Lessons from Japan
    9. Two things are critical for successful urban transit. First, seamless integration of service between different transit operators. Second, encouraging private firms to operate urban transit along with state-owned transit operators. This has made transit a success in Tokyo. Toronto should take note.When it comes to running trains, one can learn from the Japanese experience. After all, it is the land of the rising sun and that of the bullet train. So when the Japanese experts in urban rail operations arrived in Toronto to share their experience, the transit enthusiasts and decision-makers showed up to listen. In attendance were MetroLinx?s CEO Bruce McCuaig and TTC commissioner Karen Stintz along with transit experts and planners.The Consulate General of Japan hosted the Toronto Urban Rail Seminar. Japanese transit experts shared their expertise in operating the integrated urban rail transit system in Tokyo and its surroundings. A lot could be learnt from Tokyo?s success in transit operations even when one acknowledges the obvious difference in size and scope between Toronto and Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolis, with 35 million people, has the same demographic footprint as Canada. Still, lessons about the integrated transit systems and facilitating private rail companies to operate transit are important considerations because they inform the limited choice set of transit options that Canadians are forced to choose from. .....
    A Nationwide High Speed Train Network
    10. When the Shinkansen first started running, it served only the Tokaido route between Tokyo and Osaka. But since then, other Shinkansen lines have been added, and the bullet train network now extends throughout Japan. The San'yo route connecting Osaka with Okayama (180 kilometers, 112 miles) opened in 1972 and was extended from Okayama to Fukuoka (442 kilometers) in 1975. The Tohoku route from Omiya to Morioka (505 kilometers) and the Joetsu route from Omiya to Niigata (304 kilometers) both opened in 1982 and have since been extended from Omiya to Tokyo. The Nagano route from Takasaki to Nagano opened in 1997 - just in time for the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. And in December 2002 the Tohoku route was extended north to Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture, which is near the northern edge of Japan's main island. The trip from Tokyo to Hachinohe (632 kilometers) takes just 2 hours and 56 minutes on the Shinkansen train called Hayate (meaning strong breeze). The Yamagata and Akita Shinkansen routes were completed in 1992 and 1997, respectively. No new facilities had to be built for these lines to open; the tracks just had to be widened. In 2004 the Kagoshima route of the Kyushu Shinkansen opened, serving the 127 kilometers between Shin Yatsushiro and Kagoshima. .....
    Public versus private funding Japan
    11. Toshifumi Ishiya from the Japan International Transport Institute spoke at length about private rail transit operators who play a key role in providing urban transit service in the Tokyo metropolis. Most private operators in Japan do not receive any operating subsidy from the government. However, their revenue streams are more diverse than just the fare box revenue. Many rail transit operators also developed land along the rail corridors and transit stations and were able to generate significant revenue from developed land uses, such as housing and recreation. This helped keep private transit operators profitable and free of government subsidies.Mr. Ishiya also spoke of the costbsharing formulas between central and local governments for capital expenditures in public transit. The recent Japanese experience in expanding urban and regional transit involves subsidies amounting to 35 per cent of the capital cost provided for by both central and local governments. Even the expansion of the high-speed rail service is subsidised partially by the local governments because they eventually benefit from improved accessibility resulting in higher local tax revenues.Even more important is the lesson about integrated transit service in the Tokyo region where privately and publically operated trains running above and underground share tracks, transit stations, fares, and fare collection systems. It is important for the commuter to avoid the hassles of transfers from one system to another, warned Mr. Ishiya. The Japanese solution is seamless integration of transit service where the commuter focuses on the journey and not on the jurisdictional constraints of transit operators.
    Japan, though, is not alone in integrating diverse urban transit systems. After the unification of Berlin, transit systems from East and West Germany were integrated to offer seamless transit service to all citizens of the United Berlin. The S Bahn (surface rail) and U Bahn (underground rail) were integrated across Berlin overcoming challenges resulting from different rolling stock, different technology, and at times, different rail gauges. .....
    China High Speed Train Bullet Train
    12. High speed trains (G, D, C trains in China) run much faster than the normal ones. As well as traveling at speeds of upto 400km/h, the bullet trains are operated by advanced technological communication systems.China has so many worthy destinations, many of which are far from each, and in most cases, tourists have no choice but to take an airplane. The high speed railways greatly shorten journeys in this vast land, making long distance trips more convenient, time saving and feasible. For instance, with one bullet train ticket, you can reach Guangzhou from Beijing in 8 hours, however, this 2,000 km (about 1,243 mi) journey takes nearly 24 hours by normal ones.
    Now people generally prefer to travel by high speed trains, which should be attributed to its advantages:
    1. Fast: The present speed is higher than 200km/h, lessening the journey duration. For example, from Beijing to Shanghai, a distance of over 1,200 km (about 746 mi). The journey is shortened to 5 hours from 15 hours if you buy bullet train ticket instead of other tickets.
    2. Punctual: Less influence by weather, they usually arrive at their destinations on time. By contrast, a bus may be delayed because of traffic jams or bad road conditions. Flights may be cancelled because for the bad weather.
    3. Comfortable and Convenient: Seating is very comfortable, and the facilities can better meet passengers demands. Bullet trains are scheduled more frequently for many journeys, so it is easy to buy tickets and passengers dont need to wait too long.
    High speed trains also overcome the disadvantages of buses which face severe safety problems especially for those overnight ones. On the other hand, considering the airports which are usually located far from the city center and the long procedure for taking a flight, travel by the bullet train can be more time saving and convenient, especially for a journey within 5 hours. .....
    China Train Types
    13. Chinese trains are divided according to their speed into various classes, identified with different letters and numbers. The letters refer to different classes:
    G High Speed Electric Multiple Units (EMU) Train
    This is the fastest running for long distance in China, the top speed of which could reach 350km/h. Currently, the G train could finish the 1,068-kilometers Wuhan Guangzhou High Speed Railway in 3 hours, the 301 kilometers Shanghai Nanjing High Speed Railway in 73 minutes and the 458 kilometers Zhengzhou Xian High speed Railway in 2 hours.

