. BRICS is the abbreviation of five countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa and it is annually held since 2009, to build better global economies ties among all five nations. All five BRICS nations are also the members of G20 and the sixth summit has also invited Argentina for the first time, to make it the sixth member in its group.
The first BRIC summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia on 16th June, 2009 with the all five leaders Luiz In?cio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao attending the event. On April 15, 2010, BRIC's second summit, the group expanded with South Africa as the latest country to join and thus BRIC became BRICS on December 24, 2010 at Brasilia, Brazil. On April 14, 2011, the third BRICS Summit was attended by the South African President Jacob Zuma along with the four members of Brazil, Russia, India and China in Sanya, China. On March 29, 2012, fourth BRICS Summit was held for the first time in the national capital New Delhi, India with the former prime minister Dr Manmohan Singh as the host leader. On March 26, 2013, the host country of the BRICS Summit was Durban, South Africa.
6th BRICS summit is the sixth annual diplomatic meeting of the BRICS, a grouping of major emerging economies that includes Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It is hosted by Brazil, as the first host country of the current five year summit cyclethe host city is Fortaleza. Though Brazil hosted a four member BRIC summit in April 2010, 2014 will mark its first full BRICS summit the 2010 summit in Bras?lia did not officially include South Africa, who were only invited as guests in a prelude to full membership, which they achieved in December 2010.
Following the 2013 BRICS summit in Durban, South Africa, the BRICS countries released a joint statement summarising the results of their discussions and naming Brazil as the host country for the 2014 summit.Having agreed to set up a new international development bank during the 2013 summit,the member countries reportedly intend to complete the necessary arrangements for this bank prior to the 2014 summit.The summit was initially scheduled for March 2014, but was shifted to a later date at China's request it will now be held in July.Host President Dilma Rouseff invited the BRICS leaders to the 2014 FIFA World Cup Final. Modi responded in saying "Sports brings about a spirit of amity and belongingness among nations of the world. May the FIFA World Cup become a bridge for connecting nations together! Jo khele, wo hi khile.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.The grouping was originally known as "BRIC" before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs all five are G 20 members.As of 2013, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people with a combined nominal GDP of US$16.039 trillion and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves.As of 2014, the BRICS nations represented 18 percent of the world economy.South Africa held the chair of the BRICS group in 2013, having hosted the group's fifth summit in 2013.The BRICS have received both praise and criticism from numerous quarters.Argentina will participate in the Fortaleza Summit to be held in July 2014 in response to an invitation by Russia. in that meeting, the BRICS countries will discuss the possible admission of Argentina as the sixth member country.The term, "BRICS", was coined by economist Jim O'Neill in his publication, Building Better Global Economic BRICs.The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in September 2006, beginning a series of high level meetings. A full scale diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 May 2008.
. Main objectives of brics are:
Follow the foundry market evolution of the BRIC countries,Promote the technological information exchange among the countries of this economic block,Improve the professional development and education of the BRIC countries foundrymen,Making these countries getting closer to others to obtain the comparative advantages of these countries in the benefit of the whole foundry industry installed in the block.Think tanks from BRICS have a unique role to play in enhancing cooperation amongst the five nations. Through research and related efforts, think tanks can contribute to social and economic development in the BRICS. Coordinated development amongst the five can also be facilitated along with contributions to the ongoing recovery of the world economy through this form of cooperation.
Russias Ambassador to India Vadim Lukov described the BRICS as a wave of the future. This formula deserves to be included in Russias official position as well as those of the other BRICS countries.But for this new wave to cleanse and improve the world instead of just dissipating as it hits the shore or fragmenting as it crashes against the rocks, we must always keep in mind the dichotomy propelling the group forward BRICS is a global alliance of regional powers.Unfortunately, analysts conventionally regard the world as a collection of regions rather than as a whole. Even Chinas global influence is not keeping pace with its growing analytical potential. As for Russia, whatever globalist thinking can be found is rudimentary and left over from the Soviet era.The BRICS must learn to appreciate their global role, to turn into an active global force not only responding to issues as they arise but architects of the new world order.The global financial systems exhausted potential is one of the key issues of our time. A premeditated change in that system would harm its main beneficiaries who also define its condition.Therefore, the BRICS potential to make a difference as part of international organizations is limited to minor improvements. Any major steps will always be blocked because they risk cutting dominant countries incomes.This means the focus must be shifted to building our own financial institutions, albeit with limited authority at this stage. Life itself is prodding us in this decision for example, no longer using the U.S. dollar in international transactions requires that we hedge our currency risks. It is time we started preparing to create a different reserve currency to replace the dollar.But, while addressing specific issues we should not overlook the strategic goal of moving from a speculative to a production based economy with global reach.
It is also important to restore international law, currently obscured by the smoldering ruins of Libya. Although breached by NATOs previous aggressive campaigns against Yugoslavia and Iraq, it survived as long as there remained someone to defend it. In Libya, no one came forward, and eventually what little remained of it was no more.And the most disastrous consequence is that, without international law, the only way a state can defend itself from bomb attacks of the international community is by building nuclear weapons.
To build institutional research infrastructure by conducting original and innovative biomedical research aimed at improving minority health and eliminating health disparities at WSSU through recruitment of a critical mass of investigators and technical personnel,To strengthen faculty research and the capacity for research training by renovating and equipping laboratories in a basic research facility shared with its collaboratorscreating faculty incentives for developing and executing research proposals and establishing scientific working groups, especially related to research improving minority health and eliminating disparities.To prepare students for careers in research. The aim is to increase the pool of minority students who are technically and academically prepared to compete for entry into Ph.D. programs in biomedical or health sciences.To advance WSSU's institutional goal of establishing the successful, functional, research training environment necessary to seek authorization from the UNC System to plan, develop and fund a Ph.D. program in biomedical sciences.
