Ajanta caves

The Ajanta Caves
1. The Ajanta Caves (75 .....
History
2. Like the other ancient Buddhist monasteries, Ajanta had a large emphasis on teaching, and was divided into several different caves for living, education and worship, under a central direction. Monks were probably assigned to specific caves for living. The layout reflects this organizational structure, with most of the caves only connected through the exterior. The 7th century travelling Chinese scholar Xuanzang informs us that Dinnaga, a celebrated Buddhist philosopher and controversialist, author of well known books on logic, lived at Ajanta in the 5th century. In its prime the settlement would have accommodated several hundred teachers and pupils. Many monks who had finished their first training may have returned to Ajanta during the monsoon season from an itinerant lifestyle.The caves are generally agreed to have been made in two distinct periods, separated by several centuries. .....
Caves of the first period
3. The earliest group of caves consists of caves 9, 10, 12, 13 and 15A. According to Walter Spink, they were made during the period 100 BCE to 100 CE, probably under the patronage of the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE c. 220 CE) who ruled the region. Other datings prefer the period 300 BCE to 100 BCE, though the grouping of the earlier caves is generally agreed. More early caves may have vanished through later excavations. Of these, caves 9 and 10 are stupa halls of chaitya griha form, and caves 12, 13, and 15A are viharas (see the architecture section below for descriptions of these types). The first phase is still often called the Hinayana phase, as it originated when, using traditional terminology, the Hinayana or Lesser Vehicle tradition of Buddhism was dominant, when the Buddha was revered symbolically. However the use of the term Hinayana for this period of Buddhism is now deprecated by historians; equally the caves of the second period are now mostly dated too early to be properly called Mahayana, and do not yet show the full expanded cast of supernatural beings characteristic of that phase of Buddhist art. The first Satavahana period caves lacked figurative sculpture, emphasizing the stupa instead, and in the caves of the second period the overwhelming majority of images represent the Buddha alone, or narrative scenes of his lives. .....
Caves of the later period
4. The second phase began in the 5th century. For a long time it was thought that the later caves were made over a long period from the 4th to the 7th centuries CE,but in recent decades a series of studies by the leading expert on the caves, Walter M. Spink, have argued that most of the work took place over the very brief period from 460 to 480 CE during the reign of Emperor Harishena of the Vakataka dynasty. This view has been criticized by some scholars, but is now broadly accepted by most authors of general books on Indian art, for example Huntington and Harle.The second phase is still often called the Mahayana or Greater Vehicle phase, but scholars now tend to avoid this nomenclature because of the problems that have surfaced regarding our understanding of Mahayana.Some 20 cave temples were simultaneously created, for the most part viharas with a sanctuary at the back. The most elaborate caves were produced in this period, which included some modernization of earlier caves. Spink claims that it is possible to establish dating for this period with a very high level of precision; a fuller account of his chronology is given below. Although debate continues, Spinks ideas are increasingly widely accepted, at least in their broad conclusions. The Archaeological Survey of India website still presents the traditional dating The second phase of paintings started around 5th 6th centuries A.D. and continued for the next two centuries. Caves of the second period are 1 8, 11, 14 29, some possibly extensions of earlier caves. Caves 19, 26, and 29 are chaitya grihas, the rest viharas.According to Spink, the Ajanta Caves appear to have been abandoned by wealthy patrons shortly after the fall of Harishena, in about 480 CE. They were then gradually abandoned and forgotten.During the intervening centuries, the jungle grew back and the caves were hidden, unvisited and undisturbed, although the local population were aware of at least some of them. .....
Rediscovery
5. On 28 April 1819, a British officer for the Madras Presidency, John Smith, of the 28th Cavalry, while hunting tiger, accidentally discovered the entrance to Cave No. 10 deep within the tangled undergrowth. There were local people already using the caves for prayers with a small fire, when he arrived. Exploring that first cave, long since a home to nothing more than birds and bats and a lair for other larger animals, Captain Smith vandalized the wall by scratching his name and the date, April 1819. Since he stood on a five foot high pile of rubble collected over the years, the inscription is well above the eye level gaze of an adult today.A paper on the caves by William Erskine was read to the Bombay Literary Society 1n 1822.Within a few decades, the caves became famous for their exotic setting, impressive architecture, and above all their exceptional, all but unique paintings. A number of large projects to copy the paintings were made in the century after rediscovery, covered below. In 1848 the Royal Asiatic Society established the Bombay Cave Temple Commission to clear, tidy and record the most important rock cut sites in the Bombay Presidency, with John Wilson, as president. In 1861 this became the nucleus of the new Archaeological Survey of India. Until the Nizam of Hyderabad built the modern path between the caves, among other efforts to make the site easy to visit, a trip to Ajanta was a considerable adventure, and contemporary accounts dwell with relish on the dangers from falls off narrow ledges, animals and the Bhil people, who were armed with bows and arrows and had a fearsome reputation.

