Abraham lincoln

Biography
1. Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it.Lincoln thought secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter and forced its surrender, he called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy but four remained within the Union. The Civil War had begun.

The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Lincoln had to struggle for a living and for learning. Five months before receiving his partys nomination for President, he sketched his lifeI was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished familiessecond families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks. My father removed from Kentucky to Indiana, in my eighth year. It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up. Of course when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher but that was all.

Lincoln made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and keeping store at New Salem, Illinois. He was a captain in the Black Hawk War, spent eight years in the Illinois legislature, and rode the circuit of courts for many years. His law partner said of him, His ambition was a little engine that knew no rest.He married Mary Todd, and they had four boys, only one of whom lived to maturity. In 1858 Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas for Senator. He lost the election, but in debating with Douglas he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860.

As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.Lincoln never let the world forget that the Civil War involved an even larger issue. This he stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vainthat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomand that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Lincoln won re election in 1864, as Union military triumphs heralded an end to the war. In his planning for peace, the President was flexible and generous, encouraging Southerners to lay down their arms and join speedily in reunion.The spirit that guided him was clearly that of his Second Inaugural Address, now inscribed on one wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nations wounds.On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Fords Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincolns death, the possibility of peace with magnanimity died.The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse. .....

Synopsis
2. Abraham Lincoln is regarded as one of Americas greatest heroes due to both his incredible impact on the nation and his unique appeal. His is a remarkable story of the rise from humble beginnings to achieve the highest office in the land; then, a sudden and tragic death at a time when his country needed him most to complete the great task remaining before the nation. Lincolns distinctively human and humane personality and historical role as savior of the Union and emancipator of the slaves creates a legacy that endures. His eloquence of democracy and his insistence that the Union was worth saving embody the ideals of self government that all nations strive to achieve. .....
Childhood
3. Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Thomas was a strong and determined pioneer who found a moderate level of prosperity and was well respected in the community. The couple had two other children Abrahams older sister Sarah and younger brother Thomas, who died in infancy. Due to a land dispute, the Lincolns were forced to move from Kentucky to Perry County, Indiana in 1817, where the family squatted on public land to scrap out a living in a crude shelter, hunting game and farming a small plot. Thomas was eventually able to buy the land.

When young Abraham was 9 years old his mother died of tremetol (milk sickness) at age 34 and the event was devastating on him. The 9 year old Abraham grew more alienated from his father and quietly resented the hard work placed on him at an early age. A few months after Nancys death, Thomas married Sarah Bush Johnston, a Kentucky widow with three children of her own. She was a strong and affectionate woman with whom Abraham quickly bonded. Though both his parents were most likely illiterate, Sarah encouraged Abraham to read. It was while growing into manhood that he received his formal educationan estimated total of 18 monthsa few days or weeks at a time. Reading material was in short supply in the Indiana wilderness. Neighbors recalled how Abraham would walk for miles to borrow a book. He undoubtedly read the family Bible and probably other popular books at that time such as Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrims Progress and Aesops Fables. .....

Law Career
4. In March, 1830, the family again migrated, this time to Macon County, Illinois. When his father moved the family again to Coles County, 22 year old Abraham Lincoln struck out on this own, making a living in manual labor. At six feet four inches tall, Lincoln was rawboned and lanky, but muscular and physically strong. He spoke with a backwoods twang and walked with a long striding gait. He was known for his skill in wielding an ax and early on made a living splitting wood for fire and rail fencing. Young Lincoln eventually migrated to the small community of New Salem, Illinois where over a period of years he worked as a shopkeeper, postmaster, and eventually general store owner. It was here that Lincoln, working with the public, acquired social skills and honed story telling talent that made him popular with the locals. When the Black Hawk War broke out in 1832 between the United States and Native Americans, the volunteers in the area elected Lincoln to be their captain. He saw no combat during this time, save for a good many bloody struggles with the mosquitoes, but was able to make several important political connections.

After the Black Hawk War, Abraham Lincoln began his political career and was elected to the Illinois state legislature in 1834 as a member of the Whig Party. He supported the Whig politics of government sponsored infrastructure and protective tariffs. This political understanding led him to formulate his early views on slavery, not so much as a moral wrong, but as an impediment to economic development. It was around this time that he decided to become a lawyer, teaching himself the law by reading William Blackstones Commentaries on the Laws of England. After being admitted to the bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois and began to practice in the John T. Stuart law firm. It was soon after this that he purportedly met and became romantically involved with Anne Rutledge. Before they had a chance to be engaged, a wave of typhoid fever came over New Salem and Anne died at age 22. Her death was said to have left Lincoln severely depressed. However, several historians disagree on the extent of Lincolns relationship with Rutledge and his level of sorrow at her death may be more the makings of legend.

In 1844, Abraham Lincoln partnered with William Herndon in the practice of law. Though the two had different jurisprudent styles, they developed a close professional and personal relationship. Lincoln made a good living in his early years as a lawyer, but found that Springfield alone didnt offer enough work, so to supplement his income, he followed the court as it made its rounds on the circuit to the various county seats in Illinois. .....

Entering Politics
5. Abraham Lincoln served a single term in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849. His foray into national politics seems to be as unremarkable as it was brief. He was the lone Whig from the state of Illinois, showing party loyalty, but finding few political allies. He used his term in office to speak out against the Mexican American War and supported Zachary Taylor for president in 1848. His criticism of the war made him unpopular back home and he decided not to run for second term, but instead returned Springfield to practice law.