BRICS nations need unity to reach objectives
. Since the BRIC acronym was first coined in a 2001 paper by Goldman Sachs chief economist Jim O'Neill, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China have made major strides in developing political, economic and social ties. But after numerous declarations of support and pledges of agreement, there is still much that this group of fast moving nations needs to accomplish together.Annual summits for the group later expanded to BRICS with the inclusion of South Africa have been held since 2009. These meetings regularly provide forums for discussions of important topics, such as international economic reforms and energy security. Given their dominance at the bottom of the global value chain, BRICS countries have realized the importance of mutual cooperation and understanding.In March 2013, the five countries reached an agreement to establish a development bank with a mandate to provide loans for infrastructure projects throughout the developing world. The creation of this institution was seen as a landmark event in the financial world, which has long revolved around the interests of wealthy developed nations.The potential for future cooperation between the BRICS countries remains enormous given their collective position in the world economy. In 2012, the five nations were home to nearly 3 billion people, accounting for roughly 43 percent of the world's total population. Their combined GDP also equaled nearly 21 percent of total world production during that year as well. And during 2013, GDP growth in these countries is expected to hit an average of 6.9 percent, compared with the projected global average of 3.6 percent, according to Goldman Sachs research.With the BRICS members now accounting for nearly half of global economic growth, these countries are well placed to protect the interests of the developing world as a whole. Although their national interests occasionally put them in competition with one another, the group's successes rest on the principle that real results will only come through cooperation.Over the past several years, political and economic pressure from the West has been pushing BRICS members closer together. This trend toward unity must continue in order to carry the group through the important trade, investment and financial objectives that lay ahead.First of all, BRICS countries should start free trade negotiations as soon as possible to counter the effects of regional economic deals such as the Trans Pacific Partnership, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. The bloc should aim to reach free trade agreements within two years' time in order to advance their position in the global market. Ideally, each country should leverage its own advantages as it moves toward a trade pact China and India can offer their low cost labor while Brazil, Russia and South Africa can put forward their abundant natural resources.Second, the group should work together to establish simplified investment procedures which keep tax and administrative barriers at a minimum. All of the five countries could benefit dramatically from more investment. India, for instance, needs funding to modernize its infrastructure and telecommunications networks. Meanwhile, Brazil and Russia need money to improve their manufacturing and energy sectors.Thirdly, BRICS nations need to become more adept at protecting themselves in the international financial market. The bloc is particularly vulnerable now to capital outflows being recorded across emerging markets in response to monetary policies in the West.As nations with emerging economies, BRICS members need strong bilateral and multilateral ties to protect their interests from the challenges presented by the US and other developed Western countries.
1st BRIC summit Russia
. The inaugural BRIC summit took place in Yekaterinburg, Russia on June 16, 2009.The four heads of government from the BRIC countries attended. The acronym BRIC (for Brazil, Russia, India, China) was first used in a Goldman Sachs thesis projecting that the economic potential of Brazil, Russia, India and China is such that they may become among the five most dominant economies by the year 2050.Today, the four countries produce about 15 percent of the worlds gross domestic product and hold about 40 percent of the gold and hard currency reserves.Political dialogue between the BRIC countries began in New York in September 2006, with a meeting of the BRIC foreign ministers. Four high level meetings have followed, including a full scale meeting in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on May 16, 2008.The leaders discussed the current global financial crisis, global development, and further strengthening of the BRIC group.The BRIC leaders called for increased economic reform, demanding a greater voice and representation in international financial institutions, and their heads and senior leadership should be appointed through an open, transparent and merit based selection process.Amongst the important issues discussed were United Nations reform. We reiterate the importance we attach to the status of India and Brazil in international affairs, and understand and support their aspirations to play a greater role in the United Nations.Regarding the 2007
2nd BRIC summit Brazil
. The 2010 BRIC summit took place in Brasilia, Brazil on April 16, 2010. This was the second BRIC summit after Yekaterinburg in 2009. The meeting took place between the four heads of government from the BRIC states following bilateral meetings in the prior days.The world economic situation has improved since our first meeting in June 2009, in Ekaterinburg. We welcome the resumption of economic growth, in which emerging market economies are playing a very important role. However, we recognize that the foundation of world economic recovery is not yet solid, with uncertainties remaining. We call upon all states to strengthen macroeconomic cooperation, jointly secure world economic recovery and achieve a strong, sustainable and balanced growth. We reiterate our determination to make positive efforts in maintaining domestic economic recovery and promoting development in our own countries and worldwide. We underline the importance of maintaining relative stability of major reserve currencies and sustainability of fiscal policies in order to achieve a strong, long term balanced economic growth. We are convinced that emerging market economies and developing countries have the potential to play an even larger and active role as engines of economic growth and prosperity, while at the same time commit to work together with other countries towards reducing imbalances in global economic development and fostering social inclusion.. G-20 members, with a significant contribution from BRIC countries, have greatly increased resources available to the IMF. We support the increase of capital, under the principle of fair burden-sharing, of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and of the International Finance Corporation, in addition to more robust, flexible and agile client driven support for developing economies from multilateral development banks. Despite promising positive signs, much remains to be done.
We believe that the world needs today a reformed and more stable financial architecture that will make the global economy less prone and more resilient to future crises, and that there is a greater need for a more stable, predictable and diversified international monetary system. We will strive to achieve an ambitious conclusion to the ongoing and long overdue reforms of the Bretton Woods institutions. The IMF and the World Bank urgently need to address their legitimacy deficits. Reforming these institutions governance structures requires first and foremost a substantial shift in voting power in favor of emerging market economies and developing countries to bring their participation in decision making in line with their relative weight in the world economy. We call for the voting power reform of the World Bank to be fulfilled in the upcoming Spring Meetings, and expect the quota reform of the IMF to be concluded by the G-20 Summit in November this year. We do also agree on the need for an open and merit based selection method, irrespective of nationality, for the heading positions of the IMF and the World Bank. Moreover, staff of these institutions needs to better reflect the diversity of their membership. There is a special need to increase participation of developing countries. The international community must deliver a result worthy of the expectations we all share for these institutions within the agreed timeframe or run the risk of seeing them fade into obsolescence.We reiterate the importance of the UN Millennium Declaration and the need to achieve the Millennium Development Goals . We underscore the importance of preventing a potential setback to the efforts of poor countries aimed at achieving MDGs due to the effects of the economic and financial crisis. We should also make sustained efforts to achieve the MDGs by 2015, including through technical cooperation and financial support to poor countries in implementation of development policies and social protection for their populations. We expect the UN MDG Summit, in September 2010, to promote the implementation of MDGs through policy recommendations. We stress that sustainable development models and paths of developing countries should be fully respected and necessary policy space of developing countries should be guaranteed.The meeting in Brasilia comes as Latin America's largest economy tries to take a more prominent role on the world stage. It has become an important member of the G20 group of nations now a key forum for global economic and financial discussions.The BRIC summit will be preceded on April 15th by a meeting of heads of states from Brazil, India and South Africa, also in Brasilia, the foreign office said.Roberto Jaguaribe, deputy secretary of political affairs, was traveling to Russia, India, China and South Africa to define the agenda for both meetings, it added.