Today, fairly easily combined with Ellora in a single trip, the caves are the most popular tourist destination in Mahrashtra, and are often crowded at holiday times, increasing the threat to the caves, especially the paintings. In 2012, the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation announced plans to add to the ASI visitor centre at the entrance complete replicas of caves 1, 2, 16 & 17 to reduce crowding in the originals, and enable visitors to receive a better visual idea of the paintings, which are dimly lit and hard to read in the caves.Figures for the year to March 2010 showed a total of 390,000 visitors to the site, divided into 362,000 domestic and 27,000 foreign. The trends over the previous few years show a considerable growth in domestic visitors, but a decline in foreign ones; the year to 2010 was the first in which foreign visitors to Ellora exceeded those to Ajanta. .....

Paintings
6. Mural paintings survive from both the earlier and later groups of caves. Several fragments of murals preserved from the earlier caves (Caves 9 and 11) are effectively unique survivals of court led painting in India from this period, and show that by Satavahana times, if not earlier, the Indian painter had mastered an easy and fluent naturalistic style, dealing with large groups of people in a manner comparable to the reliefs of the Sa .....
Copies
7. The paintings have deteriorated significantly since they were rediscovered, and a number of 19th century copies and drawings are important for a complete understanding of the works. However, the earliest projects to copy the paintings were plagued by bad fortune. In 1846, Major Robert Gill, an Army officer from Madras presidency and a painter, was appointed by the Royal Asiatic Society to replicate the frescoes on the cave walls to exhibit these paintings in England. Gill worked on his painting at the site from 1844 to 1863 (though he continued to be based there until his death in 1875, writing books and photographing) and made 27 copies of large sections of murals, but all but four were destroyed in a fire at the Crystal Palace in London in 1866, where they were on display.

Another attempt was made in 1872 when the Bombay Presidency commissioned John Griffiths, then principal of the Bombay School of Art, to work with his students to make new copies, again for shipping to England. They worked on this for thirteen years and some 300 canvases were produced, many of which were displayed at the Imperial Institute on Exhibition Road in London, one of the forerunners of the Victoria and Albert Museum. But in 1885 another fire destroyed over a hundred paintings that were in storage. The V&A still has 166 paintings surviving from both sets, though none have been on permanent display since 1955. The largest are some 3 6 metres. A conservation project was undertaken on about half of them in 2006, also involving the University of Northumbria.Griffith and his students had unfortunately painted many of the paintings with cheap varnish in order to make them easier to see, which has added to the deterioration of the originals, as has, according to Spink and others, recent cleaning by the ASI. .....

Architecture
8. The monasteries mostly consist of vihara halls for prayer and living, which are typically rectangular with small square dormitory cells cut into the walls, and by the second period a shrine or sanctuary at the rear centred on a large statue of the Buddha, also carved from the living rock. This change reflects the movement from Hinayana to Mahayana Buddhism. The other type of main hall is the narrower and higher chaitya hall with a stupa as the focus at the far end, and a narrow aisle around the walls, behind a range of pillars placed close together. Other plainer rooms were for sleeping and other activities. Some of the caves have elaborate carved entrances, some with large windows over the door to admit light. There is often a colonnaded porch or verandah, with another space inside the doors running the width of the cave.The central square space of the interior of the viharas is defined by square columns forming a more or less square open area. Outside this are long rectangular aisles on each side, forming a kind of cloister. Along the side and rear walls are a number of small cells entered by a narrow doorway; these are roughly square, and have small niches on their back walls. Originally they had wooden doors. The centre of the rear wall has a larger shrine room behind, containing a large Buddha statue. The viharas of the earlier period are much simpler, and lack shrines.Spink in fact places the change to a design with a shrine to the middle of the second period, with many caves being adapted to add a shrine in mid excavation, or after the original phase.

The plan of Cave 1 (right) shows one of the largest viharas, but is fairly typical of the later group. Many others, such as Cave 16, lack the vestibule to the shrine, which leads straight off the main hall. Cave 6 is two viharas, one above the other, connected by internal stairs, with sanctuaries on both levels.The four completed chaitya halls are caves 9 and 10 from the early period, and caves 19 and 26 from the later period of construction. All follow the typical form found elsewhere, with high ceilings and a central nave leading to the stupa, which is near the back, but allows walking behind it, as walking around stupas was (and remains) a common element of Buddhist worship (pradakshina). The later two have high ribbed roofs, which reflect timber forms, and the earlier two are thought to have used actual timber ribs, which have now perished.The two later halls have a rather unusual arrangement (also found in Cave 10 at Ellora) where the stupa is fronted by a large relief sculpture of the Buddha, standing in Cave 19 and seated in Cave 26. Cave 29 is a late and very incomplete chaitya hall. .....