By the 1850s, the railroad industry was moving west and Illinois found itself becoming a major hub for various companies. Abraham Lincoln served as a lobbyist for the Illinois Central Railroad as its company attorney. Success in several court cases brought other business clients as wellbanks, insurance companies and manufacturing firms. Lincoln also did some criminal trials. In one case, a witness claimed that he could identify Lincolns client who was accused of murder, because of the intense light from a full moon. Lincoln referred to an almanac and proved that the night in question had been too dark for the witness to see anything clearly. His client was acquitted.

About a year after the death of Anne Rutledge, Lincoln courted Mary Owens. The two saw each other for a few months and marriage was considered. But in time Lincoln called off the match. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, a high spirited, well educated woman from a distinguished Kentucky family. In the beginning, many of the couples friends and family couldnt understand Marys attraction, and at times Lincoln questioned it himself. However, in 1841, the engagement was suddenly broken off, most likely at Lincolns initiative. They met later, at a social function and eventually married on November 4, 1842. The couple had four children, of which only one, Robert, survived to adulthood. .....

Elected President
6. In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise, and allowed individual states and territories to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery. The law provoked violent opposition in Kansas and Illinois. And it gave rise to the Republican Party. This awakened Abraham Lincolns political zeal once again, and his views on slavery moved more toward moral indignation. Lincoln joined the Republican Party in 1856.In 1857, the Supreme Court issued its controversial decision Scott v. Sanford, declaring African Americans were not citizens and had no inherent rights. Though Abraham Lincoln felt African Americans were not equal to whites, he believed the Americas founders intended that all men were created with certain inalienable rights. Lincoln decided to challenge sitting U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas for his seat. In his nomination acceptance speech, he criticized Douglas, the Supreme Court, and President Buchanan for promoting slavery and declared a house divided cannot stand.

The 1858 Senate campaign featured seven debates held in different cities all over Illinois. The two candidates didnt disappoint the public, giving stirring debates on issues ranging from states rights to western expansion, but the central issue in all the debates was slavery. Newspapers intensely covered the debates, often times with partisan editing and interpretation. In the end, the state legislature elected Douglas, but the exposure vaulted Lincoln into national politics.In 1860, political operatives in Illinois organized a campaign to support Lincoln for the presidency. On May 18th at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Abraham Lincoln surpassed better known candidates such as William Seward of New York and Salmon P. Chase of Ohio. Lincolns nomination was due in part to his moderate views on slavery, his support for improving the national infrastructure, and the protective tariff. In the general election, Lincoln faced his friend and rival, Stephan Douglas, this time besting him in a four way race that included John C. Breckinridge of the Northern Democrats and John Bell of the Constitution Party. Lincoln received not quite 40 percent of the popular vote, but carried 180 of 303 Electoral votes. Abraham Lincoln selected a strong cabinet composed of many of his political rivals, including William Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Edward Bates and Edwin Stanton. Formed out the adage Hold your friends close and your enemies closer, Lincolns Cabinet became one of his strongest assets in his first term in office .....

Civil War
7. Abraham Lincoln responded to the crisis wielding powers as no other president before him. He distributed $2 million from the Treasury for war material without an appropriation from Congress; he called for 75,000 volunteers into military service without a declaration of war; and he suspended the writ of habeas corpus, arresting and imprisoning suspected Confederate sympathizers without a warrant. Crushing the rebellion would be difficult under any circumstances, but the Civil War, with its preceding decades of white hot partisan politics, was especially onerous. From all directions, Lincoln faced disparagement and defiance. He was often at odds with his generals, his Cabinet, his party and a majority of the American people.

The Union Armys first year and a half of battlefield defeats made it especially difficult to keep morale up and support strong for a reunification the nation. With the hopeful, but by no means conclusive Union victory at Antietam on September 22, 1862, Abraham felt confident enough to reshape the cause of the war from union to abolishing slavery. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which stated that all individuals who were held as slaves henceforward shall be free.

Gradually, the war effort improved for the North, though more by attrition than by brilliant military victories. But by 1864, the Confederacy had hunkered down to a guerilla war and Lincoln was convinced hed be a one term president. His nemesis, George B. McClellan, the former commander of the Army of the Potomac, challenged him for the presidency, but the contest wasnt even close. Lincoln received 55 percent of the popular vote and 212 of 243 Electoral votes. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Virginia, surrendered his forces to Union General Ulysses S. Grant and the war for all intents and purposes was over. .....

