Benefits of mushroom

Mushroom
1. Amushroom(ortoadstool) is the fleshy,sporebearingfruiting bodyof afungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on itsfoodsource. The standard for the name mushroom is the cultivated white button mushroom,Agaricus bisporus; hence the word mushroom is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota,Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing.lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap. These pores or gills produce microscopicsporesthat help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. .....
Description
2. Crimini mushrooms are a coffeecolored variety of the world's most commonly eaten mushroom, commonly called the button mushroom. The names white button, crimini and portobello all refer to this same scientific category of mushroom,Agaricus bisporus. Different strains (also called isolates) ofAgaricus bisporusare used in commercial mushroom production along with varied growing conditions and varied time periods of cultivation to produce different varieties this of widely loved food. White button varieties are typically obtained from select strains that can be harvested at a relatively immature stage of growth. .....
History
3. Button mushrooms have grown wild since prehistoric times, having been consumed as food by the early huntergatherers. Since ancient times, mushrooms have been thought to have special powers. The Egyptians thought that they granted immortality, and since only the pharaohs were felt to be worthy of this gift, the common people were not even allowed to touch mushrooms, let alone eat them. In ancient Rome, people oftentimes referred to mushrooms ascibus diorumfood for the gods. The folklore of many cultures, including Russia, China, and Mexico held that eating mushrooms could give someone superhuman strength. .....
Microscopic features
4. Ahymeniumis a layer of microscopic sporebearing cells that covers the surface of gills. In the nongilled mushrooms, the hymenium lines the inner surfaces of the tubes ofboletesand polypores, or covers the teeth of spine fungi and the branches of corals. In the Ascomycota, spores develop within microscopic elongated, saclike cells calledasci, which typically contain eight spores in each ascus. TheDiscomycetes, which contain the cup, sponge, brain, and some clublike fungi, develop an exposed layer of asci, as on the inner surfaces ofcup fungior within the pits ofmorels. ThePyrenomycetes, tiny darkcolored fungi that live on a wide range of substrates including soil, dung, leaf litter, and decaying wood, as well as other fungi, produce minute, flaskshaped structures calledperithecia, within which the asci develop. .....
Growth
5. Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in theEnglish languageincluding to mushroom or mushrooming (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and to pop up like a mushroom (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). In reality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. .....
Edible mushrooms
6. Mushrooms are used extensively incooking, in manycuisines(notablyChinese,Korean,European, andJapanese). They are known as the meat of the vegetable world. Most mushrooms sold insupermarketshave been commercially grown onmushroom farms. The most popular of these,Agaricus bisporus, is considered safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments. Several varieties ofA.bisporusare grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. Other cultivated species now available at many grocers includeshiitake,maitakeorhenofthewoods,oyster, andenoki. In recent years, increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers. .....
Toxic mushrooms
7. Many mushroom species producesecondary metabolitesthat can be toxic, mindaltering, antibiotic, antiviral, orbioluminescent. Although there are only a small number ofdeadly species, several others can cause particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit the meal (seeemetics), or to learn to avoid consumption altogether. .....
Psychoactive mushrooms
8. Mushrooms with psychoactive properties have long played a role in various native medicine traditions in cultures all around the world. They have been used as sacrament in rituals aimed at mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. One such ritual is theveladaceremony. A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is theshamanorcurandera(priesthealer). Psilocybin mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. Commonly known as magic mushrooms or 'shrooms, they are openly available in smart shops in many parts of the world, or on the black market in those countries that have outlawed their sale. Psilocybin mushrooms have been reported as facilitating profound and lifechanging insights often described as mystical experiences. Recent scientific work has supported these claims, as well as the longlasting effects of such induced spiritual experiences. .....
Medicinal properties
9. Some mushrooms orextractsare used or studied as possible treatments fordiseases, such ascardiovascular disorders.[43]Some mushroom materials, includingpolysaccharides,glycoproteinsandproteoglycansare underbasic researchfor their potential to modulateimmune systemresponses and inhibittumorgrowth,[44]whereas other isolates show potentialantiviral,antibacterial,antiparasitic,antiinflammatory, andantidiabeticproperties in preliminary studies.[45]Currently, several extracts have widespread use in Japan, Korea and China, as adjuncts to radiation treatments and chemotherapy,[46][47]even though clinical evidence of efficacy in humans has not been confirmed. .....
Nutrition
10. Mushrooms are a lowcalorie food eaten cooked, raw or as agarnishto a meal. In a 100 g (3.5 ounce) serving, mushrooms are an excellent source (higher than 20% of theDaily Value, DV) ofB vitamins, such asriboflavin,niacinandpantothenic acid, an excellent source of theessential minerals,selenium(37% DV) andcopper(25% DV), and a good source (1019% DV) ofphosphorusandpotassium. Fat,carbohydrateandcaloriecontent are low, with absence ofvitamin Candsodium. There are 27 calories in a typical serving of fresh mushrooms (table). .....
Identification
11. Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of theirmacroscopicstructure. Most areBasidiomycetesand gilled. Their spores, calledbasidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. At the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot offbasidiaand then fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gillsidedown overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills (or pores, or spines, etc.) is formed (when the fruit body is sporulating). The color of the powdery print, called aspore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white (most common), brown, black, purplebrown, pink, yellow, and creamy, but almost never blue, green, or red. .....
Classification
12. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the orderAgaricales, whosetype genusisAgaricusand type species is the field mushroom,Agaricus campestris. However, in modernmolecularlydefinedclassifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the classAgaricomycetes. For example,chanterellesare in theCantharellales, false chanterelles such asGomphusare in theGomphales, milk mushrooms (Lactarius) and russulas (Russula), as well asLentinellus, are in theRussulales, while the tough, leathery generaLentinusandPanusare among thePolyporales, butNeolentinusis in theGloeophyllales, and the little pinmushroom genus,Rickenella, along with similar genera, are in theHymenochaetales. .....