Iconography of the caves
9. In the pre Christian era, the Buddha was represented symbolically, in the form of the stupa. Thus, halls were made with stupas to venerate the Buddha. In later periods the images of the Buddha started to be made in coins, relic caskets, relief or loose sculptural forms, etc. However, it took a while for the human representation of the Buddha to appear in Buddhist art. One of the earliest evidences of the Buddhas human representations are found at Buddhist archaeological sites, such as Goli, Nagarjunakonda, and Amaravati. The monasteries of those sites were built in less durable media, such as wood, brick, and stone. As far as the genre of rock cut architecture is concerned it took many centuries for the Buddha image to be depicted. Nobody knows for sure at which rock cut cave site the first image of the Buddha was depicted. Current research indicates that Buddha images in a portable form, made of wood or stone, were introduced, for the first time, at Kanheri, to be followed soon at Ajanta Cave 8 (Dhavalikar, Jadhav, Spink, Singh). While the Kanheri example dates to 4th or 5th century CE, the Ajanta example has been dated to c. 462 478 CE (Spink). None of the rock cut monasteries prior to these dates, and other than these examples, show any Buddha image although hundreds of rock cut caves were made throughout India during the first few centuries CE. And, in those caves, it is the stupa that is the object of veneration, not the image. Images of the Buddha are not found in Buddhist sailagrhas (rock cut complexes) until the times of the Kanheri (4th 5th century CE) and Ajanta examples (c. 462 478 CE).

The caves of the second period, now all dated to the 5th century, were typically described as Mahayana, but do not show the features associated with later Mahayana Buddhism. Although the beginnings of Mahayana teachings go back to the 1st century there is little art and archaeological evidence to suggest that it became a mainstream cult for several centuries. In Mahayana it is not Gautama Buddha but the Bodhisattva who is important, including deity Bodhisattva like Manjushri and Tara, as well as aspects of the Buddha such as Aksobhya, and Amitabha. Except for a few Bodhisattva, these are not depicted at Ajanta, where the Buddha remains the dominant figure. Even the Bodhisattva images of Ajanta are never central objects of worship, but are always shown as attendants of the Buddha in the shrine. If a Bodhisattva is shown in isolation, as in the Astabhaya scenes, these were done in the very last years of activities at Ajanta, and are mostly intrusive in nature, meaning that they were not planned by the original patrons, and were added by new donors after the original patrons had suddenly abandoned the region in the wake of Emperor Harisenas death.

The contrast between iconic and aniconic representations, that is, the stupa on one hand and the image of the Buddha on the other, is now being seen as a construct of the modern scholar rather than a reality of the past. The second phase of Ajanta shows that the stupa and image coincided together. If the entire corpus of the art of Ajanta including sculpture, iconography, architecture, epigraphy, and painting are analysed afresh it will become clear that there was no duality between the symbolic and human forms of the Buddha, as far as the 5th century phase of Ajanta is concerned. That is why most current scholars tend to avoid the terms Hinayana and Mahayana in the context of Ajanta. They now prefer to call the second phase by the ruling dynasty, as the Vaka?aka phase. .....

Cave One
10. Cave 1 was built on the eastern end of the horse shoe shaped scarp, and is now the first cave the visitor encounters. This would when first made have been a less prominent position, right at the end of the row. According to Spink, it is one of the latest caves to have been excavated, when the best sites had been taken, and was never fully inaugurated for worship by the dedication of the Buddha image in the central shrine. This is shown by the absence of sooty deposits from butter lamps on the base of the shrine image, and the lack of damage to the paintings that would have been happened if the garland hooks around the shrine had been in use for any period of time. Although there is no epigraphic evidence, Spink believes that the Vaka?aka Emperor Harishena was the benefactor of the work, and this is reflected in the emphasis on imagery of royalty in the cave, with those Jakata tales being selected that tell of those previous lives of the Buddha in which he was royal.

The cliff has a more steep slope here than at other caves, so to achieve a tall grand facade it was necessary to cut far back into the slope, giving a large courtyard in front of the facade. There was originally a columned portico in front of the present facade, which can be seen half intact in the 1880s in pictures of the site, but this fell down completely and the remains, despite containing fine carving, were carelessly thrown down the slope into the river, from where they have been lost, presumably carried away in monsoon torrents.

This cave has one of the most elaborate carved fa .....

Cave Two
11. Cave 2, adjacent to Cave 1, is known for the paintings that have been preserved on its walls, ceilings, and pillars. It looks similar to Cave 1 and is in a better state of preservation.Cave 2 has a porch quite different from Cave one. Even the fa .....
Cave Four
12. The Archeological Survey of India board outside the caves gives the following detail about cave 4This is the largest monastery planned on a grandiose scale but was never finished. An inscription on the pedestal of the buddhas image mentions that it was a gift from a person named Mathura and paleographically belongs to 6th century A.D. It consists of a verandah, a hypostylar hall, sanctum with an antechamber and a series of unfinished cells. The rear wall of the verandah contains the panel of Litany of Avalokite?vara.The sanctuary houses a colossal image of the Buddha in preaching pose flanked by bodhisattvas and celestial nymphs hovering above. .....
Caves 9 10
13. Caves 9 and 10 are the two chaitya halls from the first period of construction, though both were also undergoing an uncompleted reworking at the end of the second period. Cave 10 was perhaps originally of the 1st century BCE, and cave 9 about a hundred years later. The small shrinelets called caves 9A to 9D and 10A also date from the second period, and were commissioned by individuals.