Assassination
8. Reconstruction began during the war as early as 1863 in areas firmly under Union military control. Abraham Lincoln favored a policy of quick reunification with a minimum of retribution. But he was confronted by a radical group of Republicans in the Senate and House that wanted complete allegiance and repentance from former Confederates. Before a political battle had a chance to firmly develop, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, by well known actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. Lincoln was taken from the theater to a Petersen House across the street and laid in a coma for nine hours before dying the next morning. His body lay in state at the Capitol before a funeral train took him back to his final resting place in Springfield, Illinois. .....
Growing Up
9. Abraham Lincoln came from humble beginnings. He was born in a single room log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky. His parents were Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. His father lost everything when Abraham was young and they had to move to Perry County, Indiana where they struggled to get by. When he was just nine years old, his mother died and his sister Sarah took care of him until his father remarried.Abraham had very little formal education, but had a strong interest in books and learning. Most of what he learned was self educated and from books he borrowed. His family later moved to Illinois where Lincoln would set out on his own.As a young man, Lincoln worked a variety of jobs including shopkeeper, surveyor, and postmaster. For a time, he even split firewood with an axe for a living. He soon moved into politics and won a seat in the Illinois Legislature when he was 25. .....
Before He Became President
10. Lincoln served on the Illinois State Legislature for several terms. During that time he studied the law and began to work as a lawyer. He ran for the U.S. Congress in 1845. He won the election and served as a congressman for one term. After serving as congressman he continued to work as a lawyer. Later, Lincoln ran for the U.S. Senate, he did not win but he did gain national recognition for his arguments against slavery during the debates.In 1860, Lincoln ran for President of the United States. He was a member of the fairly new Republican party which strongly opposed allowing any of the southern states to secede (leave the country). The republicans were also against slavery. They said they would allow for slavery to continue in the southern states, but that it would not be allowed to spread to new U.S. states or territories. .....
Abraham Lincoln Presidency
11. Lincoln won the 1860 election and was inaugurated as president in March of 1861. The southern states did not want Lincoln to be president. They did not agree with his policies. Before he was officially in office, they began to secede (leave the country). The first state to leave was South Carolina, but soon six more states followed and together they formed a new country called the Confederacy. This all happened after Lincoln won the election, but before he took the oath of office. .....
The Emancipation Proclamation
12. On January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This was an order that freed the slaves in the Confederate States. Although not all the slaves were immediately set free, it paved the way for the 13th Amendment which would free all slaves in the United States a few years later. .....
Gettysburg Address
13. Today, Lincoln is often remembered for a short speech he gave at Gettysburg on November 1, 1863. Its called the Gettysburg Address. It was only a few minutes long, but is considered one of the great speeches in American history. .....
The Civil War Ends
14. The Civil War finally ended on April 9, 1865 when General Robert E. Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Lincoln wanted the country to heal, forgive, and rebuild. He wanted to be generous to the southern states in helping them during the reconstruction. Unfortunately, he would not live to see the country rebuild. .....
Abraham Lincolns Military Career
15. In 1832, Lincoln enlisted to fight in the Black Hawk War. He was quickly elected to be the captain of a company of volunteers. His company joined regulars under Colonel Zachary Taylor. He only served 30 days in this capacity and then signed on as a private in the mounted Rangers. He then joined the Independent Spy Corps. He saw no real action during his short stint in the military. .....
Career Before the Presidency
16. Lincoln worked as a clerk before joining the military. He ran for the state legislature and lost in 1832. He was appointed as Postmaster of New Salem by Andrew Jackson (1833 36). He was elected as a Whig to the Illinois legislature (1834 1842). He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1836. Lincoln served as a US Representative (1847 49). He was elected to the state legislature in 1854 but resigned to run for the US Senate. He gave his famous house divided speech after being nominated. .....
Lincoln Douglas Debates
17. Lincoln debated his opponent, Stephen Douglas, seven times in what became known as the Lincoln Douglas Debates. While they agreed on many issues, they disagreed over the morality of slavery. Lincoln did not believe that slavery should spread any further but Douglas argued for popular sovereignty. Lincoln explained that while he was not asking for equality, he believed African Americans should get the rights granted in the Declaration of Independence life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Lincoln lost the state election to Douglas. .....
Bid for the Presidency 1860
18. Lincoln was nominated for the presidency by the Republican Party with Hannibal Hamlin as his running mate. He ran on a platform denouncing disunion and calling for an end to slavery in the territories. The Democrats were divided with Stephen Douglas representing the Democrats and John Breckinridge the National (Southern) Democrats. John Bell ran for the Constitutional Union Party which basically took votes from Douglas. In the end, Lincoln won 40% of the popular vote and 180 of the 303 electors. .....
Reelection in 1864
19. The Republicans, now the National Union Party, had some concern that Lincoln wouldnt win but still renominated him with Andrew Johnson as his Vice President. Their platform demanded unconditional surrender and the official end to slavery. His opponent, George McClellan, had been relieved as the head of the Union armies by Lincoln. His platform was that the war was a failure, and Lincoln had taken away too many civil liberties. Lincoln won because the war turned in the Norths favor during the campaign. .....
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
20. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated while attending a play at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. Actor John Wilkes Booth shot him in the back of the head before jumping onto the stage and escaping to Maryland. Lincoln died on April 15th.On April 26th, Booth was found hiding in a barn which was set on fire. He was then shot and killed. Eight conspirators were punished for their roles. .....
Historical Significance
21. Abraham Lincoln is considered by many scholars to have been the best President. He is credited with holding the Union together and leading the North to victory in the Civil War. Further, his actions and beliefs led to the emancipation of African Americans from the bonds of slavery. .....
Political Ambitions
22. As a young man, Lincoln stood out from the crowd, tall and lanky at six feet four inches. He arrived in New Salem and landed a job as a clerk in a general store. Soon thereafter, Lincoln started to make a name for himself, successfully wrestling the town bully and amazing most of his neighbors with his strength and ability to split rails and fell treesa survival skill that he developed as a child of the American frontier. In small towns during that era, the general store was a meeting place, and thus Lincoln grew to know the community well. He delighted people with his wit, intelligence, and integrity. For the less literate citizens of New Salem, Abes ability to read and write was invaluable. He quickly became a popular member of the town, endearing himself to the locals as a good natured and bookish young man.