Weight management
13. One study found that substituting red meat with white buttonmushroomscan help enhance weight loss. Obese participants with a mean age of just over 48 years ate approximately one cup of mushrooms per day in place of meat. The control group ate a standard diet without mushrooms. At the end of the 12month trial, the intervention group had lost an average of 3.6 percent of their starting weight, or about seven pounds. They also showed improvements in body composition, such as reduced waist circumference, and ability to maintain their weight loss, compared to the control group. .....
Better diet quality
14. One dietary analysisfound that mushroom consumption was associated with better diet quality and improved nutrition. Mushrooms contain some of the most powerful natural medicines on the planet. About 100 species are being studied for their healthpromoting benefits, and about a half dozen really stand out for their ability to deliver a tremendous boost to your immune system. .....
Increasing vitamin D levels through your diet
15. Consuming dried white button mushroom extract was found to be as effective as taking supplemental vitamin D2 or D3 for increasingvitamin Dlevels (25hydroxyvitamin D). Nine recently presented studies on mushrooms detail a wide variety of health benefits, including: improved weight management, improved nutrition, increased vitamin D levels, and improved immune system function. .....
Improved immune system function
16. Long chain polysaccharides, particularly alpha and beta glucan molecules, are primarily responsible for the mushrooms' beneficial effect on your immune system. In one study, adding one or two servings of dried shiitake mushrooms was found to have a beneficial, modulating effect on immune system function.Another study done on mice found that white button mushrooms enhanced the adaptive immunity response to salmonella. .....
Parasitic Fungi Showing Promise for Immune Disorders and Cancer
17. Cordyceps, also called caterpillar fungus or Tochukasu, is a favorite of athletes because it increases ATP production, strength and endurance, and has antiaging effects.This parasitic mushroom is unique because, in the wild, it grows out of an insect host instead of a plant host. It has long been used within both traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine. It has hypoglycemic and possible antidepressant effects, protects your liver and kidneys, increases blood flow, helps normalize your cholesterol levels, and has been used to treat Hepatitis B. Cordyceps has antitumor properties as well. Scientists at The University of Nottingham have been studying cordycepin, one of the active medicinal compounds found in these fungi,and the one identified as a potential cancer drug. .....
Improving Your Nutrition with Mushrooms
18. The button mushroom is an excellent lowcalorie food, especially for diabetics. It contains a number of valuable nutrients, including protein, enzymes, B vitamins (especially niacin), and vitamin D2. However, there are many other types of mushrooms worthy of consideration if you want to improve your diet. I'll review a few of my favorites below. Farrar's focus has been on growing various gourmet mushroom species, particularly the wood decaying mushroom species, which differ greatly from your average button mushroom in terms of biology, nutrition and medicinal value. .....
Shiitake
19. Shiitake is a popular culinary mushroom used in dishes around the world. It contains a number of healthstimulating agents, including lentinan, the polysaccharide for which it was named. Lentinan has been isolated and used to treat stomach and other cancers due to its antitumor properties, but has also been found to protect your liver, relieve other stomach ailments (hyperacidity, gallstones, ulcers), anemia, ascites, and pleural effusion. .....
Reishi
20. Reishi is known as Lingzhi in China, or spirit plant. It's also been called Mushroom of Immortality a nickname that kind of says it all. Reishi has been used medicinally in Asia for thousands of years. One of its more useful compounds is ganoderic acid (a triterpenoid), which is being used to treat lung cancer,leukemia and other cancers. .....
Turkey Tail
21. Turkey Tail is also known as Coriolis, or cloud mushroom. Two polysaccharide complexes in Turkey Tail are getting a great deal of scientific attention, PSK (or Kreskin) and PSP, making it the most extensively researched of all medicinal mushrooms with large scale clinical trials. .....
Himematsutake
22. Himematsutake, also called Royal Sun Agaricus, is a relative of the common button mushroom. Himematsutake was not cultivated in the East until fairly recently but is now a very popular natural medicine, used by almost a half million Japanese. Himematsutake mushroom is attracting many scientists worldwide due to its remarkable anticancer propertiesrelated to six special polysaccharides .....
Mushroom concentrates or extracts
23. Most of these are socalled hot water extracts, where either the mushroom mycelia the fruit body is boiled for extended periods of time to extract the long chain polysaccharides. The end product is a concentrated form of glyconutrients (complex sugars) thought to be responsible for many of the health benefits of the mushroom. .....
Whole food raw mushrooms
24. Consuming the mushrooms raw or using a whole food mushroom (powdered pill) product is generally a better alternative if you're reasonably healthy and looking to maintain optimal health, as they help maintain ideal function of your various systems as opposed to imparting a direct effect. Most of the knowledge about mushrooms come from ancient Chinese medicine where mushrooms are regarded as tonics. Tonics are considered to have nonspecific beneficial effects across several systems of your body that do not decline over time. .....
Enhances calcium absorption and bone strength
25. Mushrooms exposed to sunlight (or the UV light in sunlight) naturally generate vitamin D, which enhances calcium absorption and bone strength. Farmers can give mushrooms 12 seconds of UV light after harvesting, generating you daily needs of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is common in Australia, especially during winter and in the southern regions.Lightexposed mushrooms are a tasty and nutritious way to get your daily vitamin D needs. .....
