Animation tips and tricks

Basic Animation Tips
1. These tips cover helpful tools and processes for animation, as well as troubleshooting problems that you might run across while working with computer animation. .....
Flash Tips and Tricks
2. Flash is a complicated program, but you can easily avoid getting bogged down and save time with some basic tips. .....
Money Saving and Shopping Tips for Animators
3. Animation programs are expensive; so are the various tools and supplies that we use every day. Here are some ways to save money - and a few guides on what to get for the special animator in your life who might be a little strapped for cash. Free and Trial Animation Programs Royalty Music and Sound Effects Resources Five Inexpensive Animation Solutions for the Mac Keeping Up With The Studios: Breaking Into Animation Without Breaking the Bank Essential Animation Supplies From Gouache to Gadgets: Shopping for the Animator on Your Holiday Gift List .....
Education Tips
4. There are many things to learn about being an animator, and the learning process never ends. Looking for a good school? Ready to graduate, and putting together your portfolio? Try these helpful guides. .....
Animate acting shots one phrase at a time
5. Its best to have clear full-body posing in your phrases at the expense of smooth transitions, especially early on. Animation follows beats and phrases, each with its own purpose. For a scene in which a store clerk is helping a customer, one phrase might be him waving as the customer enters; the next might be him putting his hands in his pockets as he listens to the customer. Treat each phrase like its own shot. Reduce your timeline to display only the phrase youre working on, and create a beginning, middle and end to the idea being animated. .....
Loosen up when animating contact
6. Avoid keying the whole body at the point contact occurs. On most actions, particularly faster ones, the instant of contact wont be captured on 24fps film. More importantly, youll bias the movement towards culminating at the moment of contact, flattening your arcs. If a character picks up a glass, the arm is the stronger force. Animate the hand going through the glass, overshooting the contact point while staying on nice arcs. Now correct the glass position and constraining of the glass, to make up for the moment of contact missed between frames. .....
Playblasting is a huge waste of time
7. Calm down, dont freak out yet! Of course theres no replacement for watching your animation at real-time speed, and you absolutely must watch your animation this way to be productive. However, hours are lost every week waiting for previews and playblasts to render. Reclaim your productive time by creating a layer or a button to hide everything in the scene except the character and proxy-resolution sets, so you can simply hit Play to watch the animation. If youre working with a rig thats too heavy to do this, request a proxy version from your TD or supervisor. Most film-level rigs have a version created from tin-can geometry parented to bones to make this possible. If this is impossible, at least take notes while watching your playblasts to avoid re-rendering constantly. .....
Facial animation is about motion
8. Were often asked whether there are certain poses that should always be built into face rigs to ensure the character can effectively express a natural range of emotion. The answer is that real emotion is expressed with the movement of the face: a lip quivering when a character is about to cry, the eyes darting around when a person is at a loss for words, or a character pressing their face tightly to avoid laughing at something. .....
Mute your dialogue
9. Yes, you must listen to your dialogue over and over and over when you start a dialogue shot to get into the character, the subtext, the mood and the performance. But later on, when you work through the body mechanics and full-body gestures, its common to rely too heavily on the dialogue to fill in performance thats lacking in the body. .....
A mirror is a dangerous thing
10. Be careful using a mirror for doing lip-sync. When speaking into the mirror, we slow down our pronunciation to copy a shape. This is misleading, because it disregards natural lip/jaw independence. Key your lip-sync in separate passes for the lips and jaw, and use a mirror for information to help one pass at a time .....
Mess up your physical work
11. Fill physical shots with all slips, falls, hitches, bumps and misses. Audiences get bored of watching perfect runs, jumps and tackles. Creating a little chaos is fun to watch, and its impressive to see an artist who can animate their way out of a situation thats gone awry. .....
Learn a little about mocap
12. Youre putting yourself at a serious hiring disadvantage if youve never worked with, or even seen, mocap data. Even if you plan to work at an all-keyframe studio, you may have to handle the stuff. There are many free mocap clips online, and 3D Worlds disc includes mocap data from time to time. .....
Bookend trouble spots
13. Sometimes an animation contains hitches you just cant remove, try as you might. Bookend this section by selecting all the controls and setting keys just before and after the hitch. Now delete the offending keys, knowing that you have walled off any destructive effect on the rest of the sequence. .....