3rd BRIC summit china
. The 2011 BRICS summit took place in Sanya on the island of Hainan, China, on 14 April 2011. This was the third BRICS summit since 2009. The meeting took place between the five heads of state/heads of government from the BRICS states following bilateral meetings in the prior days.Following a meeting in Brasilia in 2010, to which South Africa was invited as a guest, the group invited South Africa to join as a full member in 2011 and the group formerly called BRIC officially became BRICS.The Chinese president chaired the BRICS Leaders Meeting in southern China's resort city of Sanya, and gave a speech under the theme of Broad Vision, Shared Prosperity.The theme was based under the vision as 'The 21st century should be marked by peace, harmony, cooperation and scientific development.On 13 April, prior to the heads of state meeting, economic delegations met for discussions. China was lobbied by the other leaders to import not only commodities but also value added products and other commodities such as oil, soybeans and iron ore. Indian Trade Minister Anand Sharma said that China's Commerce Minister Chen Deming had assured the other leaders that his country would make it a priority to import more value-added products from the other four countries. Russias Deputy Economic Development Minister Oleg Fomichev also said that China pledged to set up high-technology projects in cooperation with Russia so as to not just importing our resources and exporting industrial goods.Brazil and India also pressed China to buy such goods as Brazilian aircraft and Indian pharmaceuticals the two countries also complained about the artificially undervalued yuan that they claimed was undermining their exports. South Africa wanted to process iron ore and other raw materials within the country before exporting them to China. However, at the heads of government summit China's currency valuation was not on the agenda.All five countries also continued their calls for reform of global monetary and financial institutions. They also pledged greater cooperation amongst themselves.All five countries also called for an early conclusion to deadlocked talks an anti terror law under UN auspices that would curtail funding for illegal groups that partake in violence against countries and deny their supporters access to funds, arms, and safe havens. A joint statement read: We reiterate our strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stress that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. In this context, we urge early conclusion of negotiations in the UN General Assembly of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and its adoption by all member states. The heads of government at the summit said that the UN's role was central in coordinating international action against what they labeled terrorism within the framework of the UN Charter and in accordance with principles and norms of international law.The groups announced their decision to cease mutual trade payments in U.S. dollars and instead henceforth give credits to one another in their national currencies alone. The development banks of each state signed an agreement to further gradually alter loan currencies from U.S. dollars. This was intended to strengthen financial cooperation between the BRICS countries, as well as to expand the international significance of their national currencies.The objective of the conference is to discuss various issues and challenges in competition enforcement in BRICS countries and take the agenda of cooperation among the BRICS competition authorities forward from the earlier two conferences. During the two day conference, discussions would focus on issues and challenges in setting up an affective agency, enforcement vis-
4th BRIC summit India
. The 2012 BRICS summit was the fourth annual BRICS summit, an international relations conference attended by the heads of state or heads of government of the five member states Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The summit was held at Taj Mahal Hotel in New Delhi, India on 29 March 2012 and began at 10:00 Indian Standard Time.This is the first time that India has hosted a BRICS summit.The theme of the summit was BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Security and Prosperity.The main agenda for the summit was the creation of a new development bank.The idea for setting up such a bank was put forward by India, as a sign of firming the power of the group and increasing its influence in global decision making Sudhir Vyas, a senior Indian official, said that the idea for a BRICS bank had been in the air for some time.The aims of the bank would include: funding development and infrastructure projects in developing and least developed countries lending, in the long term, during global financial crises such as the Eurozone crisis and issuing convertible debt, which could be bought by the central banks of all the member states and hence act as a vessel for risk sharing.Economic experts predicted several beneficent effects of such a bank. Such a bank would allow successful implementation of regional development projects, with increased efficiency and transparency.Brazilian Trade Minister Fernando Pimentel said that the bank would be a very powerful financial tool to improve trade opportunities, and may be a major step to support the EU to overcome its financial crisis.In the Delhi Declaration at the end of the summit, the BRICS announced the setting up of the bank, described as a BRICS led South-South development bank. The finance ministers of the member states were directed to conduct feasibility studies of the initiative and to submit their reports at the next BRICS summit.Pimentel said that the proposed bank was not meant as a sign of abandonment of existing global financial institutions, but that it was a response to current economic necessities. Vyas commented that the BRICS would determine the capital structure and that the initiative would take some time to get started.Development Bank Leaders agree to explore the setting up of a BRICS led South-South Development Bank. It will promote mutual investment and fund infrastructure projects in BRICS and developing countries. Development Banks of BRICS countries sign two pacts for boosting intra BRICS trade. BRICS to set up Exchange Alliance, a joint initiative by related BRICS securities exchanges. IMF quota reforms Pitch for greater representation of developing countries and emerging economies in the IMF by speeding up quota reforms.Back a merit based selection process for the heads of the IMF and the World Bank, posts reserved customarily for a European and an American respectively. Syria: Backs a Syria led democratic transition. BRICS voices deep concern over Syria and calls for an immediate end to all violence and violations of human rights and backs a Syrian led political process.Global governance reforms BRICS leaders pitch for reform of global governance institutions, including the UN, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.Backs speedier resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the creation of an independent Palestine co-existing with Israel.