Six months after his arrival in town, Abe let his ambitions get the best of him. He announced his candidacy for a seat in the Illinois state legislature, declaring himself as an independent candidate. A few weeks after throwing his hat in the ring, the Black Hawk War broke out, and Lincoln volunteered to fight Indians. His fellow volunteers elected him the temporary captain of their company, an honor that he valued more than his nomination for the presidency, and off they marched to war. It was a thirty day stint, and when it was up, Lincolnhaving seen no military actionsigned on for another twenty days, and then again for a third term of thirty days. In his last duty, he served as a private in the Independent Spy Corps, which unsuccessfully tried to track down Chief Black Hawk in southern Wisconsin. As a soldier, Lincoln saw no action in the war, but his tour of duty prevented him from campaigning for office.

Back home in New Salem, Lincoln resumed his campaign for the legislature, but there was too little time left before the election for him to make himself known throughout the large district. Although he won 277 of the 300 votes in New Salem, he lost in the county, coming in eighth in a field of thirteen. Thereafter, he refocused his energies on studying law on his own, arguing cases before the local justice of the peace even before passing the state bar exam in 1836, and getting his license in 1837. Lincoln also participated in Whig political functions, serving as secretary in the partys meetings.

Despite his political leanings, Abe attracted attention from leaders of the time. Democratic President Andrew Jackson appointed Lincoln postmaster of New Salem, even though Lincoln had supported National Republican candidate Henry Clay in the 1832 presidential election that reelected Jackson. Democrats allowed Lincolns appointment probably because no local Democrat wanted the job, and, additionally, his determination to avoid partisan posturing made him acceptable to almost everyone in New Salem. To supplement his meager pay of $55 per year, Abe chopped wood, split rails, worked as a county deputy surveyor, and handled routine legal work for small fees. .....

Political Success and Strategies
23. In 1834, Lincoln ran again for the state legislature, and this time he won. Even the Democrats supported him. His strategy had worked he issued no platform statement, made no promises, and gave few speeches. Instead, he shook hands, told jokes, and visited nearly every family in the county. He ran and won again in 1836, 1838, and 1840. Once in office, his Whig leanings came early to the front as he supported internal improvements and the chartering of a state bank.As a young legislator, Lincoln generally voted along Whig Party lines. In 1837, Lincoln took highly controversial position that foreshadowed his future political path, joining with five other legislatorsout of eighty threeto oppose a resolution condemning abolitionists. In 1838, he responded to the death of the Illinois abolitionist and newspaper editor Elijah Parish Lovejoy, who was killed while defending his printing presses from a mob of pro slavery citizens in Alton, Illinois.

In a statesmanlike manner, Lincoln gave a cautious speech at the Springfield Young Mens Lyceum, emphasizing the dangers to democracy and the rule of law when citizens use violence instead of votes and reason to have their way.In 1840, with a keen political eye, Lincoln campaigned for the populist war hero and Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. Abe denounced Democratic candidate Martin Van Buren for having once voted to give free blacks the vote in New York. In taking this position, Lincoln clearly appealed to the racism of the overwhelming majority of Illinois voters. Like many other opponents of slavery, Lincoln, at this point, did not favor citizenship rights for blacks. .....

Taking Political Risks
24. After four terms in the state legislature, Lincoln left office in 1841 but returned to public life in 1846 to win the Whig nomination for a seat from the Illinois seventh congressional district to the U.S. House of Representatives. Ten days after the nomination, America went to war with Mexico. During the months of the campaign, Lincoln said nothing about the Mexican American War, which allowed him to win the district by a large majority. Once in office, however, Lincoln voiced his opinion on the conflict. Congressman Lincoln boldly challenged President James Polks assertion that the Mexicans had started the war by attacking American soldiers on American soil. In a speech on the House floor, Lincoln scathingly denounced the Polk administration for taking the country to war by misrepresenting the situation to the nation, claiming (correctly) that the conflict had begun on territory contested by the two sides. It was a blatant and public attack on a popular President by a young unknown congressman from a state that was solidly behind the war.Some of his friends were shocked at Lincolns bold position, but his stand was common among congressional Whigs. Lincoln earlier had promised not to run for a second term in order to win the partys nomination over two other aspiring candidates. He also had little chance as a Whig for election as a U.S. senator or governor of Illinois. No Whig had ever obtained either position from Illinois.

In 1848, intent on keeping his name before the national audience, Lincoln campaigned in Maryland and Massachusetts for Whig presidential candidate Zachary Taylor. Then he retired to Springfield, where he practiced law from 1849 to 1854, becoming one of the more successful lawyers in the state, representing all kinds of clients, including railroad interests. Although elected in 1854 again to the state legislature, he promptly resigned to run for the U.S. Senate, losing on the ninth ballot in the state legislature (which in those days chose U.S. senators).After his defeat, Lincoln abandoned the defunct Whig Party and joined the new Republican Party in 1856. This new national party was comprised of many former Whigs who opposed slaveryreferred to as Conscience WhigsFree Soilers, and antislavery Democrats. The Republicans took a firm stand against slavery. They were dedicated to the repeal of the Kansas Nebraska Act and the prevention of the further extension of slavery westward. The new party also demanded the immediate admission of Kansas into the Union as a free state, denounced the Ostend Manifesto, which called for the annexation of Cuba (where slavery was legal), and called for federal support of internal improvements especially the construction of a railroad to the Pacific.As a favorite son candidate from Illinois, Lincoln was placed in nomination for vice president but failed to win at the convention in Philadelphia. He thereafter aggressively stumped the state in support of John C. Fr?mont for President. Although the Democratic candidate James Buchanan won the election and carried Illinois, Lincolns Republican Party did surprisingly well, winning most of the northern counties and 30 percent of the popular vote. .....