The paintings in cave 10 include some surviving from the early period, many from an incomplete programme of modernization in the second period, and a very large number of smaller late intrusive images, nearly all Buddhas and many with donor inscriptions from individuals. These mostly avoided over painting the official programme and after the best positions were used up are tucked away in less prominent positions not yet painted; the total of these (including those now lost) was probably over 300, and the hands of many different artists are visible. .....

How to Reach Ajanta by Flight
14. The nearest airport is at Aurangabad, 108 kms away from Ajanta Caves. Aurangabad has a good national airport, which is well connected to major cities like Mumbai, Delhi & Hyderabad. .....
How to Reach Ajanta by Rail
15. Jalgaon Railway station is nearest one to Ajanta Caves, which is approximately an hour and a half away. There are a plenty of private car services you can hire or you can avail the bus service from railway station to the caves. .....
How to reach Ajanta by Road
16. There are regular buses from Aurangabad to Ajanta Caves. Alternative you can hire private car, there are plenty of tour operator you can avail service from, or there are buses to and from the Ajanta Caves. The drive from Aurangabad to Ajanta takes 2 to 3 hours. .....
Getting Around Ajanta
17. Ready to walk a lot before you start because no matter you drive a car or take the bus to Ajanta, you will get off a couple of kms from the caves. The only way to get to the caves is by one of the shuttle buses and to roam around the caves you have to walk. .....
Best Time to Visit
18. Best time to visit Ajanta Caves is during the months of October to February (winter season) and from June to September (monsoon season), these are the best time to visit Ajanta Caves, as the weather is really pleasant during these months.Although March, April and May are holiday season (most of the school colleges are shut downs during these months) in India, but the temperature is really high during these months i.e. between 37 .....
The location
19. The caves are in the state of Marathas, Maharashtra, 100 kilometers from the city of Aurangabad. The caves are by the river Waghora, in the midst of the Sahyadri hills burried by thick forest all around. The Ajanta Caves were discovered by a British Captain, John Smith in 1819, while on a hunting expedition. .....
Attractions
20. The Ajanta caves are important mainly to see the fine line of transfer of the Hinyana and the Mahayana sect, as for the fact he Hianyana did not worship any god or goddess but they used stupas, and other rock forms to represent Buddha. Mahayana on the other hand, used idols of people they worship. Interestingly, the caves include both Chaitya (Prayer Halls) and monasteries and have both types of architecture and art besides paintings and scriptures, of the two sects Hinyana and Mahayana. Caves numbered 8,9, 10, 12, 13 and 15 are of the older sect, Hinayana. Mahayana related vcaves are numbered 1, 2, 16, 17, 19 and 26 where, 19 and 26 are Chaityas.

There are some unsurpassable paintings in the caves 1 and 2, mainly depicting the Jataka Tales. Buddha preaching in sitting position is the other common example of sculptures. Cave 10 is also quite attractive for its Buddha images and the depiction of Jataka tales. Cave 16 and 17 are monasteries full with images of Jataka tales, child and youth of Buddha, the Sravasti tales etc and are good examples of architecture. Caves 1,2,3,5,6,8, 14, 15,16 and 17 are Viharas or monasteries, 19 and 26 are prayer halls while caves 20 to 25 were used for residential purposes.Though all the caves are interesting to watch and noteworthy, if one has only a little time in hand caves, remember 1,2,16,17, 19 and 26 are must see. .....

Exploring the Caves
21. The Ajanta caves depict paintings and sculptures that shows heavy religious influence, revolving around Buddhist philosophy, Bodhisattvas, incidents from the life of Gautama Buddha and the Jataka Tales. The caves are embellished with paintings of infinite charm, sculpted with skills of the highest craftsmanship, narrating scenes of semi mythological history, the royal court and lifestyle of the ancient times.Though the sculptures are of Buddhist origin, Gautama Buddha was against paintings and sculptures and even forbade images of him. He preached that life was painful and the best way to achieve salvation (Nirvana) was to suppress happiness. But after the death of Buddha, the suppressed or illiterate people who embraced Buddhism, wanted to worship images of Buddha like Hindus worshipped their gods.

To spread the faith, Buddhist monks also made up many stories of Buddhas previous incarnations. Gradually these stories were sculpted in stone by the monks and pilgrims began to worship these paintings and images. Slowly, perhaps under the influence of Hinduism, this kind of image worship transformed into a holy ritual.The exploration starts at the 1st cave of Ajanta and the visitors are greeted by the great Buddha image. The doorway to the cave is decorated with auspicious motifs. This cave has numerous sculptures and paintings of Bodhisattvas Padmapani and Vajrapani; carvings of princesses, lovers, maids and dancing girls; scenes depicting the Persian Embassy, Golden Geese, Pink Elephants and Bull Fights. .....