5th BRIC summit South Africa
. The 2013 BRICS summit was the fifth annual BRICS summit, an international relations conference attended by the head of states or heads of government of the five member states Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The summit was held in Durban, South Africa in 2013.This completed the first cycle of BRICS summits.South Africas projected outcomes for the Fifth BRICS Summit were achieved.The BRICS Leaders agreed to the establishment of a New Development Bank and indicated that the initial capital contribution to the bank should be substantial and sufficient for the bank to be effective in financing infrastructure.In addition, the Leaders also agreed on the establishment of the contingent reserve arrangement with an initial size of US$100 billion. The CRA would help BRICS countries forestall short-term liquidity pressures and further strengthen financial stability. It would also contribute to strengthening the global financial safety net and complement existing international arrangements as an additional line of defence. In this regard, the BRICS Leaders agreed to review progress made in these two initiatives at the next meeting of BRICS Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in September 2013.Another outcome of the Summit was the establishment of the BRICS Think Tanks Council and the BRICS Business Council. The BRICS Think Tanks Council will link respective Think Tanks into a network to develop policy options such as the evaluation and future long-term strategy for BRICS. The BRICS Business Council will bring together business associations from each of the BRICS countries and manage engagement between the business communities on an on-going basis. These two new BRICS structures that were initiated under the South African chairpersonship, that is, the BRICS Think Tanks and the BRICS Business Council, will strengthen intra-BRICS cooperation to develop new paradigms for sustainable and inclusive growth models, as well as new learning and knowledge paradigms to deal with our contemporary growth and development challenges.Two Agreements were concluded under auspices of the BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism.The BRICS Multilateral Infrastructure Co-Financing Agreement for Africa paves the way for the establishment of co-financing arrangements for infrastructure projects across the African continent.The BRICS Multilateral Cooperation and Co-Financing Agreement for Sustainable Development sets out to explore the establishment of bilateral agreements aimed at establishing cooperation and co-financing arrangements, specifically around sustainable development and green economy elements.BRICS Leaders expressed their commitment to Peace and Security on the African continent. The BRICS Leaders furthermore called upon the United Nations (UN) to enhance cooperation with the AU, and its Peace and Security Council, pursuant to UN Security Council resolutions.Regarding the global economic situation, a strong commitment to foster growth and financial stability was articulated by the BRICS Leaders in order to address unemployment. The Leaders reiterated their position that the reform of the International Monetary Fund should reflect the growing weight of BRICS and other developing countries and that agreement on the quota formula should be completed by January next year. The BRICS Leaders also agreed that the election for the next world Trade Organisation Director General should be a candidate from a developing country.
6th BRIC summit Brazil
. BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.The grouping was originally known as BRIC before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs all five are G20 members. As of 2013, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people with a combined nominal GDP of US$16.039 trillion and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves.As of 2014, the BRICS nations represented 18 percent of the world economy.The Sixth BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) summit, where the five countries will sign off on a rival to the World Bank, officially starts on Monday in Fortaleza, Brazil, but Russian President Vladimir Putin and his South African counterpart Jacob Zuma have already arrived in the country to watch the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup final between Argentina and Germany in Rio de Janerio on Sunday evening. Putin is attending the final World Cup match in a ceremonial handover of host duties for soccers marquee tournament, which takes place in Russia in 2018.Leaders of the five BRICS nations fueling global economic growth will discuss strengthening ties within the bloc and rallying emerging economies to play a greater role in world affairs, economic and political.The theme of the 2014 summit is inclusive growth: sustainable solutions. According to Brazilian Ambassador Gra
Expectations for 6th BRICS Summit dim further in new geopolitical scenario
. While it is still unclear whether Russia pursues the occupation of additional parts of eastern Ukraine, there is a growing certainty that developments over the past month will have a lasting effect on the international system. The most immediate consequences are probably the strengthening of the NATO alliance and an acceleration of trade negotiations between the European Union and the United States. Cuts in defense spending in both the United States and Europe may be partially halted as a consequence. While trade between Russia and the West makes a new Cold War scenario highly unlikely, Vladimir Putin is likely to remain the world's greatest villains in the eyes of the West for years. This will make meaningful progress vis-
7th BRIC summit Russia
. Russia will host the summit of the BRICS bloc in 2015, according to a declaration adopted on Wednesday in Durban, South Africa.The 2014 summit will take place in Brazil. The economies of the five-state group, which also includes India, China and South Africa, account for more than 25 percent of the worlds GDP.The BRICS leaders agreed at the meeting in South Africa to lay the foundation for a new international development bank.The bank is likely to focus on infrastructure financing, a direct challenge to seven decades of dominance by the World Bank.
. Top of the agenda at the sixth summit of the BRICS developing nations beginning Tuesday is the founding of two multilateral financial institutions designed to erode the dominance of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund as arbiters of the global economic system.For Russia, the creation of a $100 billion BRICS development bank and a reserve currency fund worth another $100 billion is a political coup. Just as the West freezes Russia out of its own economic system as punishment for its politics in Ukraine, Russia is tying itself into the financial superstructure of the next generation of economic heavyweights India, Brazil, China and South Africa.The World Bank and the IMF have come under criticism from the rapidly developing BRICS, who together account for 20 percent of global GDP and 40 percent of the world's population. In their view, the two financial institutions are dominated by the rich nations of the G7 and attach stringent conditions to their lending that impinge on the economic sovereignty of its members.Far from assuaging their complaints, efforts to reform the 70 year old institutions have stalled. Proposed updates to the IMF that would grant increased influence to developing economies have been languishing in the U.S. Congress since 2010 and were blocked once again in April.If the framework agreements due to be signed at the BRICS summit in Fortaleza, Brazil, are ratified at home, the new bank and the reserve fund could ease some problems for the BRICS countries. U.S. tightening of the dollar supply starting last year has caused a wave of crises in developing nations as the cash inflows of the past decade begin to reverse themselves.Meanwhile, the World Bank estimates the annual need for infrastructure investment in low and middle income nations at $1 trillion dollars and rising far beyond its own capacity. The World Bank reports that it gave out $52.6 billion in 2013, not all of which went to infrastructure projects.Last week, Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov shed some light on the mechanics of the fledgling institutions.The BRICS bank will have starting capital of $50 billion, made up of $10 billion in cash and $40 billion in guarantees, Siluanov told RIA Novosti. Each BRICS country will contribute $2 billion to the starting capital pot. In the longer term, capital will rise to $100 billion.The bank is to be named the New Development Bank, Siluanov said, signifying that other developing countries are welcome to join, although the BRICS countries' share will not be allowed to fall below 55 percent.Likely headquartered in Shanghai, the bank is expected to make its first loans in 2016 and will focus on bi or multilateral development projects involving companies from participant countries. According to a report for the UN released in March by Columbia University economist Stephany Griffith Jones, the bank could could ramp up lending to $34 billion per year within 20 years.While the New Development Bank will be based on equal shares, the $100 billion contingency dollar reserve fund, which Siluanov referred to as a mini IMF, will factor in China's extra weight. China will contribute $41 billion to the total pool; South Africa will give $5 billion; and Russia, Brazil and India will contribute $18 billion each.However, a system of multipliers will compensate for the imbalance in contributions China will be able to use half of what it put in, or $20.5 billion; South Africa will have access to double its contribution, or $10 billion; while Russia, India and Brazil will be able to receive the sum that they committed, Siluanov said.Each country would hold the amount in their own reserves. In the event of a crisis, the pool would be used to buy up the unlucky country's local currency to staunch the outflow of capital.The five countries will be able to receive a third of their contributions on request. But, perhaps in an indication that it is not easy to escape the existing international financial system, further aid will depend on the existence of an IMF stabilization program for the country.The BRICS countries will be represented by their finance ministers or Central Bank chiefs, who are to sit on the governing body of the contingency fund. The fund will be steered by representatives of the participating countries' Central Banks under the supervision of a BRICS nation, selected on the basis of an annually rotating presidency.Russia's recent experience over Ukraine has shown that the West is ready to eject politically unruly countries from its economic system. If they are able to successfully establish themselves, the BRICS's inauguration of multilateral financial institutions rooted outside the reach of Western oversight could provide insulation from Western economic clout to countries like Russia and China, whose growth threatens to put it at odds with Japan, a U.S. ally and G7 member.However, there is no reason to think that the BRICS newbies must clash with their older cousins provided the desire to cooperate is there, Morozov said.The more good development banks, the better, he concluded.
PM Narendra Modi Statement at BRICS Summit
. Addressing the summit of five nation grouping BRICS or Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa at Fortaleza in Brazil, Prime Minister Narendra Modi today pitched for zero tolerance against terrorism and said the choices they make now will shape the future of the world at large.We are meeting at a time when the world is facing a high level of turmoil and uncertainty. Global economic weakness also persists.Restoring a climate of peace and stability is therefore an urgent need for global progress and prosperity.I come from a land where the idea of the 'whole world being one family' is rooted in our ethos Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.The World must unite as one to decisively confront global challenges.Corrective action must begin with the reform of institutions of global governance. This has been on the BRICS agenda since its inception.Institutions like the UN Security Council and IMF need urgent reform to become more representative and reflect ground realities.Excellencies, the region stretching from Afghanistan to Africa is experiencing turbulence and conflict.This is causing grave instability that is fast seeping across borders. This impacts us all.Remaining mute spectators to countries being torn up in this manner can have grave consequences.Afghanistan, is facing an uncertain future. The Afghan people have suffered for decades. The World must unite to support them in building a peaceful, stable, democratic and prosperous country.We must help Afghanistan fight the forces of terrorism. This is important for it to preserve the progress it has made in the last decade. India will continue to assist Afghanistan in building its capacity; in governance, security and economic development. We look forward to working with our BRICS partners in this regard.The situation in West Asia poses a grave threat to regional, and global, peace and security. India is particularly concerned because this affects the lives of seven million Indian citizens; living in the Gulf region. We should explore how BRICS members can work together, in helping end the conflict in Iraq.The developments in Syria continue to cause serious concern. India has consistently called upon all sides to give up violence. For a comprehensive solution there is no alternative to an inclusive political dialogue. A military, or externally imposed solution, will not work. India stands fully prepared to play a part in any peace process.India is also concerned, at the recent outbreak of violence between Israel and Palestine. We support, a negotiated solution. This would inspire hope and confidence around the world.India also supports, ongoing efforts to stabilize the situation in many African countries facing challenges of security and development.Excellencies, Terrorism is a threat that has assumed war-like proportions. It is in fact a proxy war aimed at innocent civilians.Due to different yardsticks the international community has not been able to combat terror effectively.I firmly believe that Terrorism, in any shape or form, is against Humanity. There should be Zero Tolerance towards Terrorism. Humanity must unite, and isolate terrorist forces, especially states that flout basic norms. Selective targeting of terrorism will not work.BRICS must translate our political resolve into a concrete and coordinated Plan of Action. I call for an early adoption by the UN, of the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.We must also put collective pressure on States to deny sanctuaries and support to terrorists. Similarly, while cyber space is a source of great opportunity, cyber security has become a major concern. BRICS countries, should take the lead in preserving Cyber Space, as a global common good. I am happy we are cooperating on this through our National Security Advisors.In conclusion, I would say that this unique grouping has the capacity to play an important role in advancing global peace and stability. We should move in that direction in a focused manner.
Major in BRICS
. The idea to have a BRICS Bank was first proposed in July 2009, in Durban, South Africa at the 5th BRICS Summit. At the upcoming 6th BRICS Summit, leaders are likely to sign a treaty to launch the bank.
New Delhi, is in the race with Johannesburg and Shanghai to house the headquarters of the BRICS Bank. Though reports suggest that Shanghai is likely to win the race, many have cited language barrier and freedom of expression to be a problem with Shanghai.
Main aim of BRICS Bank is to ensure the economic stability for the emerging economies in case the US dollar continues to fluctuate.
The Bank will have a capital of 50 billion US dollars, with each country contributing 10 billion US Dollars. Initially China had said that it would offer 41 billion US dollars but this raised a concern among others who though that it may give China more power.
China initailly was apprehensive about the BRICS Bank and had expressed differences over setting up of the headquarters and other technical issues but later on China supported the idea of the Bank and said that issues can be resolved.