The Issue of Slavery 1858 Lincoln Douglas Debates
25. Two years after Fr?monts defeat, Abraham Lincoln won his partys nomination to the U.S. Senate. This put him head to head in a race with the powerful senator Stephen A. Douglas, one of Lincolns rivals from his days in the Illinois state capital, who was running for a third term as a Democrat. There followed a series of seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas in towns across Illinois over the next seventy days. Several factors helped to attract national attention to the campaign battles. First, Douglas, one of the key figures behind the Compromise of 1850, enjoyed a reputation as the Little Giant of the Democratic Party and its best stump speaker. Second, the national debate over slavery was reaching a boiling point. During the four years leading up to these historic debates, Americans had witnessed some incredibly violent and explosive events that were sharply dividing the nation. Responding to the fervor, journalists accompanied the candidates, writing articles detailing the debates and offering editorial commentary that was unprecedented in American political history. The whole country watched the debates unfold. .....
Political Motives
26. A leader of the Democratic Party, Douglas had made himself politically vulnerable when he broke with Democratic President James Buchanan and southern Democrats over the issue of Kansas statehood. Douglas opposed the admission of Kansas as a slave state under the terms of the controversial, proslavery Lecompton constitution. That constitution, which was widely believed to have been the result of voter fraud by Missouri border ruffians, would have legalized slavery in the new state. Douglas, hoping to appeal to antislavery northern Democrats and Republicans, took a popular sovereignty stance and opposed the constitution as unrepresentative of the majority opinion in Kansas. Enraged southern Democrats accused Douglas of party treason.

Lincoln understood that he would have to take a high moral ground to undermine the temptation of some Republicans to vote for Douglas as a means of dividing the national Democratic Party. To this end, Lincolns campaign began with his famous House Divided Speech delivered in Springfield, Illinois, on June 16, 1858. Recognized as one of the most important speeches in American history, his powerful message warned that the crisis over slavery would not be resolved until the nation stood either completely slave or totally free. A house divided against itself cannot stand, he declared, in prophetic words that supported the irrepressible conflict doctrine. He then turned on Douglas by saying that the threat to the nations unity came principally from Douglass popular sovereignty perspective. Lincoln envisioned a dozen Bleeding Kansas episodes in which settlers fought over the issue of slavery in order to get the upper hand in the territories. .....

A Constitutional Moral or Local Issue
27. Furthermore, Lincoln charged Douglas with being part of secret cabal to extend slavery to the free states. He boldly announced that slavery was simply immoral and had to be dealt with forthrightly by the U.S. Congress. For Lincoln, slavery violated the fundamental assertion of the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal. He argued that its continued existence and support in the nation ran counter to the wishes of the Founding Fathers. Ultimately, only the power of the federal government could resolve the issue by extinguishing slavery from the nation. Although Lincoln contended that there existed no constitutional way of interfering with slavery where it presently existed, he believed that it should not be allowed to expand westward. For him, the matter was a question of right and wrong, with Douglas indifferent to a moral wrong.

Douglas met the challenge by trying to portray Lincoln as a radical abolitionist. He disagreed with Lincolns claim that the Founding Fathers had opposed slavery, pointing out that many of them, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, had owned slaves. He played down the moral issue in favor of his commitment to a Jacksonian egalitarianism for white Americans, saying that the power to decide about the existence of slavery should be left to each community and on the local level. And he argued that slavery in any case would never survive outside of the South for simple economic reasons. Douglas asserted in his Freeport Doctrine (delivered at Freeport, Illinois) that the people could keep slavery out of their territories. Despite the Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court, which defended the property rights of slaveowners, Douglas claimed that local communities could decide for themselves to not pass local police laws to preserve the institution of slavery and not to protect slaveowners. He warned the nation not to try to judge political issues on moral grounds lest emotions spill over into civil war. Ultimately, Douglas argued that the issue came down to conflicting ideologies a view of the nation as a confederacy of sovereign and equal states versus a federalist empire of consolidated states. He accused Lincoln of being an abolitionist at heart, and a dangerous fanatic whose policies would result in racial consolidation and racial equality. In doing so, Douglas appealed shamelessly to the race prejudice of Illinois voters. .....

Limited Racial Equality
28. It was on this last issue of racial equality that Lincoln had the most difficulty in answering Douglas. Lincoln could not easily declare that slavery was immoral and that African Americans were endowed with God given rights as presented in the Declaration of Independence without leaving himself vulnerable to Douglass race baiting attacks. Either African Americans were equal to white Americans, Douglas proclaimed, or they were not. Lincoln answered by trying to contend that there were physical and social differences between the races that would probably forever forbid their living together upon the footing of perfect equality. On the other hand, true to his free labor Republican ideology, Lincoln insisted that there is no reason in the world why the Negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independencethe right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Nevertheless, he saw limits to what this meant. Like most other Republicans, he opposed granting blacks the rights to vote, sit on juries, hold public office, or intermarry with whites. Blacks were equal, he said, to all men in their freedom to earn the just rewards for the work they did rather than to have those earnings confiscated by tyrants, kings, and slavemasters.