Do more of less
14. Take on shorter shots for practice. The reason you practise is to get better for the industry, so practise the length of shot you are likely to encounter on the job, which will rarely be more than 10 seconds. Youre more likely to finish shots that are manageable, gaining skills from blocking through to final polish. .....
Principles of Physical Animation
15. Learn the techniques the pros use to create lifelike animation and character movements. .....
Principles of Emotion in Animation
16. Theres more to animating than drawing. Discover how emotions play a key role in every great animated picture. .....
Animation Notes from Ollie Johnston
17. John Lasseter shares what he has learned from Ollie Johnston (Presented at SIGGRAPH 94, Course 1) .....
Work In Progress
18. Learn about good character development by watching one of our recent Works In Progress. .....
Master Disneys12 Principles of Animation
19. Over three decades old, this classic by Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas is still to this day held in high regard as the animators bible. While its true that the number of self-taught computer animators keeps growing each year, with the wide availability of training materials, literature, and software on the internet, those trained in academic settings know whyDisneys 12 Principles of Animationis still a standard textbook for introductory animation courses across the world. The principles detailed in this book are still relevant for todays computer animation techniques, and mastering its techniques will assuredly translate to an improvement in ones skill set. .....
Learn proper motion blurring techniques
20. Computer animation, no matter how fantastical, imitates real objects and settings. Specifically, film cameras capture life. Audiences are accustomed to the nuances and artifacts of live action film, including the way cameras render the motion of objects and people. Motion blur is a subtle but powerful perceptual indicator that not only tells the viewer that the object is moving, but also the speed and direction it is moving. To properly convey and enforce the illusion of movement, incorporate motion blurring techniques to make your computer animations come to life. .....
Animate standing characters using unique postures
21. If you observe a throng of standing people in the subway, park, or other gathering place, you will notice that peoples postures constitute a unique element of their persona. A teenage girls hips may shift to one side as shes explaining a story, while someone else may slouch lazily with his arms folded, one hand holding a cigar. Whatever the case may be, people seldom stand perfectly upright. For this reason, animated characters that are standing should always do so in some distinctive manner and in a way that is appropriate for their other bodily actions, mood, or persona. .....
Use shadows to ground your characters
22. Shadows are crucial elements to reality -- unless youre creating a vampire, the viewer expects to see your character cast a shadow. They give a sense of depth by anchoring characters to the ground and thus are important elements to character placement and orientation. Shadows also function as important psychological triggers to an animated sequence (e.g. long shadows indicate a later time of day, which can trigger melancholy, apprehension, or fear.) .....
Adjust sharpness and colors to indicate depth
23. By mimicking the shallow depth of field of a film camera, one can instantly give their animations the illusion of depth. By blurring the background objects and setting, you reinforce the believability of your character to the eye. Colors can also be used to indicate depth -- by using strong, saturated colors in the foreground subjects and muted, unsaturated colors in the background, sequences and character within seem more realistic to the eye. .....
Designing your Characters
24. Have you ever wanted to come up with a new character but had no idea where to start? Take a look at the first of Helens Animation Tips on creating characters. .....
Creating your character in 2D
25. Learn how to cut out your character from paper or card, choose which hinge method you are going to use to animate your character. .....
Planning your story
26. In this worksheet I explain how to create a storyboard of your animation. .....
Start animating
27. Here I tell you how to create your scene and start animating. .....
Animation for Beginners
28. One of the most asked question I get on a daily basis is I want to be an animator/do animation. Where do I start? Instead of directing you to our Making an Animated Movie series, our awesome Resources page, or even our YouTube channel, I decided to write this guide to cover (almost) everything you might need to know when trying to get into the animation biz. In this post Ill cover some of the basic concepts and options for people who want to make animation, but are overwhelmed with the task. Ill go over what is animation, what it takes to make animated videos (2D or 3D), and even where to start looking for a job in animation. .....
Easy to Start Hard to Master
29. Today it is easier than ever to get into animation. There are plenty of software available, some of them are quite cheap, and most modern computer can handle the simpler animation tasks (mostly 2D). The catch is that although anyone can start animating right now, the art of animation is not easy to learn and very hard to master. .....