The Discovery
22. In the early 19th century, some British soldiers spotted a horseshoe shaped rock while out hunting in the Deccan plateau. What caught his attention was the entrance of a cave and this made the soldiers cross the ravine of the Waghora River.They discovered several caves, against which bush, shrubs earth, stones had piled up and some were even being used as shelters. Archaeologists started excavations and the news of the discovery spread far and wide. All the rock cut caves had paintings on verandahs, inner walls and ceilings, these revealed some of the most beautiful masterpieces of world art.More symbolic Buddhist mounds like the stupas and the dwelling cells for monks, called the viharas, were also discovered in these caves. An inscription of King Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty was also unearthed in cave No.17. It seems that the local Vakatakas had relations, through marriage, with the great Gupta kings of North India. .....
Shopping In Ajanta
23. Shopping in Ajanta is restricted to the government shops near the bus stop.However Aurangabad is famous for shopping where one can alight or stopover to buy Himroo shawls, Paithani sarees or fabric like Mashru and Kimkhab.Also available are a wide display of jewellery made of semiprecious stones and decorative pieces. .....
Benefits of Kale
Kale is Loaded With Powerful Antioxidants Like Quercetin and Kaempferol. Kale, like other leafy greens, is very high in antioxidants. This includes beta carotene, vitamin C, as well as various flavonoids and polyphenols. Antioxidants are substances that help counteract oxidative damage by free radicals in the body.Oxidati .....
The Most Stylish Men Ever
Jimi Hendrix. Like his legendary guitarplaying style, Jimi Hendrixs fashion knowhow as illustrated by the flamboyant shirts, military jackets and velvet trousers has been much imitated but rarely bettered. .....
Awesome Looking White Animals
Alligator gar. Albinism can be seen in fish as well. One of the greatest examples of an albino fish was this albino alligator gar. Considered to be a living fossil, alligator gars are usually brown, olive to gray or yellow. .....
Vishwakarma Puja
Vishwakarma Puja Recipes. Lord Vishwakarma, the presiding deity of the Vishwakarma Puja Day, is the one who built all the palaces of the gods including the heaven itself. He is the builder god who designed the vehicles of gods and their weapons too. On this day, Lord Vishwaka .....
Mountains in India
Saser Kangri IV. The Saser Kangri massif consists of four main peaks and Saser Kangri IV being the smallest of them all. This mountain is located on Saser Muztagh Range that is a sub-range of Karakoram Range. .....
Durga Puja
Media attention. TV and radio channels telecast Puja celebrations. Many Bengali channels devote whole days to the Pujas. Bengali and Oriya weekly magazines bring out special issues for the Puja known as Pujabarshiki or Sharadiya Sankhya. These contain the works of ma .....
Valentines Day Party Idea
Fragrance perfume. Presenting a sweet fragrance perfume on engagement party is a best idea. Go to the nearest shopping center and choose a sweet fragrance for engaged person. He will love this gift and appreciate you. .....
The Best Luxury Cars
Jaguar XJ. September 16, 2014: Jaguar expanding its model lineup introduced the XJ 2.0L Petrol LWB Portfolio at INR 93.24 lakhs (ex showroom Mumbai). The saloon houses 2.0 litre i4 petrol engine which develops a power of 237bhp with peak torque of 340Nm. Inside .....
Most Beautiful Flowers In The World
Lilies. Lilies are the most commonly used flower for funerals because they symbolize innocence that has been restored to the soul of the departed. Stargazer lily symbolizes sympathy and is associated with majesty and purity and it was the symbol of Mother Ma .....
Tips To Lose Weight
Eat cereal for breakfast five days a week . Studies find that people who eat cereal for breakfast every day are significantly less likely to be obese and have diabetes than those who dont. They also consume more fiber and calcium and less fat than those who eat other breakfast foods. Make oatm .....
Benefits of Cashew
Cashew Fruit. Cashew apples possess antibacterial properties and have been proven to be effective in treating stomach ulcers and gastritis, which is usually caused by H. pylori bacteria. Its juice is rich in vitamin C and has an antiscurvy effect. Cashew apple jui .....
Mind Blowing Beauty Tricks
Tightening Green Tea and Grapefruit Toner. Keep your skin looking rejuvenated and toned the natural way. .....
Precaution while using Contact Lenses
Requirements for Wearing Contact Lens. 1Expert fitting and comprehensive training for their care. 2Conscientious care by the patient. 3Periodic followup care. 4A complete eye exam prior to your fitting. A prescription is valid for one year per Arkansas law. Eye exams, if needed, are avail .....
Daily Health Tips
Vitamin A the Forgotten Vitamin. The vitamin of the day is vitamin A. Known as anti-ophthalmic, vitamin A is essential for growth and vitality. It builds up resistance to respiratory and other infections and works mainly on the eyes, lungs, stomach and intestines. It prevents eye di .....
World Architecture
Hippodamos of Miletus. The fifth-century-b.c. Greek architect Hippodamos of Miletus has long been known as thefather of city planning. Although the claim has been challenged by some historians, his contribution at least in the West was the notion of ordered city planning, .....
Childrens Day Celebration
Universal Children Day. Universal Children Day takes place annually on November 20.First proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1954, it was established to encourage all countries to institute a day, firstly to promote mutual exchange and understanding among c .....