    C Intercity EMU
    This is also the fastest kind, but runs for short travel distance between two nearby cities, such as the 120 kilomters Beijing Tianjin Intercity Railway.

    D Electric Multiple Units (EMU)
    This type is also called Hexiehao or bullet trains in China. The designed top speed is 250km/h. They have been widely used for serving fast and frequent transport between main cities, such as Beijing-Shanghai, Shanghai-Suzhou and Shenzhen-Guangzhou.

    Z Direct Express
    This type with a top speed of 160km/h is also an efficient transport for long distance travel. Generally, they run directly to the destination or with some stops on the way. On the other hand, some are equipped with only soft sleepers and soft seats.

    T Express
    This kind has limited stops on the routes, mainly in these major cities. The highest speed is 140km/h. Almost every T series is equipped with soft sleeper, soft seat, hard sleeper and hard seat.

    K Fast
    This series with a top speed of 120km/h has more stops than the T ones. They are equipped with air condition and the four classes of berths.

    L Temporary
    This series is in operation only during the peak travel time, such Chinese Spring Festival and the National Holiday. They will not be listed in the official fixed schedule. It is not advised to take this type if you have other options as they are routinely subject to delays.

    Y Tourist
    This type is for the convenience of tourist and their destinations are the popular tourism cities. For example, there are Y trains departing between Beijing and Qinhuangdao. Its speed is the same as the accommodation type.

    S Suburban
    Running at 100km/h as the highest speed, this type is used for communicating city center and the suburban areas. It has no soft seats and sleeper berths as it only travels within short distance in day times. Currently, the S2 series travel between Beijing North Railway Station and the Yanqing County in the northern suburb of the city with stops at Qinghuayuan, Nankou, and Badaling Great Wall. .....
    upcomming china
    14. Chinas Bullet Trains Creating New Kind of Suburbia
    Chinas new and aggressively expanding High Speed Railbullet train system is having an unintended consequence: its proving an economic boon to outlying cities along the line.A new collaborative study by Tsinghua University in Beijing considered Chinas MIT and the University of California Los Angeles has uncovered an unexpected benefit of Chinas new high speed rail network they are creating a new category of suburbia in China.
    According to the studys co-author, Matthew Kahn, a professor at UCLAs Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, so called second tier cities that fall into a sweet spot of 60-470 miles away from the connecting mega city, are seeing an economic payoff from workers who can now commute by bullet train into cities like Beijing and Shenzhen when it was simply too far to drive and too close to justify flying commercially. Such second tier cities include Qinhuangdao, Cangzhou and Yangquan. The authors note in their study that high speed rail gives these distant cities big city benefits without downsides like high housing costs, overcrowding, or air and water pollution.Siqi Zheng, a professor with the department of construction management and the Hang Lung Center for Real Estate at Tsinghua University in Beijing, observed that, Chinas bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.Bullet trains simultaneously alleviate some of the congestion costs associated with urban growth in the megacities and trigger the growth of the nearby second tier cities,said. With overpopulation in the developing world, theres a concern that megacities are too attractive and could soon be overrun by rural residents moving to urban areas. The bullet trains could act as a safety valve by encouraging people to move to second tier cities, improving the quality of life in both areas and creating more sustainable growth.