In those days, U.S. senators were elected by their state legislatures, not by a direct popular vote. Thus, the debates were designed to appeal to voters who would elect members of the state legislature, who would in turn elect the U.S. senator from Illinois. When the votes were counted, although Republican candidates won a slight plurality of the popular vote, the malapportionment of legislative districts favored southern Illinois, where the Democrats were strongest. As a result, the Democrats retained their majority in the legislature and elected Douglas over Lincoln by fifty four votes to forty six. Nevertheless, the campaign had given Lincoln a national reputation and made him a leader of the Republican Party. .....

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Elle Macpherson. Elle Macpherson earned the title of the Greatest Body (for a model, that is) ever and broke a world record with her five appearances on the cover of Sports Illustrated. What more could a girl ask for? .....
RavindraNath Tagore
Death. The poet Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7th, 1941. Hugh Tinker charts the life of the man who was, perhaps, Indias greatest son in modern times.We have discovered by now that the stereotype of the Unchanging East obscures more than it explains. Y .....
Munshi Premchand
Literary works. Premchand has written about 300 short stories, several novels as well as many essays and letters. He has also written some plays. He also did some translations. Many of Premchands stories have been translated into English and Russian.Godaan (The Gift .....
Benefits of Celery
It can amp up your sex life. Dr. Alan R. Hirsch, Director of the Smeel and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation, says two pheromones in celery .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Keeping a clear head Camomile soother. Camomile tea can sooth a stress headache. For a sinus headache try ginger tea. .....
Science Experiments Ideas
Wind proof coin. Push three pins into the middle of a piece of wood and lay a coin 5 new pence or 25 cents on top of them. You can make a bet! Nobody who does not know the experiment will be able to blow the coin off the tripod.The metal cannot hold the gust of air o .....
World Architecture
The Krak of the Knights. Syria Once described as the key of Christendom, the concentric castle known as the Krak of the Knights stood on the 2,000-foot-high 611-meter southern spur of the Gebel Alawi, commanding the strategic Homs Gap in the Orontes Valley between Syrias Me .....
The Best Pokemon
Lugia. Lugia is a Pokemon in the Game Freak and Nintendo s Pokemon franchise. Lugia first appeared in the film Pokemon-The Movie 2000 , as its central character. It was then the version mascot of Pokemon Silver , the video game and later in its remake, P .....
Snooker for Beginners
Steps 3 Toss a coin to decide who is to play first. The first player has to cause the cue ball to contact a red ball. If he fails to do this, the other player tries. .....
Precautions while using Internet Banking
Avoid using shared computers. Avoid using shared or public computers to access your accounts. Shared or public computers may have been installed with tracking software that could monitor your Internet Banking sessions. Security of financial transactions, being executed from some .....
Global Dial Code
Anguilla. Exit Code + 1 + 264 + The Number The Anguilla country code is 264. The nationality of Anguilla is Anguillans.The capital of Anguilla is The ValleyLargest Cities in Anguilla by population: Stoney Ground, The Valley, Island Harbour, George Hill, Blowi .....
Tips to get ready for New Year
Set up your cardio. If you are a beginner, start with about one week for 20-30 minutes (or however much you can handle) of your new year plan. Sit down with your calendar and plan what you will do, how long you will do it and where you will do it. .....
Quick Tips To Build Brawn
Cables Over Dumbbells. While dumbbells are great for hitting the biceps, the cables present a different loading pattern that can also produce great results. Using them from time to time is another way to incorporate variety into your programme and reduce the chances of you .....
Rules to play Petanque
Winning the Game. The first team to earn a total of 13 points wins the game. There is not a required number of rounds that must be played. .....
Easy ways to Make Money Quickly
No risk matched betting. Hands down the quickest way to make a lot of money (well, without breaking the law). Lots of students have genuinely made .....
Biggest Male Models of All Time
Sean OPry. Much has been said about Taylor Swifts all girl model army for Bad Blood,but OPry got there first, starring in Swifts Blank Spacelast year. .....
Latest Hair Colours
Lauren. If you want natural looking highlights, this is the goal. This look is darker in the back and on the bottom, and lighter on the top and in front. .....
Benefits of Elderberry
How to Use Elderberry. To help relieve flu symptoms, begin taking a standardized elderberry extract (found in most health food stores and shops that specialize in herbal remedies) as soon as you start to feel sick. Available in syrup and capsule form, elderberry can cause .....
Beauty Skin Care Tips
CHATTY CATHY. Yakking away on your cell phone for hours can lead to breakouts and rashes along your jaw line and cheek. Keep antibacterial wipes handy to swipe your phone clean and help your skin stay clear. .....
Electricity
Making Electricity. In Michael Faradays generator, coils of copper wire rotating between the poles of a magnet produce a steady current of electricity. One way to rotate the disk is to crank it by hand, but this isnt a practical way to make electricity. Another option i .....
Benefits of Fennel Seeds
Antioxidants. It is also used for various health benefits that are derived from its anti oxidants. These anti oxidants are essential to curb unwanted free radical reactions in the body. This phenomenon also prevents many diseases that can get serious at a later .....
Wedding
Be yourself. Act naturally and everything else will fall into place. .....
Most Amazing Botanical Gardens