More Xmas Carols
Jolly Old Saint Nicolas. Jolly old Saint Nicholas, lean your ear this way! Dont you tell a single soul what Im going to say Christmas Eve is coming soon; now, you dear old man Whisper what youll bring to me; tell me if you can. When the clock is striking twelve, when Im fas .....
Top Hotels
Langham Hotel Melbourne Melbourne Australia. The Langham offer panoramic views of the Yarra River and Melbourne city skyline which leave you breathtaking. Located among an abundance of al fresco cafes and restaurants, refined elegance and sumptuous comfort greets guests in their splendid rooms. .....
Gandhi Jayanti
Neighborhood Cleanup. It is really important to keep our environment clean. Contact your neighbors and let them know your intentions regarding cleaning up the neighborhood. Neighborhood Cleanup programs or events can bring area residents closer as well as preserve the bea .....
Make Up Tips
Start With Primer. Whenever you are dealing with pictures, you always want to start with makeup primer. Its the most important thing in the world, as it is the glue to keep all of your makeup on and looking beautiful. .....
Benefits of Lemon
Medicinal. Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Researchers at The Ohio State University found that lemon oil aroma does not influence the human immune system, but may enhance mood. The low pH of juice makes it antibacterial, and in India, the lemon is used i .....
Ideal for Cooking
Spaghetti Squash alla Carbonara. A creamy pasta substitute recipe featuring crisp bacon and eggs over healthy spaghetti squash. .....
Mehandi Designs For Hands
Designs 2. How about some unique designs to relieve you from those boring traditional mehendi patterns? Here s one we love and though it has traditional motifs, the whole design looks very modern. .....
Benefits of Oregano
Treatment of psoriasis. Oregano oil is helpful for skin conditions like cold sores, muscle aches, nail fungus, joint pain, and dandruff. Try diluting it with a carrier oil like jojoba, sweet almond, or grapeseed, at 10 to 12 drops oregano oil per ounce of carrier oil. Howev .....
Amazing Science Images You Must See
Geologys Flow. Set against a sherbet sky, these rock formations off the coast of Spain show a prehistoric kind of beauty. Photographer Jose Julian Esteban won a prizefor this shot at the 2011 European Geosciences Union photo contest. The rocks are folded cretaceous .....
Rules to play Squash
Play. After a good service has been delivered, the players return the ball alternately until one or the other fails to make a good return, or the ball otherwise ceases to be in play, in accordance with the rules.NB If any part of the ball touches the out l .....
Weird Laws Around the World
Chewing gum in Singapore. Some people regard chewing gum as ill-mannered, but in Singapore its a criminal offence to chew gum unless its medicinal. .....
Daily Meditation can Improve your Life
Be Grateful at the end. Once your practice is through, spend 2-3 minutes feeling appreciative of the opportunity to practice and your minds ability to focus. .....
World Wonders
Fasted train China. The CRH380A train set a world speed record for the fastest production train, hitting 302 mph in a test. Built in China, the train is shown here on the Shanghai-Hangzhou High-Speed Railway. .....
Rules For Play Xmas Games
Best white elephant gift. There are lots of different approaches to buying a White Elephant Gift. As long as youre following the price suggestion (typically around $20) and any special instructions by the organizer, you cant really go wrong. That said, here are some character .....
Best outdoor Cinema in the world
Sun Pictures Broome Australia. Officially the oldest dedicated picture garden in the world, Broome in Ozs Kimberley region orginated more than a century ago, when it screened a silent film (Kissing Cup) to 500 cinemagoers. Because of its coastal location, the cinema was prone to f .....
Tips to get ready for College
Stay away from home overnight. Maybe its a sleepover with a friend, maybe its a week-long summer camp. Just give yourself the experience of sleeping away from home so that its not such a shock when you are sleeping in your own apartment for the first time. .....
Top Sports Rivalries of All Time
Stanford Cardinal vs California Bears. No national championships have been decided by the outcome of this one and only once have Rose Bowl implications hinged on the outcome. But because the game is so intense, both on the field and in the stands, it is one of the most heated rivalries in .....
Designs For Bathroom
Elegant Arizona Bathroom. The master bath of this peaceful Arizona home, by Dana Lyon, with its luxurious Empire tub and polished nickel Etoile fixtures by Waterworks, has a view of a private enclosed garden. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Deep Cleansing Applying masks. When smearing on facial clays and masks, don’t forget to cover the neck and décolletage area, too. Lie down to relax while the mask dries. Finish with a wipe of toner and a thin layer of moisturizer. .....
Most Extraordinary Churches Of The World
Sagrada Familia Barcelona Spain. Sagrada Fam ?lia is a very massive Roman Catholic basilica under construction in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Construction began in 1882 and continues to this day. A very famous architect Antoni Gaud ? worked on the project for over 40 years, devotin .....
What to Eat in Orissa
Maachha Bihana. Maachha Bihana means the roe of a fish made into dumpling by some spice paste and fried to make spicy curry. .....
Benefits of Rambutan fruits