BRICS show unity at summit
. The BRICS summit here in the coastal city of Fortaleza has assembled each nations' top companies, economic officials, and presidents in an effort to foster political and business ties. Major new initiatives include the formation of a $50 billion BRICS Development Bank and $100 billion currency reserve fund, which are being touted as examples of the group's growing unity and rising clout on the world stage.Kevin Gallagher, professor of international relations at Boston University and author of numerous studies on Chinese investment in Latin America, welcomes the new financial tools as important alternatives to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. But he says he is still awaiting details on who will be eligible to receive loans and how such distribution will be governed.The more lenders the merrier, he says. The BRICS have repeatedly said they're concerned about US monetary policy, so this is a direct way for the group to respond with firepower.Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, who is hosting the summit as she holds the BRICS' rotating chair, would appear in a position to highlight trade barriers and challenge leaders to set aside protectionism and stop blocking each other on a host of imports. But that's unlikely to happen given the tensions it would create with major lender China, says Mauricio Mesquita Moreira, principal trade and integration economist for the Inter-American Development Bank.In general, Brazil is still too reluctant to confront China particularly on this issue of trying to improve the composition of trade and trade practices, Mr. Moreira says.China, the world's second largest economy and a major investor in the other BRICS, is in many ways the group's driving political and financial force, contributing the largest share to the new bank and reserve pool. Brazil is more on the receiving end, a fact highlighted by Brazilian Minister of Trade Mauro Borges during the summit. He said the new $50 billion BRICS bank, which will not be open to outside nations, will have a special focus on the infrastructure development that Brazil craves.China, for instance, has built up considerable expertise in building railways, so Brazil can learn from that experience, Mr. Borges told reporters. Infrastructure is critical for us to reach our long term goals and is key to our competitiveness.Trade ministers from each nation met July 14 and pledged to refrain from trade protectionist measures that are incompatible with WTO obligations. Yet at the same time, Brazilian exports of poultry, pork, and beef are restricted by every other BRICS nation in a clear violation of both the minsters' communique and WTO rules.
BRICS Development Agenda
. BRICS nations need to encourage technological collaborations that would help provide cost effective solutions to address the group's social and economic challenges, Suzlon Energy chief Tulsi Tanti has said.He also said that BRICS region needs to reestablish its prominence as a primary driver of the global economy.BRICS is the grouping of five nations Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.Mr Tanti noted that it should set out a clear agenda on sustainability as their co-operation and co-ordination would act as a catalyst in achieving the millennium development goals, which is crucial for sustainable development, according to a statement issued by Suzlon.The chairman and managing director of wind turbine maker Suzlon made these comments during his speech at the forum that was part of the BRICS Summit in Brazil on Monday.Mr Tanti also called for greater regional integration which is the key to job creation and for rapid sustainable growth.
Impact of Brics Countries on the Global Economy
. Despite its strange origins and some serious challenges confronting it, the bloc of countries that has emerged into the international arena under the acronym BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) has the potential for being a positive force in world affairs. Strange things happen in the world. Imagine a grouping of countries spread across the globe, which gets formed only for the simple reason that an analyst for an investment bank decides that these countries have some things in common, including future potential for growth, and then creates an acronym of their names! Bizarre but true.The original categorisation of the BRIC countries (by Jim ONeill of Goldman Sachs in an article in 2001) contained only Brazil, Russia, India and China. He described the countries with the most economic potential for growth in the first half of the 21st century, based on features like size of population and therefore potential market demography (predominantly young populations with likely falling dependency ratios) recent growth rates and embrace of globalisation. So China was to become the most important global exporter of manufactured goods (which indeed has already occurred) India the most significant exporter of services and Russia and Brazil would dominate as exporters of raw materials.BRICS is one of several new initiatives of different countries in the world to break out of the Northern axis G12 (G20-G8), IBSA, BASIC and so on. While the origin of the grouping may be odd, and the countries are indeed remarkably diverse, there are some commonalities that are important. Subsequently, in fact, these countries have since shown significant interest in meeting periodically, working together, and finding some synergies and new ways of cooperation.
So trade between BRICS countries soared after they became recognised as a combination (although of course this is a period when trade between developing and emerging markets in general has grown much faster than aggregate world trade). Investment links have been growing too, mainly through Chinese involvement in different countries and some interest shown by large Indian capital. And more recently there have been other moves that suggest an appetite for newer and further forms of close economic and political interaction and co-ordination. They have recently acted in concert in several international platforms, most recently pledging $75 billion to the International Monetary Fund (conditional on IMF voting reform). Other economic initiatives include agreement to denominate bilateral trade in each others currencies, and plans for a development bank. There have also been declarations in favour of a shared approach in foreign policy, particularly responses to US and European policies in the Middle East and elsewhere.In fact there is great potential in these five countries not just combining to address global issues, but perhaps even more significantly, learning from one another. For example, India has much to learn from Brazil and China in the matter of development banking. From the early 1990s, India has set about destroying the potential of its own development banks, in both agriculture and industry
. The blossoms of the Leucojum and Galanthus, or Snow Drop, are very similar at first sight, but differ very essentially when examined, the Snow Drop having, according to the Linnaean description, a three leaved nectary, which is wanting in the Leucoju
Tips to success in MAT Exam
Keep your eye on the time
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Benefits of Lime
. Lime is very wellknown as a cure for scurvy, the disease which is caused from a deficiency of vitaminC. It is characterized by frequent infections that show as normal cold symptoms, cracked lips and lip corners, ulcers on the tongue and in the mouth.
Benefits of Cloves
Helps you relax and fight stress
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Bollywood Bridal Mehndi Designs
. This mehndi pattern would look fabulous on those beautiful feet. You can always flaunt your gorgeous and soft feet with these amazing patterns at any occasion. Brides can try stone embroidered payal and a toe ring to give this pattern a Bollywood tou
Tips to get ready for Winter
Turn Off Exterior Faucets
. Undrained water in pipes can freeze, which will cause pipes to burst as the ice expands. Start by disconnecting all garden hoses and draining the water that remains in faucets.If you dont have frost-proof faucets , turn off the shut-off valve inside
Ideas to Boost Business
The Most Important Order
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Show yourself in water
. Float on your back in a pool and shoot down at your face. Or prepare a bubble bath, lie down in the water, and take a shot of your face framed by bubbles. Be careful, though, not to drop your phone.Showing yourself in water can be really fun, and it
Tips for Valentines day Gift
Love Personalized Mug Set
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Benefits of Cashew
. This is the most difficult operation in cashew processing. In India shelling is mostly done by cheap female labour. Shelling is carried out by using special wooden mallets and pieces of bent wire, at a rate of about 200 nuts per hour.