Brooklyn Botanic Garden Brooklyn New York. This 100yearold botanic garden features over 10,000 types of plants and welcomes over 900,000 visitors each year. The 52acre garden includes a number of specialty plant collections and an art gallery. .....
World Flags
Japan. white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center .....
Awesome Things You Should Know Before Visiting London
Awesome Things 18. The 1908 Russian Olympic team didn t get to London on time because they hadn t yet switched to using the Gregorian calendar .....
Indira Gandhi
Accomplishments. In 1947, Nehru became the newly independent nations first prime minister, and Gandhi agreed to go to New Delhi to serve as his hostess, welcoming diplomats and world leaders at home and traveling with her father throughout India and abroad. She was e .....
Festivals India
Lohri. The harvest festival in Punjab is celebrated in form of Lohri and is an auspicious occasion celebrated with great fervour in typical Punjab style. This festival is particularly celebrated by farmer fraternity because of their connection with harvesti .....
Most Iconic Bollywood Actress
Hema Malini. Dream Girl Hema Malini Chakravarty was born into a Tamil Iyengar family in Ammankudi, Tiruchirappalli to V.S. Ramanujam Chakravarthy and Jaya Chakravarthy on 16 October 1948.Hema Malini is among the most successful female film stars in the history of .....
Precautions while using ATM Machines
Suggestions for handling PIN. While receiving the PIN please ensure that the envelope and the security document are not tampered with. In case of tampering contact call center immediately and do not use PIN. Do not reveal user PIN or any security information on card to anyone. Ne .....
Interior Design Ideas
Hidden talent. Interior designer Jane Taylor has taken an awkwardly shaped little corner of the dining room in her London home, and hidden it behind a bookshelf, turning it in to a miniature study for her husband Simon containing a desk and shelves. Height has been .....
Benefits of Beans
Beans contain healthy amounts of minerals. Beans contain healthy amounts of minerals ? like iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and potassium, which are very essential for body metabolism. Manganese is a co factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, which is a very powerful fre .....
Eye Catching Minimalist Nail Art Designs
Soften a french manicure with an ombre tip. The trend for minimalist nail art designs are growing by the day. There are many variations and the lady is free to make her choice from a large number of options available at her disposal. Now with the vast use of the internet, it has indeed become .....
Precautions while using Social Networking Sites
Dont post your address online. Dont post your address online. If someone has your full name and knows the area where you live, they can find you online. If they can figure out when youll be gone, youre inviting disaster. Try to avoid mentioning where you work; so that if you menti .....
How to Remove Dark Circles Tips
Accept what you cant change. There are some causes to undereye circles you cant do much to reverse, unfortunately. These include: Pigmentation irregularities. These can cause darker circles under the eyes. Sun exposure. This can increase melanin production. Thinning from age. Ag .....
Latest Blouse Design
Latest Ready Made Designer Blouse. Latest banarasi silk Ready made Matching blouse,This blouse for short sleeve blouse with netted back high neck with front low cut round neck designs with knot type.French cut Front and back neck sleeve less netted with pink silk cloth blouse .....
Dog Breeds
Chesapeake Bay Retriever. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small spaniel classed as a toy dog by The Kennel Club. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has grown in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, a .....
Healthy Skin
Pumpkin. Pumpkin s orange hue is from carotenoids, wrinkle-fighting plant pigments that help neutralize free radicals in the skin, keeping them from damaging the cells that fast-forward aging. Pumpkin is filled with vitamins C, E, and A, as well as powerful .....
Most Expensive Games Ever Made
Tomb Raider. Reboots are never cheap, but they can definitely be worth it. This fresh take on the Tomb Raider franchise revitalized the game series and was well worth the $100 million price. .....
Valentines Day Activity Ideas
Get Matching Tattoos. You know, if youre into it. Tattoos are a fun way and yes, sort of painful way to express love for each other.Depending on the size, tattoos can get pricey. We also suggest stick on tattoos as a cheaper and less permanent alternative. .....
School Lunch Tips
A lunch box with divided compartments cuts down. A lunch box with divided compartments cuts down on packaging and helps you remember all the components.This one, shown over at Dinner A Love Story, is called the PlanetBox. .....
Awesome Literary T Shirts
Lacoste Live. Crafted in pure cotton jersey, this Lacoste L!ve tshirt features a tennis inspired oversized print. Cut in a regular fit, the short sleeve Vintage Ads tee comprises the classic round neckline and is finished with an embroidered signature crocodile. .....
Benefits of Peaches
Bioactive Compounds. Our studies have shown that stone fruitspeaches, plums and nectarineshave bioactive compounds that can potentially fight the syndrome, CisnerosZevallos toldAgriLife Today. Our work indicates that phenolic compounds present in these fruits have antiob .....
Rules to play Yo Yo
The sleeper. Snap your wrist and arm downwards so that the yo yo falls towards the floor. Keep your arm above your waist.When the yo yo reaches the other end of the string, turn your palm so that it faces downwards.The yo yo should spin at the bottom of the strin .....
Fast and Furious Cars in the world
1971 Jensen Interceptor. What makes this car so furiously designed is that it really looks like someone was furious while designing it. There is a painfully obvious lack of shine, glimmer, color and bling (In other words, no sugar, spice or anything nice). But, some people .....
Benefits of Cantaloupe