Mushrooms Diabetes and the Glycaemic Index
26. Are a nutrientrich food for people with diabetes. Do not raise blood glucose levels, that is, they have a very low GI. Help keep your blood glucose levels normal. Help keep your blood pressure normal by providing potassium and virtually no sodium (salt). Are perfect for weight control as they are low in kilojoules and help appetite control and the avoidance of overeating. See more at: http://www.powerofmushrooms.com.au/healthnutrition/healthnutrition/diabetestheglycaemicindex/#sthash.ol0GQp4J.dpuf .....
Great taste and healthy blood pressure with mushrooms
27. Mushrooms have a deliciously rich savoury flavour called umami. Much of the umami flavour comes from the natural glutamates in mushrooms. The umami flavour of mushrooms can replace some of the salt used in recipes. Consuming less salt and fewer salty foods helps to keep blood pressure levels normal. .....
Unique proteins negligible fats low carbs a healthy combination
28. Mushrooms are a very low kilojoule food with only 103 kJs per serve. They have very little carbohydrate or fat, making them a favourite with anyone watching their waistline. They have a modest amount of protein, similar to, or more, than that found in most common vegetables. The protein, carbohydrate and fibre found in mushrooms are unique and researchers are finding they can have a very positive influence on our health .....
Mushrooms deliver essential vitamins and minerals
29. Mushrooms are an exceptionally nutrientdense food, with one serve offering a surprising amount and array of essential nutrients.One serve of mushrooms (100g .....
Mushrooms reduce the risk of gout
30. Here is no evidence that certain fruits, vegetables or mushrooms cause gout or make it worse. In fact, a high consumption of fruit, vegetables and mushrooms is linked to a lower risk of gout. A wholesome diet, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet, is associated with a lower risk of gout. Advice to gout sufferers to avoid foods such as spinach, asparagus and mushrooms is not justified. .....
Mushrooms keep your heart healthy
31. Mushrooms have a type of fibre that is naturally helping to lower blood cholesterol in a similar manner to statin medication. Mushrooms are low in fat, sodium and kilojoules, helping to control weight and blood pressure. Mushrooms, along with vegetables, help to reduce the risk of heart disease. .....
Keeping trim with mushrooms
32. Is low in fat and is just 103 kilojoules per serve. Seems to satisfy your appetite quicker and encourage you to eat less during the day. Regular mushroom consumers lose centimetres from their waist when compared to those who dont eat mushrooms. Has a deliciously rich and satisfying savoury flavour. .....
Antioxidant foods
33. Mushrooms are one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that mushrooms stimulate the immune system. Mushrooms are particularly high in one unique antioxidant called ergothioneine. As ergothioneine has a specific protein transporter in the blood it must very important to human health. A serve of mushrooms provides about a quarter of an adults requirements of selenium, an antioxidant mineral. .....
Eat mushrooms for a long life
34. The longest lived people are those following the traditional Mediterranean or Japanese diet, and mushrooms feature and have a place in both diets. Mushrooms have a range of essential nutrients, such as B vitamins and the antioxidant mineral selenium. Mushrooms have many other antioxidants. One in particular, ergothioneine, is found mainly in mushrooms among nonanimal food sources. Ergothioneine has its own blood transporter, indicating that it is very important for human health. To achieve a long and healthy life, mushrooms have a clear role in a balanced healthy diet .....
Facts about the mushroom
35. Mushrooms are neither a fruit nor vegetable and therefore have unique nutritional characteristics. Mushrooms have a modest amount of vitamin B12. Mushrooms generate vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. There is no need to wash or peel a mushroom. Just brush off any residual compost. Mushrooms help lower the risk of gout. Mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Mushrooms do not contain gluten. .....
Mushrooms for healthy skin and hair
36. A wholesome diet, sensible sun exposure and not smoking are key to a healthy skin. A low Glycaemic Index (GI) diet helps keep blood glucose levels normal and thereby lowers the risk of acne. Eating plenty of fresh produce like mushrooms, vegetables and fruit is good for the health of your skin and hair. Essential nutrients in mushrooms specifically help to keep skin and hair healthy. They are selenium, copper, biotin, niacin and riboflavin. .....
Mushrooms a true superfood
37. There is no formal definition of the term superfood. It is presumed that a superfood will be nutrientdense and provide many compounds that contribute to health. Mushrooms deserve to be called a superfood based on the science about this tasty food. Mushrooms are rich in a range of essential nutrients, while providing bioactive compounds like antioxidants and potential anticancer compounds. .....
The superfood for Coeliacs and the gluten intolerant
38. Mushrooms are glutenfree. There is natural glutamate in mushrooms. The glutamate makes a big contribution to the flavour of mushrooms. One of the active medicinal compounds found in Cordyceps has been identified as a potential cancer drug. More recent studies suggest it also has potent antiinflammatory characteristics that may be helpful for those suffering from: asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, renal failure, and stroke damage. .....
Health benefits of mushrooms
39. Thehealth benefits of mushroomsinclude relief from high cholesterol levels, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and diabetes. It also helps in weight loss, and increases the strength of your immune system. Almost all of us are familiar with mushrooms and their miraculous, beneficial powers. Particularly those who have read or heard a lot of fairytales such as Alice in Wonderland, Three Bears and a baby or even those who have played the Super Mario Brothers video game. .....
Mushrooms are edible fungi with various scientific names
40. Mushrooms are edible fungi with various scientific names, but the family name is andAgaricus, and then there are many secondary names for different species. They are essentially Saprophytes, the organisms (plants without chlorophyll) which thrive by extracting nutrients from dead and decaying plant and animal matter. They vary greatly in their color, texture, shape and properties. .....