    The study discovered that Chinese companies are already starting to relocate to less expensive offices out in these second tier cities. The dealmakers of a business would remain in the mega city, while other employees could be relocated and only need to make the commute into the city on a weekly or monthly basis. That would have big economic pay off for the company and employees who could enjoy less expensive housing and living cots.Part of the purpose of the study was to better understand these unintended consequences in the light of Californias plans to build its own HSR system linking San Francisco/Sacramento with the Los Angeles/San Diego mega-regions. In Professor Kahns view, cities like Palmdale and even Bakersfield would benefit as second tier cities, along with Modesto, Stockton and Gilroy, the garlic capital of the world, on the northern end of the line similarly benefiting.What the study didnt identify was the cost effectiveness of Californias HSR plan. According to the UCLA press report, the authors believemany of the same side effects seen in China are likely to hold true for bullet trains anywhere.

    Last Mile Solutions What HSR also represents is the opportunity to provide commuters with last mile transportation solutions such as shared station cars like the MIT/GM developed all electric Hiriko being built in Spain. Local transit systems would also benefit,subways, BRT systems, and the like.On demand transit from conventional shuttle and taxi services to vehicles like Rinspeeds MicroMAX urban swarm vehicle will find a role. Finally, there likely be a role for electric assist two wheelers, as well as conventional bicycles that can get the commuter from home to the station and from the station to their final destination. It is in these relative short distance, high demand, situations where electric vehicles of all shapes and sizes will come into play, another positive benefit of a well run HSR system. .....
    India
    15. The speed of Indian trains has remained stagnant since the 80s. We thought about increasing the speed in the past, but the sixth pay commissions burden had shifted our focus to freight. But the world has moved on. Even countries such as Taiwan, Vietnam, Monaco and Tunisia are at various stages of developing a high-speed rail network. For us, there will now be two sets of trains. One is a semi high-speed system that will happen soon. By end of this calendar year, we will have a train running between Delhi and Agra at 160 km per hour.We will merely tweak the system and our investments for the Delhi-Agra corridor will be less than Rs 10 crore. Then, we have envisioned the High Speed Rail System, which is a slightly longer term vision. The Rail Budget has already given the seed money of Rs 100 crore for the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor, and we should complete the project in eight years.
    Various modalities for private sector participation will be weighed in. Multilateral agencies are also showing interest in the project. When India had its first coloured TV sets, there were sceptics. When mobile phones came, many asked their utility. Bullet train is no different .....
    Future of bullet train
    16. The Future of Train Travel Life in Hyper Speed
    Japan, inventor of the world?s first bullet train, recently unveiled plans for an even faster and more radical train model a floating train, powered by magnets, that will travel 100 mph faster than current bullet trains (about 300 mph). The maglev train, standing for ?magnetic levitation,? will run between Tokyo and Osaka, an estimated distance of 315 miles, cost $64 billion, and be completed by 2045.High speed rail has already revolutionized national and international transportation in many parts of the world for example, China has a maglev that already goes 270mph and now high-speed is transitioning into hyper speed. Last year, we reported that Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX and co-founder of both PayPal and Tesla Motors, shared with the public his desire to patent a new mode of transportation the ?Hyperloop? that would get passengers from San Francisco to LA in only 30 minutes.