Stop Trying to Spot Reduce
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How did we gather information about our ancestors
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What to Eat in Andhra Pradesh
. Kakinada Khaja is a sweet delicacy of Andhra Pradesh, India. Kakinada, a coastal city in Andhra Pradesh, is popular for Khajas, hence the name. Kaja originated in the Samarkand area of Uzbekistan. The word khaja originated from Arabic, probably meani
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Puff Pastry Cheese Straws
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What to Eat in Gujarat
. Mix all the ingredients for kachori in a bowl and rub the flour betwen palms so that ghee is mixed well with flour.Kneed a soft dough using warm water. Cover the dough with wet cotton cloth and keep aside for 15 - 20 minutes. Wash pigeon peas and gri
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Broaden your skills
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Lindsey Vonn Alpine Skiing
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Up the numbers
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What to Eat in Tamil Nadu
. Literally, burnt. Vegetables are wrapped in leaves and roasted over a wood or charcoal fire. Some, like aubergine, are put directly over the flames. Before eating the roasted vegetable is mixed with oil and spices.
Best Marwari Mehndi Designs
. This beautiful design looks very pretty on the Brides feet. As an Indian bride, on some occasions a lot of attention goes on the feet with many a rituals involving the feet, so why not do this beautiful design which is not at all cluttered and just a
. Man's Conquest of Substances: Sometimes soap refuses to form a lather and instead cakes and floats as a scum on the top of the water; this is not the fault of the soap but of the water. As water seeps through the soil or flows over the land, it absor
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Titus ONeil Dollar 335050
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. The spring/summer collection by TSPTR (Truth, Symmetry, Pleasure, Taste, Recognition) is inspired by the Vietnam war, Sixties counter culture and, of course, Charles M Schulzs Peanuts comics.
Famous Indian Scientists
Siva S Banda
. Siva Subrahmanyam Banda (born 1951) is an IndianAmerican aerospace engineer He is Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and senior scientist for Control Theory for the Air Vehicles Directorate at the United States Air Force Research La
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New years eve scramble
. Write a bunch of different words on a piece of paper that have to do with New Years Eve and scramble the letters. The person who guesses the most words correctly wins a prize. Predict the Future Throughout the party, present a magazine picture to eac
Precautions while using Centrifuge
. Centrifuges can create aerosols and this must be considered with each use. The necessary precautions taken will depend upon what is being used. If hazardous materials such as carcinogens, highly toxic, or infectious agents will be placed in a centrif
Rules to play Roller Soccer
. Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the rear line the jammer line and the front pivot line. The jammers start behind the jammer line, a second starting line 30 feet behind the pivot line. Jams begin on a single short whist
Tips to get ready for Summer
Make lots of plans
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BULLISH THREE WHITE SOLDIERS
. Definition This pattern occurs at the bottom of a trend or during a downtrend and it is called a Hammer since it is hammering out of a bottom. It is a single candlestick pattern that has a long lower shadow and a small body at or very near the top of
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Stage 1 Eggs
. In the first stage a girl butterfly lays eggs. A butterfly first starts out as an egg. A girl butterfly lays the eggs on a leaf. She lays the eggs really close together. The eggs are really small and round. About five days after the eggs are laid. A
Major Wars Of 20th Century
Russo Japanese war
. Years 1904 1905 Battle deaths 151,831 The Russo Japanese War (1904 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Imperial Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. It resulted in a surprise victory for Japan, establishing
Benefits of Jackfruits
. You can find jackfruit in warm climates. Jackfruit does not thrive in colder climates. It is native to India and surrounding countries. You can even grow jackfruit in your house. Jack fruit is usually rich in nutrients like Vitamin A, Vitamin C, calc
Most Popular Xmas Vacation Destinations
North Carolina Mountains
. Between the Great Smoky Mountain?and Blue Ridge ranges, North Carolina offers a slew of possibilities for families looking for a mountain escape. HomeAway currently offers over 4,700 vacation home listings in the North Carolina Mountains, including i
Benefits of Figs
. Figs have been recommended as a way to correctsexual dysfunctionlike sterility, endurance, or erectile dysfunction. It has been a major part of mythology and culture, and most of the time, it is referenced as a powerful fertility or sexual supplement
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. Eight women gather to celebrate Christmas in a snowy cottage, but all fall under suspicion when a man is found murdered. French filmmaker Fran
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Volvo Concept XC Coupe
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Plan ahead for financing
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Precautions while using Touch Screen Mobile
High Display Resolution
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Download the latest GATE Syllabus
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Coolest New Businesses In America
Arctic Fire Clothing
. Have you ever said its too cold to go outside and exercise? Arctic Fire Clothing fixes that problem by selling heated shorts to put under other clothes, keeping you warm in the cold and snow.
Xmas Party Ideas
. Give each child or team a piece of paper with the alphabet written vertically from A to Z. Have them write a holiday word that starts with each letter. The first one to complete the list wins.