Cholesterol Levels
41. Mushrooms themselves provide you with lean proteins since they have no cholesterol or fat and are very low carbohydrates. The fiber and certain enzymes in mushrooms alsohelp lower cholesterol levels. Moreover, the high lean protein content in mushrooms helps burn cholesterol when they are digested. Balancing levels of cholesterol between LDL cholesterol (andbadandcholesterol) and HDL (andgoodandcholesterol) is essential in the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases like artherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. .....
Anemia
42. Anemic patients are characterized by having low levels of iron in their blood, resulting in fatigue, headaches, reduced neural function, and digestive issues. Mushrooms are agood source of iron, and over 90% of the nutritive iron value can be absorbed by the body, which promotes the formation of red blood cells and keeps people healthy and functioning at their full potential. .....
Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer
43. Mushrooms are very effective in preventing breast and prostate cancer due to the significant presence of various polysaccharides, like BetaGlucans and conjugated Linoleic Acid, which both haveanticarcinogenic effects. Out of these two, linoleic acid is particularly helpful in suppressing the harmful effects of excess estrogen. This increase in estrogen is one of the prime causes for breast cancer in women after menopause. The BetaGlucans, on the other hand, inhibit the growth of cancerous cells in cases of prostate cancer, and numerous studies have shown the antitumor properties of mushrooms when applied medicinally. .....
Diabetes
44. Mushrooms are an ideal lowenergydiet for diabetics. They have no fats, no cholesterol, very low levels of carbohydrates, high protein content, and a wealth of vitamins and minerals. They also contain a lot of water and fiber. Moreover, they contain natural insulin and enzymes which help the breaking down of sugar or starch in food. They are also known to contain certain compounds which help proper functioning of the liver, pancreas and other endocrine glands, thereby promoting the formation of insulin and its proper regulation throughout the body. Diabetics often suffer from infections, particularly in their limbs, which tend to continue for long periods of time. The natural antibiotics in mushrooms can help protect diabetics from these painful and potentially lifethreatening conditions. .....
Bone Health
45. Mushrooms are a richsource of calcium, which is an essential nutrient in the formation and strength of bones. A steady supply of calcium in the diet can reduce your chances of developing conditions like osteoporosis, and can also reduce joint pain and general lack of mobility that is associated with bone degradation. .....
Nutrient Absorption
46. Vitamin Dis a relatively rare vitamin to find in vegetables, and in fact, edible forms in general are not particularly common. However, mushrooms have it, and this essential vitamin can facilitate the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorous. Mushrooms also contains levels of these two nutrients, so the combined effects of having all of these nutrients in one powerful source, mushrooms, makes it a good idea to eat them whenever possible. .....
Effective in providing protection from free radicals
47. Ergothioneine, a powerful antioxidant present in mushrooms, is very effective in providing protection from free radicals as well asboosting the immune system. It is actually an amino acid that contains sulfur, which is something that many people are deficient in, despite not knowing it or seeing its effects. That being said, the presence of this andmaster antioxidantandwhich is unique to mushrooms, can give you a major boost to immune system health. It helps to eliminate free radicals, which are the dangerous compounds that are released during the metabolic processes of cells, and can float throughout the body and cause significant damage and disease, so antioxidants, like ergothioneine, are vital elements for overall health. .....
Blood Pressure
48. Various types of mushrooms, including shitake and maitake mushrooms, have shown them to be high in potassium content. Potassium acts as a vasodilator, relaxing tension in blood vessels and thereforereducing blood pressure. High blood pressure is connected to a number of deadly conditions, particularly heart attacks and strokes. Potassium alsoincreases cognitive function, because increased blood and oxygen flow to the brain stimulates neural activity. Studies have shown that increased levels of potassium improve memory and knowledge retention. .....
Copper Content
49. Copper has a number of beneficial effects on the body, and can be found in mushrooms. Calcium can regulate and stimulate the absorption of iron from food, and properly utilize it by getting it released from primary storage spots in the body like the liver. Mushrooms also have high levels of iron, so the two work together for healthy bones and preventing anemia. .....
Selenium Content
50. Theselenium content in mushroomsis one of the most beneficial elements that is often overlooked. The primary source of selenium is in animal proteins; however, due to their classification as fungi that feed off animal and plant matter, mushrooms are the best way for vegetarians to obtain the necessary amount of selenium.. Selenium is found in large quantities in mushrooms, and can benefit bone health by adding to bone strength and increasing durability. It also strengthens the teeth, hair, and nails. Furthermore, this essential nutrient is a powerful antioxidant, which rids the body of free radicals and generally strengthens the immune system. The bioavailability of selenium in mushrooms differs on species, but the majority of commonly consumed mushrooms have significant levels of this important mineral. .....
Weight Loss
51. Would you believe me if I said that a completely lean protein diet is ideal forlosing fat and building muscle mass? Well, believe it or not, its true. Most fats are burnt to digest proteins found in our food, more so when the protein is accompanied by a very low carbohydrate count, no fat or cholesterol, and a good amount of fiber. This is exactly the combination that mushrooms offer to help in losing weight! Due to their nutrient density, they actually rank higher than most fruits and vegetables, and some researchers say that mushrooms are one of the rare foods that people can eat as often as possible, with no side effects. .....
A Few Words of Caution
52. Mushrooms can be very dangerous! Most species of mushrooms are not edible, are highly poisonous and look strikingly similar to their edible counterparts. Dont ever try picking mushrooms for consumption from the woods unless you have been trained to identify them very well. Mushrooms have the unique ability to absorb the material that they grow on, either good or bad. This quality is what gives mushrooms so much of their beneficial power, but also their dangerous aspects. Many mushrooms, when picked in the wild, contain heavy metals, which can be very toxic, as well as air and water pollutants. .....