    The ?Hyperloop? would, according to Musk, ?never crash, be immune to weather, go twice as fast as an airplane, four times as fast as a bullet train, and to top it off run completely on solar power.? While this sounds like a too good to be true idea straight out of a science fiction novel, our friends at Business Insider believe that there?s no reason the Hyperloop couldn?t become reality with enough political and financial backing but that?s quite the caveat.In fact, magnetic levitation technology in trains has been tossed around in the scientific community and even proposed as an alternative to air travel for decades.
    In 1972, physicist R.M. Salter detailed an underground tube system that could transport people from Los Angeles to New York City in a mind boggling 21 minutes. The Very High Speed Transit System would consist of ?electromagnetically levitated and propelled cars in an evacuated tunnel? underground that would function as a sealed vacuum and zip back and forth across the country at about 14,000 miles per hour.

    So although the likelihood that hyper speed could soon become the new means of travel sounds unlikely, it still offers lots for the imagination. High-speed and hyper speed rail has the very real capability of bringing cities together like never before. What?s more, it would necessitate a whole new kind of infrastructure to support it. What would such a hyper-speed station look like? How would it affect other types of transportation, or change the face of our cities? Let us know what you think in the comments below.

    This article lists planned or proposed high-speed rail projects, arranged by country. Although many nations have done preliminary feasibility studies, many lines are eventually shelved or postponed due to high cost, and only a few nations of those proposing are actively building high speed rail lines. Planned or proposed lines are therefore separated here from lines that are under construction, some nations having both. High speed rail is public transport by rail at speeds in excess of 200 km/h (125 mph).