The good news is
30. That you dont need to be a Disney quality animator to create really cool animations. You can start small and simple and slowly develop your skills and unique style. You dont even need to know how to draw well. But before you start, here is Bloops Animation for Beginners Guide (get the ebook). .....
2D Animation
31. Probably a more recommended route to take forabsolute beginners, since you can start quicker and more on the cheap side. .....
Software
32. The two programs I would suggest you start with areFlashorPhotoshop. The reason for that is that they are cheap and accessible. You can get either for $19 a month, including a free trial month .....
Photoshop
33. For the more traditional oriented aspiring animators, the Timeline feature in Photoshop allows you to animate frame by frame, and since its Photoshop youre getting one of the best drawing/painting capabilities out there. It has onion skinning settings and could be an awesome tool to start experimenting in 2D animation with. .....
Computer
34. The good thing about using Flash or Photoshop is that you dont need some crazy monster computer to use them, any modern machine should be able to do the trick. .....
Tablet
35. Ive written aboutthe merits of animating with a tablet, and for 2D animation I cant imagine doing it with a mouse. The price of theIntuos Pro(our tablet of choice) might scare you, but for about $70 you can get theIntuos Penwhich is great for beginners. .....
3D Animation
36. If youre looking to get into 3D animation, the road isa bit more complex, but Ill try to help you make sense of the journey ahead of you. .....
Cinema 4D
37. Much more accessible and easy to learn, also cheaper and comes for free with Adobe After Effects (A lite version). Although used mostly for motion graphics, Cinema can be used for other types of animation and is fun to play around with. .....
Blender
38. Since this is a beginners guide I figured Ill include Blender since its free to download, and there are plenty of tutorials out there so nothing is stopping you from animating right now for free. .....
Global Dial Code
Japan. Exit Country Code + 81 + Area Code + The Number The Japan country code is 81. The nationality of Japan is Japanese.The capital of Japan is TokyoLargest Cities in Japan by population: Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kobe, Kyoto, Fukuoka, Kawasaki .....
Amazing Science Images You Must See
Solar Storm May Spark Dazzling Northern Lights Display. kywatchers at high latitudes can expect spectacular aurora borealis displaysin the skies tonight (Aug. 5) thanks to a strong solar flare that hurleda cloud of plasma toward Earth on Aug. 2. The flare occurred when an intense magnetic event above suns .....
Unbelievable Facts About Alcohol
Getting a round in really is in the rules. In 1993, a journalist called William Greaves with a long experience of visiting pubs up and down Britain published a set of guidelines that was welcomed by watering holes everywhere. In it he outlined the unspoken code of conduct that exists when it .....
Benefits of Turmeric
Rash and Skin Redness. Cleopatra took turmeric milk baths for soft, supple and glowing skin. Similarly, drink turmeric milk for glowing skin. .....
What to Eat in Orissa
Mitha Bhata. Mitha Bhata Mildly sweetened rice with assorted spices .....
Nails Art Designs
Use Effect Polishes. There are several effect nail polishes available in the market like Crackle effect, Croc effect, Magnetic effect, Colour changing polishes etc. You can easily use them for a quick and a different nail look. .....
Shah Jahan
Contribution to the arts. All the inscriptions on the Taj Mahal tombs of Shah Jahan and his wife are in Persian Calligraphy on the tombs and on the Agra Fort quranic Calligraphy and Persian poem in Nasta?l?qinscription. Shah Jahans cenotaph is bigger than that of his wife, bu .....
Astrology
What Aquarius Needs. Aquarius ( Jan 20 - Feb 18 ) What Aquarius Needs : Aquarians often believe that their way is the best way, so it's no surprise that they'd be interested in a lover who mirrors many of their own good qualities. Social interactions and the ability to .....
Most Expensive Games Ever Made
Defiance. Defiance was born out of a convergence of television and video games. Based on SyFys series of the same name, an MMORPG was released at a price tag of $80 million. .....
Benefits of Fennel Seeds
How to consume. Fennel seeds may be chewed upon after every meal or even more often. About 2 3 gms may be had at a time and chewed upon. Daily intake about 7 gms. (or 1? teaspoon). Fennel may be also had as a tea decoction. For this, boil about 3 gms. (1/2 teaspoon .....