Magic mushrooms
53. Many varieties ofmushroomscontain goodforyourbladder selenium and, like us, they producevitamin Dwhen exposed to sunlight. Oyster mushrooms are a good source oriron. It's important to eat ONLY organically grown mushrooms because they absorb and concentrate whatever they grow in. Mushrooms are known to concentrate heavy metals, as well as air and water pollutants, so healthy growing conditions is a critical factor. .....
Help remove excess estrogen from circulation
54. White button mushrooms, such as crimini, commonly found in grocery stores and salad bars, help remove excess estrogen from circulation, making them helpful for preventing breast cancer. A tissue culture study published in the November 2010 issue of the journal Experimental Biology and Medicine found that white button mushrooms, along with four other varieties of common and specialty mushrooms, significantly suppressed breast cancer cell growth and reproduction. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. .....
Fiber
55. Mushrooms are a good source of chitin and betaglucan, fibers that lower cholesterol and improve cardiovascular health. A laboratory animal study published in the 2012 issue of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms found that pink oyster mushrooms reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides and lowdensity lipoprotein, or LDL, cholesterol and prevented arterial plaque formation. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. A compound in shiitake mushrooms, called critadenine, helps the liver process cholesterol. .....
Vitamins and Minerals
56. Crimini mushrooms are among the only natural food sources of vitamin D, and mushrooms are one of the few foods that contain germanium, a trace mineral that helps your body use oxygen efficiently and prevents against damaging effects of free radicals. Many mushrooms are also good sources of selenium, an antioxidant mineral, as well as copper, niacin, potassium and phosphorous. Additionally, mushrooms provide protein, vitamin C and iron. Because their cells walls are undigestible unless exposed to heat, you must cook mushrooms to get their nutritional benefits. .....
Betaglucan in mushrooms
57. Betaglucan in mushrooms provides protection against colds, flu and other viruses. The reishi mushroom was found to improve recovery time in herpes patients in a study published in the November 2007 issue of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Reishi may exert its antiviral effects by interfering with attachment of viruses to host cells, according to researchers of a study published in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Shiitake, portobello, oyster and reishi mushrooms contain a polysaccharide molecule called lentinan that stimulates production of interferon, which stimulates the immune system . .....
Source of this critical vitamin
58. Mushrooms are the only fruit or vegetable source of this critical vitamin. Like humans, mushrooms produce vitamin D when in sunlight. Exposing them to high levels of ultraviolet B just before going to market converts more of the plant sterol ergosterol into the socalled sunshine vitamin. In the U.S., portobellos fortified with vitamin D are already being sold, with a threeounce (85gram) serving providing about 400 IU of vitamin D (Osteoporosis Canada recommends thatadults under 50 get 400 to 1,000 IU daily). William Stevens, CEO of the trade organizationMushrooms Canada, says, andA couple of Canadian producers are already testing this procedure. .....
AntiInflammatory Benefits
59. Risk of many common health problemsincluding type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of canceris increased by the presence of chronic unwanted inflammation. Many factors can contribute to chronic inflammation, and these factors include overproduction of molecules in our body that tell it to launch an inflammatory response. If production of these moleculescalled proinflammatory moleculescan be reduced, chronic inflammation can be reduced or sometimes prevented altogether. Intake of whole fresh mushrooms, mushroom extracts, and powdered/dried mushrooms has been shown to accomplish precisely this resultblocked production of proinflammatory molecules. In some studies, crimini mushroom appears to be a better blocker of certain proinflammatory molecules than its fellow mushrooms like shiitake and maitake. .....
Antioxidant Benefits
60. There are two outstanding types of antioxidant support provided by crimini mushrooms. The first type involves their nutrient composition, and the second type involves their impact on oxidative metabolism. In terms of nutrients, you don't have to look far to find key players in antioxidant world: crimini mushrooms provide an excellent amount of selenium, and a very good amount of zinc and manganese. All three minerals are critical antioxidant nutrients and are also required for the functioning of antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant content of crimini mushrooms also includes some unusual antioxidant molecules. The best studied of these molecules is ergothioneine (technically identified as 2mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine). Ergothioneine is an amino acidlike molecule that has not only been shown to have antioxidant properties but to also specifically help prevent oxidative damage to DNA (our genetic material) and proteins. .....
Cardiovascular Benefits
61. Since the health of our circulatory system depends on great antioxidant protection and effective regulation of inflammation, it is not surprising to see crimini mushrooms providing impressive cardiovascular benefits. This mushroom is simply to rich in antioxidant and antiinflammatory nutrients to go unheralded in this cardiovascular area. As might be expected, research studies show that crimini mushrooms can help protect us from cardiovascular disease by protecting our blood vessels from oxidative damage as well as chronic inflammation. This protection has been specifically shown with respect to the aortaour body's largest blood vessel. Cardiovascular protection by crimini mushrooms extends beyond these antioxidant and antiinflammatory areas, however. Research studies on laboratory animals with high blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) have also shown that daily intake of crimini mushrooms over a period of 12 months can reduce levels of all three blood fats (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and TGs. .....
How to Select
62. When selecting mushrooms, we encourage you to choose certified organic versions. Even though we encourage the purchase of organic for all foods, we believe that it's important to understand some of the potential differences between mushrooms that have been produced organically versus nonorganically. Unlike wild mushrooms, commercially produced mushrooms are the result of a complicated cultivation process that involves three distinct steps. .....