    As Narendra Modi spoke of bullet trains, he ignited the imagination of a billion plus country and brought the subject of high speed trains to the centre of discussions. High speed railways (HSR) is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster (200-300kmh) than the traditional rail traffic. The first such system began its operations in Japan in 1964 and was widely known as the bullet train. In India, the subject was first brought into discussion in late 80's However budget constraints and feasibility had put the idea in cold storage. High speed trains are indeed a costly affair with the cost to lay each km coming to more than 100 crores. At such a cost even to start building a nominal network of 400-500 KMs between some of the proposed corridors will cost a bomb. And it is not just India where it has been perceived to be costly across the globe even in a resourceful country like the US there are debates about its sustainability.
    However in recent years there has been a lot of research that has gone into the feasibility and sustainability aspect of HSRs. In one such report ?high speed rail and sustainability? by UIC(the International Union of Railways) done to find out the feasibility and sustainability of these rails in California, USA, many interesting findings in favour of high speed rails have emerged. Some of them are as relevant to India as it is for the United States. .....
    Competition with Air
    17. Over the past decades, passenger transport has undergone important changes concerning the modal distribution of demand. The dominant position of the railways began to lose its leading foothold in favour of the plane, for long distances, and of the private vehicle, for shorter distances. This has been as a result of the loss of competitiveness of the traditional train in relation to other transportation services, originating from travel times far superior to those of alternative modes.
    In this context, the high speed train was introduced as a new form of understanding railway transport, notably improving the quality of service offered. This investment will affect the generalised costs related to the alternatives and may generate a redistribution of journeys between them, varying the existing modal distribution. The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential of the future high speed train to compete with current demand for the airline service in Spain. The physical and supply characteristics of existing transport portray the Madrid Barcelona route as an optimal setting for this aim. Firstly, it will connect the two capital cities with the greatest number of inhabitants in the country, with 4.7 million inhabitants in the case of Barcelona and 5.1 million in Madrid. On the other hand, the 620 kilometres between them suppose an extremely interesting line for a high speed investment,reducing the length of the train journey from the current approximately six hours to two and a half or three hours, thus converting it into the fastest land transport on this route. The impact of this investment on the demand for airline travel is quite uncertain and of great interest, given that the run analysed offers the frequency of the most competitive flights in the country, reaching timetables with departures every 15 minutes. The potential capacity of the future high speed train to compete on this market is analysed in this article. Demand modelling is developed in a hypothetical context, allowing for this alternative to be characterised, in spite of it not being available in reality. Experimental design techniques are applied which, based on the information collected, will allow for the estimation of a probabilistic choice model, so as to collect and characterise the preferences of passengers concerning alternatives for travel. With this information, it will be possible to predict the behaviour of passengers in the near future and to simulate different policy options for transport supply. The monetary value of the different types of time associated travel is also derived. The expansive policy predicted within Europe in high speed infrastructures supposes the commitment of a huge amount of resources. Therefore, it is important to have the necessary information available so that this allocation may be efficiently achieved. In this sense, the results of this article may be extended to other contexts. .....
    Career in bullet train
    18. Millions of jobs created to build and operate the new national HSR system
    Jobs will be created across numerous fields with opportunities in the planning, design and construction of track infrastructure and new train stations across America.Additional jobs will be created in the management and operations of stations, trains, and track infrastructure.There will also be jobs created through a new industrial boom in the design and manufacturing of high speed trains and all the components going into a train. Additional jobs will be created nationwide in real estate with transit oriented developments around the rail stations. .....
    Environmental objections in path of bullet train California
    19. The California bullet train is promoted as an important environmental investment for the future, but over the next decade the heavy construction project would potentially harm air quality, aquatic life and endangered species across the Central Valley.Eleven endangered species, including the San Joaquin kit fox, would be affected, according to federal biologists. Massive emissions from diesel powered heavy equipment could foul the already filthy air. Dozens of rivers, canals and wetlands fed from the rugged peaks of the Sierra Nevada would be crossed, creating other knotty issues.A wide array of state and federal agencies is examining those effects and, over the next several months, will issue scientific findings that could affect the cost and schedule of construction. Beyond the regulators, environmental lawsuits brought by the powerful California agriculture industry are threatening to further delay work.The state rail authority is trying to push ahead with an urgent plan to start construction of a 130 mile segment from Madera to Bakersfield as early as December, arguing that any delays could put more than $2 billion of federal funding at risk. Even if the Legislature appropriates the states share of money this summer, the construction schedule will depend on friendly and quick decisions by often tough regulators.Among the most difficult issues will be air quality, which is regulated across eight counties by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District. The district worries that the construction project would exacerbate already problematic levels of nitrogen oxides, particulates and volatile compounds.
    Trains, even ones that creep along powered by diesel engines, are inherently efficient ways of moving people and cargo. This has to do with factors such as wind resistance (one cargo train has less wind to fight than an equivalent 280 trucks) as well as the fact that steel wheels slide more easily on steel tracks than rubber wheels do on pavement.