Healing fever. Take rambutan skin that had previously been dried. Wash and add a few cups of water, then boil until really boiling. Drink the stew routinely 3 times a day. Rambutan benefits are most felt when the fruit is used as a regular snack, substituting many .....
Daily Health Tips
Fasting For More Efficient Digestion. Fasting is highly beneficial in practically all kinds of stomach and intestinal disorders. It is curative and in serious conditions of the kidneys and liver. It is a miracle cure for eczema and other skin diseases and offers the only hope of permanen .....
The Best Value Summer Destinations
CANCUN MEXICO. Average cost for a oneweek summer trip: US $1,959Week offering the best bargain: August 24 to 30 .....
Cute Nail Art Designs
Cool Nail Designs . Cool nail designs will show that you are a cool girl.The below design is really simple and easy to do.Just add black color first and then do the designs with white. .....
Benefits of Cashew
Free Radicals. Cashew nuts help our body to utilize iron properly and eliminate free radicals which cause health problems. Cashew nuts have a high energy density and high amount of dietary fiber, both have been attributed to a beneficial effect on weight management .....
Most Beautiful Valleys In The World
The Grand Canyon. This canyon is a very deep river valley, and the Grand Canyon is created by the Colorado River in the State of Arizona, U.S. It is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long and 18 miles wide. At some places it .....
Makeover Tips For Eyes
Eyeliner tip. Does eyeliner make your eyes look smaller?Try using a lighter color (such as brown, taupe, or navy) and applying a little at a time. Draw a thin line first and observe the results in the mirror before going back to apply more.If eyes still appear sma .....
Globe Dial
Russia. Exit Country Code + 7 + Area Code + The Number The Russia country code is s 7. The nationality of Russia is Russians.The capital of Russia is MoscowLargest Cities in Russia by population: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny .....
Benefits of Zucchinis
Zucchini keeps you Hydrated. Zucchini is filled with water. 90% of it contains water. It can help in retaining the water level in a person. Low amount of water in the body during summers can make a person dizzy and weak. Zucchini consumption can prevent such problems. .....
Problems Only 00s Girls Will Understand
Figuring out what your most flattering webcam angle was. When girls hit the age of thirteen, they, for some unknown reason get overly obsessed with their appearances. Before the age of the camera and computers, it was the mirrors that teen girls befriended to tell them the truth about their looks. Today, m .....
Tips to success in Online Business
Not being different. In most markets, customers have different options to choose from. If your business has competition, you have to give your potential customers a reason to choose your offering over another. .....
Beautiful Hairstyles Tips
Best Heat Styling Products. Any hair care expert will tell you that in order to prevent hair damage and breaking, it is crucial to apply some sort of heat protecting hair care product like a spray, serum, mousse or cream before subjecting your strands to high temperatures from .....
Crazy iPhone Accessories
Umbilical iPhone Cord. There are people that have grown so attached to their iPhones that it can be considered as a part of their body. That is the reason behind Lizawa Mio s Grow Cable, an iPhone charger that resembles an umbilical cord. The cord is quite lifelike wits it .....
Selfie Ideas
Experiment with filters. Most people who take selfies also happen to have an app on their phones that can add interesting dimension through the use of color and light filters. Not every filter is right for every selfie, so play around with different options before settling o .....
Most Powerful Cars on the Market
SRT Viper. As part of the famous Dodge Viper line of vehicles, SRT Viper is a powerful machine with 640 horsepower and the top speed of 206 miles per hour. You can buy it for $459,000; however, there is a limited edition package called the Time Attack package t .....
Benefits of Oregano
The health benefits of oregano. Oregano is an important culinary and medicinal herb that has been used in medicine and cooking for thousands of years with a number of potential health benefits. It is a species of Origanum, belonging to the mint family .....
What to Eat in Himachal Pradesh
Masala Fried Okra. This is one of my favorite ways to eat okra. We always make this dish when making Pahari food. We usually cook using mustard oil but you can substitute with any oil of your choice. This spicy, tangy recipe is right up my alley and it goes so well wit .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Give Yourself Off the shelf intensive care. Jurlique’s phyto-nutrient-rich Wrinkle Softener is popular in Australia to combat the effects of intense sun exposure. Burt’s Bees Repair Serum is a concentrated elixir of renewing oils, vitamins, and herbs, and claims to be one of the most beneficia .....
New Year Games
Wooden spoons. Guess someones identity by feeling them only with wooden spoons. One guest in blindfolded and sits in a chair. Each person stands or kneels in front of the blindfolded person. That person must guess each identity only by feeling them with the wooden .....
Top Most Powerful Armies In The World
South Africa. South Africa is still known all around the world today for something that it is incredibly ashamed of: apartheid. Since Nelson Mandela took a stand against injustice and discrimination, the country has been attempting to recover, and in many ways, it .....
Akbar