Weird and Wonderful Amazonian Wildlife
Electric eel. Not to be messed with, the electric eel typically grows to around two metres?(6 ft 7in) in length, and can generate electric shocks of up to 600 volts. .....
What to Eat in Madhya Pradesh
palak ki puri. Palak puri is made by mixing wheat flour with pureed spinach and other spices. It is best enjoyed hot with mango chutney and chili pickle. Spinach puri served with potato curry makes a good lunchbox recipe. Learn how to make palak poori by following .....
Precautions while using Mobile Phones
Try to keep the cell phone away from the body. While communicating using your cell phone, try to keep the cell phone away from the body as much as possible. The amplitude of the electromagnetic field is one fourth the strength at a distance of two inches and fifty times lower at three feet. Whene .....
Awesome Gifts For Christmas
Apple iPad mini. For that apple enthusiast consider buying an Apple iPad mini. With a 7.9 inch LED backlit Multi Touch Display, 1024 by 768 Resolution, Apple iOS 6 Dual Core A5 Chip 1GHZ, and a 5 MP iSight Camera caple of 1080p HD Video Recording, this item is sure t .....
Benefits of Beans
white beans are a good nondairy source of calcium. white beans are a good nondairy source of calcium, they can help maintain strong bones and fight PMS symptoms. Theyre also rich in quercetin, an anti inflammatory antioxidant that helps prevent and manage arthritis and guard against memory loss. Stor .....
Home Design Ideas
Pattern play. The all white backdrop cleared the way for a crisp and cozy color scheme of grey, black, and green. Gingham curtains and plaid pillows play up the preppy country feel of this Georgia log cabin. .....
Best Romantic Places In India
Khajjiar. Referred to as a dream destination, Khajjiar is another place to be with your partner. Offering a feel of the country side, take a horse ride together on the green pastures and treat your taste buds at the many fast food eateries. .....
Top Cricket Umpires in the world
Herbert Baldwin. Herbert George Baldwin was a cricketer and test match umpire.Born in 1893 in Hampshire, Baldwin played 33 games for Surrey as a right handed batsman and occasional leg break bowler with modest returns, although he was a noted fielder in the covers.He .....
Benefits of Tamarind
Tamarind. Tamarind is a slow growing tropical evergreen tree native to tropical Africa, and grows in India and Mexico as well. The origins of the word tamarind mean the date of India. The mature tamarind tree can grow to 80 feet high in tropical, humid climate .....
Tatoo Designs
Leaf Clover. The four leaf clover is a potent symbol of luck or good fortune. One of the reasons for that is its extreme rarity, and finding a real four leaf clover is still a very rare occurrence and an enduring omen of good luck. According to Legend, the 4 leav .....
Valentines Day Party Idea
Matchmaker Party Theme. Match maker party is a casual and fun party and can celebrate everywhere. However, some best and funny places to celebrate this party are bowling alley, restaurant, bar or even a park. It provides you opportunity to meet with lots of new and lovely p .....
Homeopathy
SANICULA. Aqua saniculaSanicula water.Key Uses:Digestive symptoms involving bloating, sour belches, and an urge to pass stools after eatingLow vitality due to slow digestion and undernourishmentMenstrual disorders and vaginitisOrigin : Found near Ottawa, Illin .....
Vitamins
Vitamin E. Is an antioxidant (protects cell membranes against oxidative damage; prevents LDL oxidation) that supports immune function, prevents blood clotting, and dilates blood vessels. Used to prevent and treat heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, a .....
Daily Health Tips
Nature Cure Methodology for Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is no longer considered incurable if it is tackled in the early stages. An all round scheme of dietetic and vitality building programme along natural lines is the only method to overcome the disease. As a first step, the patient should b .....
Benefits of Gooseberry
Exfoliating and Cleansing Agent. With an abundance of antioxidants, amla is a great cleansing agent for the skin. Whether used as a face pack or a wash, Indian gooseberry is great in exfoliating the skin. If you have sensitive skin, consider diluting it with water or honey. .....
Benefits of Almonds
Almond oil for health. Eating raw almonds is very beneficial. However, almond oil has its own set of benefits for health. Following are some health benefits of almond oil. .....