Benefits of Lime
. Limes are grown on trees that flourish in tropical and subtropical climates. They were thought to originate in Southeast Asia. Arab traders brought lime trees back from their journey to Asia and introduced them into Egypt and Northern Africa around t
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. A rug is as much of a functional piece today so it's really up to whatever works best for you. Nowadays rugs are becoming a part of every room even when sitting on a chair and relaxing with your feet down you see a rug. People now tend to mix up the
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. 6 Ball billiards follows the nine ball rules. Anything not covered by these six ball rules should be played according to nine ball rules. Anything not covered by either of these two rule sets should be played according to the General Rules of Pocket
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. Most of us have very usual cars – maybe an old VW, or a red fancy Ferrari. Our roads are full of those, but they rarely catch our attention. While VW can mean, that you have some financial problems, Ferrari shows that you are a rich lucky bastard. Bu
What to Eat in Bihar
. Chaat is a term describing savory snacks, typically served at road-side tracks from stalls or food carts in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. With its origins in Uttar Pradesh, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of South Asia. The wo
Greatest Leaders in World
. Elected as Surabayas mayor in 2010, Rismaharini has transformed her city of 2.7 million people into a new kind of Indonesian metropolis, one that celebrates green space and environmental sustainability. The city, long known for pollution and congesti
Benefits of ladys finger
. Okra is also known as ladys finger in some parts of Asia. And various other names in other parts of the world.The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.Okra is an edible pea pod and although can be
Benefits of Capers
. It is also used in treating skin disorders such as skin redness, irritation and pimples. Hence, capers are used in skin care products. In addition, caper helps to slow down the aging process due to its antioxidant properties. The salted and pickled c
Forever Young Naturally Eating
Natural Nutrition Grow your own
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Myth about Anger
Isolated occurrence due to anger or stress
. Battering is a pattern of control that includes the repeated use of a number of tactics including threats, intimidation, isolation, economic and financial control, psychological and sexual abuse. Physical violence is only one of the tactics used to
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Glenn Close and George Washington
. Glenn Close is an American film, television and stage actress. Throughout her long and varied career, she has been consistently acclaimed for her versatility and is widely regarded as one of the finest actresses of her generation. George Washington w
. India , AsiaAlso known as Queen of hills, it is situated in the Indian state of Uttrakhand. The place is one of the most beautiful hill stations in India. It provides excellent view of the Himalayas and has many water falls coming out of the natural
Rules to play Bungee Jumping
. While the equipment involved in bungee jumping is quite basic, the importance of its proper use and working condition cannot be overstated. Harnesses Ankle harnesses securing the bungee to the body Many people add a body harness as used in rock climb
Chickenpox In Early Stage
. 1. Include figs (anjeer) in your diet every day. Children irritability2. Rub a nutmeg (jaiphal) lightly against a smooth grinding stone in milk and feed children who cry out at night without any apparent reasons.
Start a Hobby
Start your hobby
. Start your hobby And keep dedicated to it, try to allocate X amount of time every day, or week or month to spend on it.
Best Valentines Day Gifts
Motorola Nexus 6 Unlocked Cellphone
. A new smartphone is a very generous Valentines Day gift, perfect for someone youre serious about. An unlocked phone gives him the freedom to choose his carrier, while a big screen and large battery ensure hell enjoy working and playing on his device
Economy of India
. Corruption has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. A 2005 study by Transparency International TI found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a publi
Tips to get ready for xmas
Do not be Over ambitious
. This in one area where many fall down by taking on too much to do in too short a time. Pull back and be realistic in balancing what is required in the kitchen and everywhere else (gift-wrapping, housework, kids and family).Christmas cooking and all i
Rules to play Croquet
Size of court
. The normal size of court for garden croquet is 17.5 metres by 14 metres. However, you can play on other size lawns to fit the particular characteristics of your garden. The longer the grass and the rougher the surface, the smaller the court should be
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Boosting immunity Eat garlic
. As soon as you feel symptoms of a cold, add two raw cloves of garlic a day to food for its antiviral properties: grate onto toast with olive oil and fresh tomato, add to salad dressings, or stir into pasta before serving. Use until symptoms subside.
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. Catherine Cate Blanchett is an Australian actress born on 14 May 1969. The notable films of Cate Blanchett are Elizabeth, The Lord of the Rings Babel, The Aviator Notes on a Scandal I m Not There, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull,
Cut Throat Pool Game
. When starting the game, the 1ball, 6ball, and 11ball should be placed on the three points of the rack. The oneball is placed at the apex where it is spotted.In cutthroat, the low balls are 1?5, the mid balls are 6?10 and the high balls are 11?15. Eac
Benefits of Capers
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. When it comes to being svelte in sarees, nobody does it quite like our ladies of the silver screen. Here they are, showing us just why the saree is timeless, elegant and the outfit of choice for the fashion savvy.
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Mix and Match Your Wood Tones
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Benefits of Lime
. Lemons and limes are excellent sources of vitamin C and a good source of folate. Limes made their way to the New World with Columbus on his second voyage in 1493, and were subsequently planted in many Caribbean countries whose hot, humid climates sup
Valentines Day Party Idea
Love story books
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Benefits of Brussel
. For total glucosinolate content, Brussels sprouts are now known to top the list of commonly eaten cruciferous vegetables. Their total glucosinolate content has been shown to be greater than the amount found in mustard greens, turnip greens, cabbage,
Top Cities To See In Your Lifetime
. Yes, Istanbul
Forever Young Naturally Exercise
Build Exercise into Life Active commuting
. Get off your bus or train one stop early and walk the rest of the trip. When the walk becomes easily do-able (as fitness levels improve), get off a stop earlier. Over a few weeks build up to a 20-minute walk before reaching work.
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Get Off To a Good Start
. For your first week of work, be sure to ask questions and pay careful attention to the company culture. Get an outline of your bosss expectations for your first month in the job. And remember these four tips to make you an invaluable asset to your co
Benefits of Gooseberry
Cures Sleeping Disorder
. this is a
Unbelievable Facts About Alcohol
. Many of the health benefits of alcohol consumption are lost if it is not consumed on a regular basis.
Christmas SMS 37
. Here comes again dat blessed morn,when our saviour was born. Rejoice and be glad for d baby Jesus brings with Him peace and joy to make your christmas a splendid one. So from my family to yours its a 'merry christmas' Have a blast!
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Know Your ANDI Scores
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Benefits of Black berries
Apply the berries to your skin to help with puffy eyes
. Blackberries are pumped with antiinflammatory properties, which help combat arthritis and gout. Eating blackberries or simply applying it onto your skin can also help puffy eyes and give glowing skin. Acne prone skin can be helped by the health benef
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Employ Mnemonic Devices
. Employ mnemonic devices which aim at translating information into a form that the human brain can retain better than its original form. For example, if you want to remember the colors of the rainbow. Remember the name Roy G. Biv. It sounds like a wei
. Baobab is the common name of a genus (Adansonia) containing eight species of trees, native to Madagascar, mainland Africa and Australia. Also known as the Bottle Tree, not only do they look like bottles, but the trees typically store around 300 liter
Valentines Day Chocolates Ideas
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Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Give Yourself Cooling facial spritzer
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Trichotillomania Learning Center
. Trichotillomania is an obsessive compulsive disorder where sufferers compulsively pull out their hair or incessantly pick at their skin to the point of bruising. Symptoms can be damaging, but so can the isolation people feel with this disorder. This