How to Store
63. The best way to store loose button mushrooms is to keep them in the refrigerator in a loosely closed paper bag wrapped in a damp cloth or laid out in a glass dish that is covered with a moist cloth. Whether you use a paper bag, a damp cloth, or a glass dish, it's worth avoiding all storage methods that leave the mushrooms stacked in one big clump. The less surface contact they have with one another the fresher they will stay. A great step to avoid clumping is to make a first layer of mushrooms inside your paper bag or on top of your damp cloth or glass dish, and then cover this mushroom layer with a paper towel. A second layer of mushrooms can then be placed on top of the paper towel. These storage methods will help preserve the mushrooms' moisture without causing them to become soggy and keep them fresh for several days. Once mushrooms have developed a slimy layer across their surface, they are not longer fully fresh. .....
Tips for Preparing Mushrooms
64. Mushrooms are so porous that if they are exposed to too much water, they will quickly absorb it and become soggy. Therefore, the best way to clean mushrooms without sacrificing their texture and taste is to clean them using minimal, if any, water. To do this, simply wipe them with a slightly damp paper towel or kitchen cloth. You could also use a mushroom brush, available at most kitchenware stores. .....
The Healthiest Way of Cooking Crimini Mushrooms
65. We recommend Healthy Sauteing crimini mushrooms for maximum flavor and nutrition. Heat 3 TBS of broth over medium heat in a stainless steel skillet. When broth begins to steam, add sliced mushrooms and Healthy Saut for 7 minutes. It is best to stir constantly for the last 4 minutes of cooking. Toss with our Mediterranean Dressing and your favorite optional ingredients. .....
Crimini Mushrooms and Purines
66. Crimini mushrooms contain naturallyoccurring substances called purines. Purines are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. In some individuals who are susceptible to purinerelated problems, excessive intake of these substances can cause health problems. Since purines can be broken down to form uric acid, excess accumulation of purines in the body can lead to excess accumulation of uric acid. The health condition called gout and the formation of kidney stones from uric acid are two examples of uric acidrelated problems that can be related to excessive intake of purinecontaining foods. For this reason, individuals with kidney problems or gout may want to limit or avoid intake of purinecontaining foods such as crimini mushrooms. .....
Crimini mushrooms boast
67. Crimini mushrooms boast an unusual array of phytonutrients that can be difficult to obtain from other foods. These phytonutrients include special types of carbs (for example, the polysaccharidelike molecules betaDglucans or fucogalactans) and special organic compounds called hydrazines and hydrazides. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a unique type of fatty acid also found in crimini mushrooms. Many of the abovementioned phytonutrients provide support to our immune system and help prevent unwanted inflammation. .....
InDepth Nutritional Profile
68. In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, an indepth nutritional profile forMushrooms, criminiis also available. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more. .....
Why are mushrooms good for me
69. Eating mushrooms is a good way to up your vitamin D levels, and the only vegetarian food source of vitamin D (ergosterols in mushrooms convert to vitamin D when exposed tolight). Vitamin D deficiency is thought to be quite widespread in Britain. They are also a good source of B vitamins, which help provide energy by breaking down proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and play a key role in the nervous system. Betaglucans in mushrooms appear to boost immunity and help resistance against allergies. The selenium and ergothioneine may help protect our cells from damage that causes chronic disease. .....
Where to buy and what to pay
70. Mushrooms are lovely and cheap. Per kilo, you'll pay from .....
Baked mushrooms and eggs
71. This dish makes a wonderful supper, lunch or starter. I vary what kind of mushroom I use depending on the season or what I can find. At this time of year (weather dependent) a mixture of chestnut mushrooms and penny buns (cepes in french, porcini in Italian) would be my firm favourite. I have stipulated a higher weight of wild mushrooms since they tend to need more trimming and cleaning. If you can save any wild mushroom trimmings, wash them thoroughly and use to make a delicious stock or dry in a very low oven and whizz to a powder to add to soups, stews or gravies. Depending on which wild mushrooms I use I might also exchange tarragon for parsley. We have a version of this dish on our breakfast menu at Fitzbillies. .....
Cordyceps
72. A Chinese fungus used as a tonic and restorative. It is also known for improving athletic performance. You can buy whole, dried cordyceps in health food stores and add them to soups and stews, or drink tea made from powdered cordyceps, but it is more convenient to get cordyceps extracts in liquid or capsule form. To treat general weakness, take cordyceps once or twice a day, following the dosage advice on the product. For health maintenance, take it once or twice a week. .....
Enoki
73. Slender white mushrooms that need only brief cooking and have a very mild taste. They are good in soups and salads. Enoki mushrooms have significant anticancer and immuneenhancing effects. Almost all of us are familiar with mushrooms and their miraculous, beneficial powers. Particularly those who have read or heard a lot of fairytales such as Alice in Wonderland, Three Bears and a baby or even those who have played the Super Mario Brothers video game. .....
Maitake
74. This delicious Japanese mushroom is also called hen of the woods because it grows in big clusters that resemble the fluffed tail feathers of a nesting hen. You should be able to find these mushrooms dried or fresh in Japanese markets, gourmet foods stores, or upscale supermarkets. Extracts are also widely available. Maitake has anticancer, antiviral, and immunesystem enhancing effects and may also help control both high blood pressure and blood sugar levels. .....
Lions Mane
75. This nontoxic medicinal and culinary mushroom is believed to stimulate nerve growth. It also may improve mild cognitive impairment. A Japanese study published in 2009 found that test scores of study participants who took Lions Mane in tablet form improved as over the course of the 16 weeks they took the pills but declined afterwards. The researchers concluded that Lions Mane mushrooms are effective in improving mild cognitive impairment. .....
Kick up your metabolism
76. B vitaminsare vital for turning food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which the body burns to produce energy. They also help the body metabolize fats and protein. Mushrooms contain loads of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and vitamin B3 (niacin): 100 grams (31/2 ounces) of crimini have 44 percent and 30 percent of your daily recommended amount, respectively, white button have 36 and 30 percent, and oyster mushrooms have 32 and 39 percent. .....