Simple Tips To Living Longer
Focus on fitness. Daily exercise may be the closest thing we have to a fountain of youth. A 2008 study found that regular high intensity exercise (such as running) can add up to four years to your life, which isnt surprising given the positive effects working out has .....
Richest Women in the World
Charlene de Carvalho Heineken. This Dutch billionaire inherited 25 percent controlling stake in the world famous brewer that carries her name. She inherited Dutch brewer Heineken from her late father, Freddy Heineken. .....
Benefits of Nutmeg
History. Nutmeg is known to have been a prized and costly spice in European medieval cuisine as a flavouring, medicinal, and preservative agent. Saint Theodore the Studite (ca. 758 .....
Best Hotel Swimming Pools
Belmond Hotel Caruse Amalfi Coast. The pool at Belmond Hotel Caruso is nothing short of stunning set high on a clifftop above the picture-postcard town of Ravello on the Amalfi Coast with glorious views along the coast and out to sea. And if thats not enough for you the concierge is o .....
Most Destructive Small Creatures in the world
Termites. Their wood eating habits place termites among the most destructive creatures on Earth. Many homeowners have had the unfortunate experience of dealing with the aftermath of a termite infestation. In Southwestern United States alone termites cause appr .....
Most Popular New Years Resolutions
Get a new job. If you ask your friends if they are happy with their jobs, they will most likely tell you not really. Its strange but the more job positions there are, the harder it seems to find people who really enjoy their jobs. As such, I guess its not that surp .....
Things That Define Your Personality
Know your Self concept. Self concept is how you see yourself, your opinion of yourself and the way you see yourself. On the outside AND inside. .....
Important Tips for Hiring the Best Employees
Use a Behavioral Interview to Select the Best Employees. Want to know the best way to identify whether a candidate's characteristics and motivations match the behaviors needed for your job? A behavioral interview is the best tool you have to identify candidates who have the behavioral traits and characteri .....
Hug Day
free hugs. Make posters, signs, and tshirts that say, free hugs. Its best to do this with a friend, just to be safe. .....
Biggest things in the World
Largest Pencil. This mother of all writing utensils weighs in at 21,500 lbs andstretchesto 76 feet long and it s a version of the classic No. 2. Thehuge pencilwas built in New York by Ashrita Furman and many talented craftsmen. .....
How to Look Younger
Have a young attitude. Seriously. Part of looking young is having a fun, carefree attitude. This doesnt mean that you should be immature, dance on tables, or make fun of people like you re in the sixth grade. It does mean that you should be positive, friendly, and avoid je .....
Deadliest Diseases in human history
Bubonic plague. Bubonic plague earned the unenviable name ?the Black Death? when it rampaged through Asia and Europe in the Middle Ages, killing an estimated 25 million, wiping out almost a third of Europe?s population. .....
Weird Animals
White faced Saki Monkey. The White-faced Saki (Pithecia pithecia), also known as the Guianan Saki and the Golden-faced Saki, is a species of saki monkey, a type of New World monkey, found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela. This monkey mostly feed on f .....
Sachin 100
Century 19. Match : India Vs Sri LankaVenue : R Premadasa Stadium, Colombo : Year 1996In the 2nd ODI of the Singer World Series in 1996, Tendulkar played a captain's innings as he fired a quick knock of 110. India lost that match as the other batsmen failed to p .....
Wedding
Little touch big memories. The little details are most often the most memorable. Try writing personalised questions for each guest to ask their neighbours at dinner as conversation starters. It is guaranteed to get people talking and make it even more memorable! .....
Greatest Female In Video Game History
Peach. BUT PEACH IS A DAMSEL RAAAWWWR We can hear you angrily yelling now. But seriously, calm down. The princess of the Mushroom Kingdom has proved to be just as capable a heroine as Mario and (to a much lesser extent) Luigi are heroes. Check out Super Pr .....
Precautions while using Facebook
Family and friends. Also use precaution when you post something about your friends and family when you are practicing online social networking. You should always have your families and friends permission before you post anything about them or any pictures of them. You w .....
Tips to Decorate your BedRoom
Visual Interest. While the lilac in this room is gorgeous, it the art that catches the eye. Rather than putting all four framed pictures over the bed, consider unusual configurations for your artwork. .....