Arteriosclerosis. Regularly consuming vitamin C retards the development of hardening of the arteries. it an excellent fruit in helping to prevent many degenerative diseases. It has high content of folate (folic acid), which prevents neural tube defects in infants. .....
Weird Country Names
Dildo Canada. According to Wikipedia, this town got its name from the phallusshaped pin stuck in the edging of a row boat to act as a pivot for the oar... Mmmhmm... Sure, Canadians. Whatever you say. Favorite local tourism site: TripAdvisors Dildo Vacations; be su .....
Breathtaking Arabic Mehndi Designs
Designs 19. Now for a much simpler yet filling design for the hands. This is really apt for the brides and the festive occasions too. This design has intricate motifs and the inverted paisley pattern makes it look pretty. .....
Saffron Or Kesar Get Beautiful Skin
For glowing skin. The skin tends to get dry and dull in the winters. In order to get its glow back, make a pack using saffron and honey. Take a spoonful of honey and add a few strands of kesar in it. Mix it and apply on the face. The hydrating properties of honey and .....
Forever Young Naturally Lifestyle
Beating anxiety. Aging means change, whether as a result of emotional loss, physical ailments, or mental decline. And for most of us, change brings anxiety. A Dutch study found that anxiety goes hand in hand with depression as we grow older, with women at greater ris .....
Arvind Kejriwal
Biography. Arvind Kejriwal born 16 August 1968 is an Indian politician, social activist and former civil servant who served as the 7th Chief Minister of Delhi. He is also the current Chief Minister designate, having won the 2015 Delhi Assembly elections. He is .....
What to Eat in West Bengal
Pantua. Pantua is somewhat similar to the rshogolla, except that the cottage cheese balls are fried in either ghee (clarified butter) or oil until golden or deep brown before being put in syrup. There are similar tasting, but differently shaped versions of t .....
International Sport Events
The French Open. The French Open takes place in Paris, France at the Stade Roland Garros. One of the four tennis majors, the French Open provides some of the most unique tennis there is. For some, playing on clay might as well be like playing on gravel some players .....
Grandparents Day Celebration
Pledge Your Support. Policies and programs should provide more support to grandfamilies like yours. Pledge your support for improved legal, health, educational, financial, and other policies for grandfamilies by signing Generations United Grandfamilies Pledge. Generati .....
Strange Smelling Fragrances You Wont Believe Exist
Vulva. VULVA Original is a perfume that replicates the vaginal scent?enough said. .....
Natural Wonders of the World
Aurora. One of the greatest natural wonders, Aurora. The auroras, also known as the Northern Lights, are naturally occurring lights that create intriguing and spectacular displays in the sky. The aurora lights frequently appear as diffused glow lighting up t .....
Tips to succeed in Study
Work with concentration. Its in your interest! One hour of concentrated study is worth several hours of distracted study. If you learn how to work with concentration, you will achieve more than 95% of the population. This critical skill enables you to do more in less time an .....
Grandparents Day Celebration
Background. National Grandparents Day has more than one origin. Some people consider it to have been first proposed by Michael Goldgar in the 1970s after he visited his aunt in an Atlanta nursing home, Spending $11,000 of his own money in lobbying efforts to hav .....
Exercises Ideas
Pull Up. Most people find pull ups palms facing away more difficult than chin ups because of the reduced involvement of the biceps. Id recommend heading out to find a playground to do your pull ups, but you can do them using a sturdy not hollow, or plywood do .....
Embarrassing Celebrity Selfies
Kanye West. last but not least, here we have Kanye West, just moments before he punched this guy in the face. You might not be a huge fan of Kanye West (he sure does have a lot of enemies) but you have to admit it s hard not to feel sympathy for a guy who gets a .....
Ideas to increase Website Traffic
Google Places. Get your business on Google. Sign up using your Google account and personalize your business information. .....
The Coolest Cars at Goodwoods
TOYOTA GT86. You could say its a shame that Toyotas having to resort to retro livery to attract attention to its brilliant GT86. Its been around since 2012 and hasnt sold in quite the numbers Toyota hoped, despite being one of the best drivers cars on the market. .....
Benefits of Zucchinis
Hybrid variety. Golden zucchini is a hybrid variety which is deep yellow or orange in colour. Zucchini in Hindi is known as .....
What to Eat in Delhi
Raj kachori. This colorful chaat or snack is quite popular in Delhi and other parts of northern India. It consists of kachori small fried bready balls and a variety of other yummy things chickpeas potatoes tomatoes moong sprouts masalas yogurt coriander and tamar .....
Benefits of Collard
Folate. Folate is a B vitamin and its primary function is to make new cells. The daily requirement of folate is 400 micrograms for adults and 600 to 800 micrograms for pregnant women. A 1 cup serving of cooked collard greens contains 177 micrograms. Folate s .....
Tips to get ready for New Year
Hors d oeuvres are supposed to be salty. Salt makes the cocktails taste even better. Work with salty flavorings like anchovies, capers, soy sauce, and olives. Serve salty meats, like bacon and ham .....
WhatsApp Tips and Tricks Everyone Should Know
WhatsApp Tips and Tricks Everyone Should Know. For most of us, WhatsApp has become the default go-to messenger, because everyones on it, and its on nearly every platform. WhatsApp has over a billion downloads on Google Play alone, the only other messenger to boast that is Facebook Messenger. The .....
Mumbai City
Gateway of India. The Gateway of India is a monument built during the British Raj in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.It is located on the waterfront in the Apollo Bunder area in South Mumbai and overlooks the Arabian Sea.The structure is a basalt arch, 26 metres (85 f .....
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