Help fight free radicals
77. The substances that help fight free radicals that are the result of oxidation in our bodywere more likely to think of colourful vegetables than neutralhued mushrooms. But a study at Penn State university showed that the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)a measure of a foods total antioxidantsof crimini and portobello mushrooms were about the same as forred peppers. .....
Be good to your bladder
78. The higher the level ofselenium, as measured in blood serum and toenails, the lower the risk of bladder cancer. Selenium had a significant protective effect mainly among women, which the researchers believe may result from genderspecific differences in this its accumulation and excretion. Several types of mushrooms are rich in this essential trace mineral: 100 grams of raw crimini have 47 percent of your daily needs, cooked shiitakes have 45 percent and raw white button have 17 percent. .....
Etymology
79. The terms mushroom and toadstool go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application. The term toadstool was often, but not exclusively, applied to poisonous mushrooms or to those that have the classic umbrellalike capandstem form. Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the termstadstoles, frogstooles, frogge stoles, tadstooles, tode stoles, toodys hatte, paddockstool, puddockstool, paddocstol, toadstoole, and paddockstoolessometimes were used synonymously withmushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns. .....
Morphology
80. A mushroom develops from a nodule, or pinhead, less than two millimeters in diameter, called aprimordium, which is typically found on or near the surface of thesubstrate. It is formed within themycelium, the mass of threadlikehyphaethat make up the fungus. The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a button. The button has a cottony roll of mycelium, theuniversal veil, that surrounds the developing fruit body. As the egg expands, the universal veil ruptures and may remain as a cup, orvolva, at the base of thestalk, or as warts or volval patches on the cap. Many mushrooms lack a universal veil, therefore they do not have either a volva or volval patches. Often, a second layer of tissue, thepartial veil, covers the bladelikegillsthat bearspores. .....
Other uses
81. Mushrooms can be used fordyeingwooland other natural fibers. Thechromophoresofmushroom dyesare organic compounds and produce strong and vivid colors, and all colors of the spectrum can be achieved with mushroom dyes. Before the invention of syntheticdyes, mushrooms were the source of many textile dyes. .....
Potassium
82. Potassiumis an important mineral many people do not get enough of. It aids in the maintenance of normal fluid and mineral balance, which helps control blood pressure. It also plays a role in making sure nerves and muscles, including the heart, function properly2. Mushrooms have 98376 mg of potassium per 84 gram serving, which is 311 percent of the Daily Value. .....
Betaglucans
83. Betaglucans, found in numerous mushroom species, have shown marked immunitystimulating effects, contribute to resistance against allergies and may also participate in physiological processes related to the metabolism of fats and sugars in the human body. The betaglucans contained in oyster, shiitake and split gill mushrooms are considered to be the most effective.. .....
Umami and Sodium
84. Umami is the fifth basic taste after sweet, salty, bitter and sour. Derived from the Japanese word umai, meaning anddelicious,andumami (pronounced ooMAHmee) is described as a savory, brothy, rich or meaty taste sensation. Its a satisfying sense of deep, complete flavor, balancing savory flavors and fullbodied taste with distinctive qualities of aroma and mouthfeel.8The more umami present in food, the more flavorful it will be. All mushrooms are a rich source of umami and the darker the mushroom the more umami it contains. .....
Myplate
85. This a simple visual reference and educational tool that reminds Americans how and what to eat to best meet the 2010 Dietary Guidelines. Thanks to their nutrientprofile and versatility, mushrooms are uniquely suited to do just that. Fresh mushrooms can be added to everyday dishes to provide an extra serving of vegetables and deliver important nutrients including niacin, selenium, and riboflavin. Mushrooms also have vitamin D, ergothionene, and potassium. .....
Selenium
86. Seleniumis a mineral that works as an antioxidant to protect body cells from damage that might lead to heart disease, some cancers and other diseases of aging2. It also has been found to be important for the immune system and fertility in men3. Many foods of animal origin and grains are good sources of selenium, but mushrooms are among the richest sources of selenium in the produce aisle and provide 822 mcg per serving4. This is good news for vegetarians, whose sources of selenium are limited. .....
Ergothioneine
87. Ergothioneineis a naturally occurring antioxidant that also may help protect the bodys cells. Mushrooms provide 2.84.9 mg of ergothioneine per serving of white, portabella or crimini mushrooms5. Mushrooms are edible fungi with various scientific names, but the family name is andAgaricus .....
Hydrates Skin
88. Hyaluronic acid is considered as the bodys internal moisturizer as it plumps up and firms your skin. It reduces agerelated wrinkles and fine lines. Mushroom contains a polysaccharide that is equally beneficial in hydrating and providing a plumping effect to your skin. Skin feels smooth and supple. .....
Treatment of Acne
89. Mushrooms are high in Vitamin D .This has healing properties when topically applied to acne lesions. Thus, mushroom extracts are often used in skincare products meant for treating acne. There are approximately 140,000 species of mushroomforming fungi in the world, but science is only familiar with about 10%, while only 100 species or so are being studied for their potential health benefits and medicinal applications. Some of the most wellknown benefits of mushrooms are explained below. .....
Natural Skin Lightener
90. Some mushrooms contain kojic acid which is a natural skin lightener. This acid inhibits melanin production on the surface of the skin. This lightens the new skin cells formed after the dead ones are exfoliated. It is a great alternative to toxic chemical lighteners like hydroquinone that carry the risk of causing skin cancer. .....
Antiageing Benefits
91. Mushrooms possess antiageing properties. Kojic acid is often used in creams, lotions and serums as a remedy for signs of ageing such as liver spots, age spots, discoloration and uneven skin tone caused by photo damage. Mushrooms enhance the natural defenses of the skin and improve its appearance by making it healthy. .....