Personality and assessment. Akbar maintained a luxurious and brilliant court at which elaborate ceremonies emphasized his distance from other men, though he was careful to cultivate public opinion outside court circles. Every morning at dawn he stood at an open window to be see .....
Top Cricket Umpires in the world
Brian Aldridge. Brian Leslie Aldridge QSM born 30 June 1940 in Christchurch, New Zealand is a retired professional cricket player and professional cricket umpire, and the National Umpiring Manager for New Zealand cricket. He was one of the umpires in the 1992 Cricke .....
Surprising Health Benefits Of Tea
Key to healthy relationship Steamy cup of tea. Women believe that the secret to a healthy relationship is receiving a hot cup of tea or coffee made by their partners, a new research has found. Report author Dr Jacqui Gabb said that actions speak louder than words and many people consider a lovin .....
Eating Secrets to Help You Lose Weight
Eat grapefruit. New research is revealing that consuming grapefruit benefits weight loss in a a major way. The key may be an enzyme called AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is found in Grapefruit. AMPK s helps your body utilize sugar which results in boosting .....
Astrology
Friendship Compatibility between Aries and Sagittarius. Aries and Sagittarius - Friendship Compatibility Profile : When Aries and Sagittarius form a friendship, it's often a rewarding match. These two are highly compatible; they have a dynamic relationship. Both are explorers and pioneers. This combinatio .....
Step to finding your perfect man
Serial Date. Dont turn down too many dates. Even if he doesnt fit your list, you should give him at least one chance. Theres no harm in it. Youd be surprised at how drastically your opinion of someone can change after one dinner. He might even make you change you .....
Benefits of Turnips
Glucosinolate Antimicrobial and AntiInflammatory Benefits. Turnip sprouts provide high levels of glucosinolates, sulfurcontaining compounds that may help protect against some forms of cancer and provide antifungal, antibacterial and antiparasitic benefits. A study published in the November 2012 issue of the .....
Digital Marketing Trends
Offline is the bride of online. Only 38% of marketers see using offline data to optimize the online experience as being very important over the next few years. How do you manage the entire customer journey when you are not measuring and tracking the ENTIRE experience? .....
Best Time Travel Films
Terminator 2 Judgement Day 1991. Where Do They Start? 2029, they being the T 1000 (Robert Patrick) and a reprogrammed T 800 (Arnold Schwarzenegger).Where Do They End Up? 1991, to respectively assassinaterescue John Connor (Edward Furlong). Biggest Culture Clash. The original audienc .....
Exam Tips
Every student no matter how experienced or naturally smart. Ive had this lesson drummed into me only this week and Im in my sixth year of university study. Im about to sit an exam that requires me to look at about 100 pages of evidence and come up with a theory about what I think happened, along with some o .....
Precautions while using Washing Machine
Move the machine. Check that there are at least 4 inches between your washing machine and the wall. This prevents hoses from kinking. .....
Tips to get ready for Group Discussion
Gesture Expression. Maintain eye contact with team members and not evaluators. They .....
Dog Breeds
AiredaleTerrier. "The Airedale is the largest of the British Terriers. They weigh 25?30 kilograms (55?66 lb) and have a height at the withers of 58?61 centimetres (23?24 in) for dogs, with females slightly smaller. The American Kennel Club standard specifies a smalle .....
Benefits of Saffron
Disease prevention. One of the main saffron benefits when used in cooking food is that it contains many plant derived chemical components which are known to prevent diseases. They are also known to promote overall well-being of the body. .....
Famous Markets Of India
Sardar market Jodhpur. This colourful market is located close to the famous Mehrangarh fort of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The market offers you a wide variety of traditional Bandhej clothes, Mojris Rajasthani shoes , handicrafts, textiles, bangles, spices, etc.Women dressed in t .....
Durga Puja
Nine Forms Of Durga. ShailputriThe first form of Durga, Shailputri, is the Daughter of the Himalaya Mountain. She is the quintessence of Mother Nature and is also referred to as Sati, the wife of Lord Shiva.BrahmachariniThe second form of Durga is the one who performs pe .....
Global Dial Code
Bangladesh. Exit Country Code + 880 + Area Code + The Number The Bangladesh country code is 880. The nationality of Bangladesh is Bangladeshis.The capital of Bangladesh is DhakaLargest Cities in Bangladesh by population: Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Mai .....
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns 41. Heres a beautiful rangoli forDiwali. The strikingcoloursand the heart shapeddiyasplaced on the sides of the Rangoli make this quite different and a good choice for the occasion. .....
Rules to play Ildado
California Roulette. In most games players must ante a nominal amount just to have the cards dealt. Once the cards are dealt, the betting starts. Players bet into the pot in the middle of the table and it is done in turn clockwise. The player with the highest rank showi .....
Best Sports Team Nicknames
Phi Slamma Jamma. In the early 1980s, John Wooden s UCLA played with a polished and methodical style, and every other basketball team followed suit. But in 1982, the University of Houston decided to change all that. Employing a frenetic, playground, above the rim sty .....
Chourishi Systems