    As oil prices spiked last summer and major airlines started adding fuel surcharges, an increasing number of Canadians were driven to the rails. VIA Rail recorded a 10 percent jump in ridership from the previous year and increased revenue of $14 million. As accessible oil supplies dwindle, the trend is likely to become more acute, especially if passengers can get from Toronto to Montreal in two hours by train as opposed to five. According to an environmental impact study put forward by the CHSRA, Californias proposed system will save 12.7 million barrels of oil by 2030 by reducing air and auto travel.
    In France and Japan, HSR enjoys an extremely high safety record. Says Langan: .....
    Economic Impact
    20. A new study suggests high speed rail in California will likely create jobs and population growth in larger cities with stations along the route, and second tier cities like Bakersfield and Fresno would fare better than those without stations.
    The report, issued last week by the Mineta Transportation Institute at San Jose State University, said that while California cities vary widely in planning for high speed train stations, it will take a savvy combination of station location, links to other transportation systems and supportive land use and zoning policies to make stations a springboard for job growth and development.
    Despite widespread projections of (rail) induced development in station cities, the experience in other countries indicates that a build it and they will come approach is insufficient, wrote Anastasia Loukaitou Sideris, a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, and her co-authors professors at UCLA and San Jose State.In theory, the economic and urban development impacts of high speed rail can be significant, the report said. But those effects are much less likely without proper planning.Cities can also work to capture the jobs related to providing or maintaining the HSR itself, researchers wrote.Bakersfield has received money to begin planning for project impacts to a one mile area around the proposed station downtown. But City Manager Alan Tandy noted that such efforts have not yet begun.The reality is that there will be a very long time to plan for station impacts, he wrote in an email.Realistically, any planning that takes place now will likely have to be revisited at the future time if, and when, the real improvements actually occur.The interim executive director of the Kern Council of Governments, Bob Ball, said in an email that he agrees with the studys conclusion that planning will be critical to maximizing local benefits.That is why we have worked hard to consider all viewpoints on the project while still recognizing that it continues to move forward, Ball wrote. He added that Kern COG continues to look after the areas best interests by commenting on every study, plan and environmental document put out by the projects Sacramento planners.If there are benefits to be had, they wont be instantaneous, researchers said.Completion of a full high speed rail system linking San Francisco and Los Angeles is expected to take up to two decades, the researchers wrote, and the development effects, may take as many as two additional decades to realize.
    8.Economic boost, The economic benefits of a high speed train system come from a variety of angles. From the jobs created to build the network, to the increased productivity which would come from more efficient use of time (less sitting in traffic jams), to the increased access to transportation of goods people for local businesses, high speed trains make economic sense.
    Because high speed rail promises environmental, economic, and transportation benefits, it has garnered broad support from throughout the Midwest. .....
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    Chase Learning not Scores. Dont get too bogged by whether your accuracy improved in the most recent test, what score is the software giving you etc. Rather, concentrate on learning. Mistakes are great friends at practice stage and keep analyzing them thoroughly to learn from y .....
    Benefits of Cucumber
    Fights cellulite. Cucumber can also help to banish cellulite of thighs. Mix some ground coffee with cucumber juice and raw honey to make a thick paste. Apply this on the affected areas, wrap it in muslin cloth and exfoliate gently after 30 minutes. Eating cucumber can .....
    Benefits of Peaches
    Cellular Health. Peaches containiron,which is vital for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells. The consumption of foods like peaches is important during all the stages of life, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood and phases such as menstruation and p .....
    Amazing Science Images You Must See
    Sleepy Seal. Even though the oceans tend to warm slower than the land, researchers report in the Nov. 4 issue of the journal Science that similar movement rates are needed for organisms to stay ahead of climate change on land and in the oceans. After analyzing 50 .....
    Start a Hobby
    Learn to sing. Voice the cheapest musical instrument available. .....
    Dog Breeds
    German Pinscher. The German Pinscher (original name Deutscher Pinscher, FCI No. 184) is a medium-sized, breed of dog, a Pinscher type that originated in Germany. The breed is included in the origins of the Dobermann, the Miniature Pinscher, the Affenpinscher, the Sta .....
    Way To Wakeup
    Sleep earlier. To get enough sleep. Makes sense. .....
    Weird Business Ideas
    Virtual Eternity. With this programme families can create digital clones of each member to be preserved in an interactive time capsule for future generations. The company hopes to give the gift of immortality while allowing future generations to connect with their roo .....
    Xmas Games
    White Elephant Gift Exchange. Every year I look forward to our annual White Elephant gift exchange party. Julie, our host, prints out this Gift Exchange Poem to spice things up a bit. .....
    Top Billionaires
    Jeff Bezos. One of the largest online retailer of possibly any kind, Bezos led Amazon has touch new heights with profits up to $61 Bn. Amazon founded by Jeff in 1994, in his garage where he used to sell books, went public three years later after a series of rema .....
    World Flags
    Burma. design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by .....
    Benefits of Cardamom
    Cardamom. Cardamom is native to the evergreen forests of India. This spice is commonly used in Indian cuisine, but it has also made its way into Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for mouth ulcers, digestive problems, and even depression. Some of the health ben .....
    Forever Young Naturally Eating
    Eating from Scratch Summer salads. Make up exciting combinations featuring watercress, barely cooked broccoli, sliced red pepper, and ripe tomatoes, avocado, zucchini slices brushed with olive oil and grilled, grilled goatís cheese and toasted pine nuts. Dress with olive oil and balsa .....
    Famous Party Cities In The World
    Tel Aviv Israel. If you like staying up past 10 PM, dancing your butt off, meeting strangers, and having a grand ol time, Tel Aviv needs to be high on your party travel bucket list. It comfortably sits among the other premier party destinations of the world, and whil .....
    Benefits of Chives
    Treatment of Dull Hair. Remove the chives from the boiling water and cool in a bowl of icy water for 12 minutes. Squeeze out the water and place the chives along with ? cup of extra virgin olive or canola oil in a blender. Chives surprisingly comprise more vitamin A than an .....
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