Benefits of Dill Seeds
Insomnia. The essential oils found in herbs have peculiar and powerful properties. They are simultaneously stimulating sedative and hypnotic that is they stimulate as well as pacify. The essential oils in dill are no exception. The flavonoids and vitamin B .....
Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks of India
Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary. Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary is a famous 481 km? Protected areainThiruvallur DistrictofTamil Nadustate nearElavurAndNelloreandChittoordistricts ofAndhra PradeshinSouth India.Pulicat Lakeis the second largest brackish water eco system in India afterC .....
Jawaharlal Nehru
Controvery. In 1957, despite of the major victory attained the elections, the Nehru led central government faced rising problems and criticism. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 was viewed by many, as Nepotism. .....
Ways to Reduce Your Impact
If you can use recycled paper. Paper products are the most widely used products in society today. We cannot forget that paper is made from one of the most valuable resource on the planet. Several energy intensive steps must be performed to finally produce a paper sheet. GreenLine .....
The worlds Worst Supercars of All Time
MOSLER CONSULIER GTP Years produced 1985 to 1993. When Warren Mosler decided the bond trading that made him rich didn t provide enough thrills, he set out to create the fastest street legal track car on the market. Based on a fiberglass and foam monocoque design, the Consulier GTP (left, above) wa .....
Most Ridiculous Chocolate Flavours
Naga Bar. Deep milk chocolate with sweet indian curry powder and coconut. .....
Flowers
Hibiscus Syriacus. The Hibiscus syriacus, known generally by the name of Althaea frutex, is a native of Syria, and forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens in autumn, we view it, however, with less delight, as it is a sure indication of approaching winter.There .....
Simple Science
Headache and Eyes. Refraction: Ordinarily the muscles of accommodation adjust themselves easily and quickly; if, however, they do not, frequent and severe headaches occur as a result of too great muscular effort toward accommodation. Among young people headaches are fr .....
Benefits of Peas
Heart Health Promotion. An area we expected to find welldocumented health benefits from green peas is the area of cardiovascular disease. While we did not find specific research documentation in this area, we are confident that future research will confirm key health benefi .....
Ideas to Boost Business
Newspaper Placement. Where your ad appears in the paper can have a dramatic impact on how successful it will be. Many people, even if they dont believe in it, read their daily horoscope. Depending on your product, being near the horoscope will increase your ads exposure. .....
Rules to play Weightlifting
Weightlifting Equipment. Men and women are to use different barbells. Men use barbells weighing 20kg and 15kg respectively.Each bar must be equipped with two collars weighing 2.5Kg each.Discs are to be color coordinated according to the following: 25Kg red, 20Kg blue, 15Kg y .....
Amazing Facts About Your Heart
Fact 5. The heart does the most physical work of any muscle during a lifetime. .....
Beauty Skin Care Tips
BAN BUMPS. Do you have little red bumps on the backs of your arms? Youre most likely suffering from keratosis pilarisa common condition that stems from blocked hair follicles. Abrasive scrubbing can exacerbate symptoms, so try using a lotion with alpha or betah .....
Valentines Day Party Idea
Bottle or red wine. Another best gift to give on engagement party is bottle of red wine. Pack the bottle in beautiful gift box and take it with you on engagement party and present it to the engaged boy. .....
Benefits of Zucchinis
Skin Benefits of Zucchini. Fruits and vegetables are loaded with nutrients and hence are good for your skin. Zucchini is rich in Vitamins A and C as well as antioxidants which can benefit your skin in many ways. Some popular varieties are: Golden zucchini features brilliant go .....
Precautions while using Oxygen Therapy
Do not use oil grease or petroleum based products on the equipment. Do not use oil, grease or petroleum based products on the equipment. Do not use it near you while you use oxygen. These materials are highly flammable and will burn readily with the presence of oxygen. Avoid petroleum based lotions or creams, like Va .....
Converted Homes Made From The Most Unlikely Spaces
Seashell. Okay, okay, its not a REAL seashell. Its still ridiculously cool. .....
Easy Tricks To Do Professional Makeup
Some Natural Tips to treat Dark or Black Lips. Apply almond oil on your lips before bedtime as this helps to lighten lips, thus reducing discoloration.You can also mix lemon/lime juice with almond oil and apply for the same purpose.Daily application of cucumber juice would also help lighten dark .....
Chourishi Systems