Skin Protection
92. Skin problems are mostly caused by inflammation and excessive free radical activity. Mushrooms contain antioxidants as well as compounds that have antiinflammatory properties. Topical use of these natural compounds promotes healing and fights inflammation. Mushroom extracts are often used in skin products for treating skin conditions like eczema, rosacea and acne. .....
Prevents Hair Loss
93. Anaemia is one of the most common causes of hair loss. Anaemia is caused due to thedeficiency of ironin the blood. Mushrooms are a good source of iron, can combat hair loss. Iron is a vital mineral as it is involved in the formation of red blood cells, thus strengthening your hair. .....
Benefits from pigment
94. Mushroom contains copper which is beneficial for your hair as it facilitates the absorption of iron from food. It is involved in the production of melanin, a pigment that imparts color to your hair. Mushrooms also contain high levels of iron. Copper and iron work together promoting healthy and strong hair. .....
Benefits from Selenium
95. Mushroom contains large quantities of selenium which is vital for healthy hair. This nutrient is a powerful antioxidant which rids the body of free radicals and strengthens the immune system. Selenium is mostly found in animal proteins and therefore, mushroom can be a good alternative for vegetarians to obtain this vital trace element. Selenium aids in hair growth as well as prevents dandruff. .....
Full of proteins
96. As mushrooms are full of proteins, fibers, enzymes, and low carbohydrates with zero cholesterol and fats, they can keep you safe from cholesterol by burning it after digestion. One study replaced red meat with white button cap mushrooms, approximately one cup per day, and found that those test subjects who ate mushrooms not only lost a significant amount of weight over a standard period of time, but they also decreased their waistline, and were better able to maintain their new weight, rather than ballooning back to the original weight as in most crash diets. .....
White Mushrooms
97. Buttons and Portobellos belong to this category which is also the most common type of mushrooms we eat. The special carbohydrates present in these mushrooms help to maintain sugar levels in the blood. These mushrooms help in losing weight and fight against prostate cancer. .....
Shiitake Mushrooms
98. These contain good flavour and are also meaty. Lentinan present in these mushrooms is a natural antitumour compound and thus help to fight against cancer. They have vitamin D in great quantity and fights against infections. They are also known to contain certain compounds which help proper functioning of the liver, pancreas and other endocrine glands, thereby promoting the formation of insulin and its proper regulation throughout the body. Diabetics often suffer from infections, particularly in their limbs, which tend to continue for long periods of time. The natural antibiotics in mushrooms can help protect diabetics from these painful and potentially lifethreatening conditions. .....
Maitake Mushrooms
99. They help to find abnormal cells and make them to selfdestroy. They suppress estrogens and thus help prevent breast cancer. This is exactly the combination that mushrooms offer to help in losing weight! Due to their nutrient density, they actually rank higher than most fruits and vegetables, and some researchers say that mushrooms are one of the rare foods that people can eat as often as possible, with no side effects. .....
Oysters
100. The presence of antioxidants in high quantity in these mushrooms help fight against HIV. Always trust sealed products from reputable companies or those which you have grown yourself under controlled conditions after buying their seeds (called spawns) from a trusted source. A single poisonous mushroom among others in a dish can threaten a large amount of peoples health, resulting in comas, severe poison symptoms, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, cramps, insanity. Many species can even be fatal if ingested. Always avoid eating discolored mushrooms or those which are different in color than the typically accepted color of their species. .....
Chanterelle
101. These mushrooms contain vitamin C, D, potassium, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial properties. this essential nutrient is a powerful antioxidant, which rids the body of free radicals and generally strengthens the immune system. The bioavailability of selenium in mushrooms differs on species, but the majority of commonly consumed mushrooms have significant levels of this important mineral. .....
Porcini
102. It contains Ergosterol which attacks the enemy cells known as cytotoxicity. Thus these mushrooms help in antiinflammation. Many varieties of mushrooms contain goodforyourbladder selenium and, like us, they produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. Oyster mushrooms are a good source or iron. Plus, they're low in calories: Six medium white, for example, have just 22. Here are some of the many health benefits of mushrooms. .....
Shihji
103. The stem of Shimeji is long and the cap is tiny. Since they contain betaglucans, they help fight against cancer cells. They help in diabetes, asthma, allergies by building immunity. Mushrooms are the only fruit or vegetable source of this critical vitamin. Like humans, mushrooms produce vitamin D when in sunlight. Exposing them to high levels of ultraviolet B just before going to market converts more of the plant sterol ergosterol into the socalled sunshine vitamin. In the U.S., portobellos fortified with vitamin D are already being sold, with a threeounce (85gram) serving providing about 400 IU of vitamin D (Osteoporosis Canada recommends that adults under 50 get 400 to 1,000 IU daily). William Stevens, CEO of the trade organization Mushrooms Canada, says, andA couple of Canadian producers are already testing this procedure.andHe adds that andhigh Dandor andsunshineandmushrooms should be in stores here in about six months or so. .....
Tips for Usage Cooking and Eating
104. Mushrooms are quite versatile and can be eaten raw or cooked depending upon the variety. Before preparing mushrooms, they should be wiped with a damp paper towel to prevent waterlogging.Mushrooms should never be washed as they can absorb water and become saturated. For cooking trim the base of the stem which joins the individual mushroom and the cluster. This area is chewy in texture and the choice of cooking technique depends upon the variety of the mushroom. Generally delicate mushrooms take lesser time to cook. Cooking softens their texture but overcooking should be avoided as they can make a mushroom wilted and mushy. .....
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